Integral Futures for Education

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Richard Slaughter's presentation at the third seminar in the ESRC-sponsored series "Educational Futures"

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Integral Futures for Education

  1. 1. Foresight International Integral Futures for Education: Theory and Methods Richard A Slaughter
  2. 2. Development of FS Field <ul><li>Response to dilemmas of modernity </li></ul><ul><li>19th and early 20th C writers - Verne, Wells, Mumford et al </li></ul><ul><li>Early 20th C disasters -> loss of optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Polak: The Image of the Future </li></ul><ul><li>20th C SF -> Dystopian themes dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Future no longer ‘autonomous’ but arising from human decisions, actions, pop & econ growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growing evidence of ‘overshoot and collapse’ </li></ul><ul><li>Foresight a ‘structural necessity’ </li></ul>
  3. 3. An Interdisciplinary Field <ul><li>Unclear boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive core of material </li></ul><ul><li>Can be taught, learned and mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Rich connections with other fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EG. Geography, History, Business, Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A true ‘meta-discipline’ </li></ul><ul><li>Social and professional legitimation </li></ul><ul><li>Growing diversity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Schematic Model of Core Source: The KBFS as an evolving process, Futures Vol 28, No 9, 1996
  5. 5. KBFS as an Evolving Process <ul><li>Critique of assumptions, methods etc </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual & methodological innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of new voices </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of methods, theory, perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Genuinely new perspectives (eg integral) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stages of Development <ul><li>Special issue of Futures April 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong support from profession </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent consultation, elaboration </li></ul><ul><li>1st edition (3 volumes) published in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM (4 volumes) in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Prof edition (5 volumes) in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Use inpost-graduate programs </li></ul><ul><li>International Masters in FS?? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Futures Special Issue 1993 <ul><li>7 key papers </li></ul><ul><li>10 ‘divergent perspectives’ </li></ul><ul><li>5 bibliographies </li></ul><ul><li>Professional interest </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of an idea </li></ul><ul><li>Long term project </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback crucial </li></ul>
  8. 8. KBFS Categories <ul><li>Images, concepts and metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Theories and frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Literature and data bases </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologies and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations, networks, contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Images and imaging processes </li></ul><ul><li>Social movts, innovations, practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies, related fields, etc </li></ul>
  9. 9. Boxed Set - 1996
  10. 10. Methodologies & Tools <ul><li>Backcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic management </li></ul><ul><li>Trend analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Causal analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Metascanning </li></ul><ul><li>Social innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Transformative cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Cross impact matrices </li></ul><ul><li>Simple technology assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Time capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of images of futures </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring extended present </li></ul><ul><li>Futures wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Time lines </li></ul>
  11. 11. Images and Imaging Processes <ul><li>Images are layered and negotiable </li></ul><ul><li>They contain embedded social interests </li></ul><ul><li>Rich links with cultural evolution and change </li></ul><ul><li>They affect young people </li></ul><ul><li>They are promulgated by mass media </li></ul><ul><li>Profound implications </li></ul><ul><li>Vital area of study and research </li></ul>
  12. 12. Professional Edition (2005) <ul><li>Five volumes - includes Synergies, Case Studies and Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>New sections - critical practice, integral futures, FS in edn </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple uses </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioner oriented </li></ul>
  13. 13. Futures in Education <ul><li>1st course units in USA c. 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of curriculum projects, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BFEP, Melbourne, 1996-8; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BSSSS Yr 11 & 12 Futures: personal, social, global 1994-9 (KBFS cited as part of justification) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diverse pattern of innovation worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>But seldom adopted at system level </li></ul><ul><li>See FBD Chap 13 for overview + web refs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Qld. Senior Syllabus in Futures - BSSSS, Qld, 1995 <ul><li>Four semesters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the futures field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social innovation & personal empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the state of the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paths toward sustainability </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Robust Model <ul><li>Substantive perspec: critical & integral FS </li></ul><ul><li>Keyed to fundamental ednl purposes </li></ul><ul><li>FS of central concern at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality, relevance to students lives </li></ul><ul><li>Related to macro change context </li></ul><ul><li>NB: FS in Edn more than curric content </li></ul>
  16. 16. Early 21st century <ul><li>View beyond the industrial system </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the one world view </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond scientific reductionism </li></ul><ul><li>Educational responses include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>further evolution of schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shift from past to future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of tools, bridging strategies </li></ul></ul>Source: Beare & Slaughter, Edn for 21st C, 1993
  17. 17. Other Sources Fitch & Svengalis, Futures Unlimited , 1979 Hicks, Educating for the Future , 1994 Hutchinson, Educating Beyond Violent Futures , 1996 Hicks & Slaughter, eds, Futures Education , 1998 Page, Reframing the Early Childhood Curriculum , 2000 AFI Monograph 5, Futures in Education , 2005 Slaughter & Bussey, Futures Thinking for Social Foresight , 2005
  18. 18. System Constraints <ul><li>Current paradigm is ‘presentist’, hence no forward view, lack of foresight capacity </li></ul><ul><li>FS is ‘out of the envelope’ for most people </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge of FS ‘track record’ </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term political factors </li></ul><ul><li>Market-led economic paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Requires innovative leadership at all levels </li></ul>
  19. 19. System Implications <ul><li>Revise current admin. paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Futures concepts, tools permeate curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Infuse teaching training and prof. devt. </li></ul><ul><li>Use proven methods to estab lish forward view </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate FS methods into admin. structures </li></ul><ul><li>Define new ‘niches’ & job descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace ‘the future’ as a domain of significance </li></ul>
  20. 20. Outcomes of Teaching Futures <ul><li>Increased optimism and empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a futures vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to deal with uncertainty and risk </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of proactive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Development of leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>Access to social innovation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Active citizenship </li></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>All teaching and learning are ‘for the future’ </li></ul><ul><li>But, school systems still systematically turn away from most productive sources of futures insight </li></ul><ul><li>The future is not an empty space - it has positive content and a range of present day implications </li></ul><ul><li>The most pressing need is for education systems to engage with high quality futures thinking & practice </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Integral Operating System
  23. 23. Elements of the IOS <ul><li>Four quadrants - reality domains </li></ul><ul><li>Waves of devt - the evolution of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Streams - some 25+ lines of development </li></ul><ul><li>States - altered states of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Types - classes of humanity, eg, gender </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives - inner/outer in each quadrant </li></ul>
  24. 24. Waves <ul><li>Waves of development represent the evolution of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>There is an evolutionary flow through the waves with each successive wave enfolding and moving beyond the previous level </li></ul><ul><li>Preconventional, conventional, post conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Prepersonal, personal, post personal </li></ul><ul><li>Gross, subtle, causal </li></ul><ul><li>Body, mind, soul, spirit … </li></ul>
  25. 25. Streams <ul><li>Streams of development are lines that operate in all quadrants through the waves </li></ul><ul><li>Each quadrant has its own types of streams that develop independently of each other and within the quadrants and waves </li></ul><ul><li>Ego, cog devt, imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Worldviews, values, mutual understanding, group identity </li></ul><ul><li>Biological growth, neurophysical growth, behavioural development </li></ul><ul><li>Techno-econ forms, geo-political structures, evo of social systems </li></ul>
  26. 26. States of Consciousness <ul><li>Altered states of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>May be temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially powerful experiences that include spiritual ones </li></ul><ul><li>Gross awake, subtle dreaming, causal formless </li></ul><ul><li>Waking, dreaming, altered, non-ordinary, meditative </li></ul>
  27. 27. Types <ul><li>Gender - masculine, feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Personality - Myers Briggs, Enneagram, Jungian </li></ul><ul><li>Context - autonomy, relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Participation - agency, communion </li></ul>Types are classifications of humanity, orientations, preferences or relationships
  28. 28. The Four Quadrants Intentional Behavioural Cultural Social Interior Exterior Individual Collective
  29. 29. Cultural Quadrant (LL) Language, metaphor, social interests (etc) revealed Centrality of interpretation Authorship of social world Social construction (& deconstruction) revealed Legitimation issues arise
  30. 30. Upper Left Interior-Individual (Intentional) I Subset of 10 Lines of Development in the Intentional Upper Left quadrant expanded from P 17 &18 Introduction to Integral Theory and Practice Ken Wilber (2003) IT ITS WE Intentional Quadrant (UL) I Self-Identity Interpersonal Spiritual Psychosexual Aesthetic Values Needs Emotional Moral Cognitive
  31. 31. Uses of the IOS
  32. 32. Many Theoretical Frameworks <ul><li>Empirical, interpretive and critical </li></ul><ul><li>Practical, communicative, emancipatory </li></ul><ul><li>Structural, post-structural, modern, post-modern </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary, emergent </li></ul><ul><li>Social, cultural politics, feminist </li></ul><ul><li>Systems, chaos theory </li></ul><ul><li>Integral metatheory: integral methodological pluralism </li></ul>
  33. 33. Introspection Psychology Phenomenology Hermeneutics Collaborative enquiry Action research Anthropology Ecological sciences Geography Systems theory Structural functionalism Integral Methodological Pluralism Methods of Enquiry Empiricism Behaviourism Positivism
  34. 34. Interior Exterior Futures Strategy Integral Futures Methodologies Futures Literacy Critical Futures Studies Integral Operating System Integral Visioning Interior Practitioner Devt Critical Futures Studies, Post Conventional (meta) ES, Integral Operating System, Transformative Cycle, Anthropological FS , CLA, GLA or Integral LA, ‘Soft’ SF, Integral Macrohistory, Integral Critique Delphi Surveys Visioning Conventional ES Integral Operating System Scenarios, Trend Analysis, Forecasting, Modelling, Systems, Visioning, Wild Cards, Layered Analysis, ‘Hard’SF, Strategic Anticipation, Conventional Macrohistory, Conventional ES, SWOT, STEEP, Competitive Intelligence, Strategic Anticipation, Integral Operating System Individual Collective
  35. 35. Four Quadrant Analysis of the Great Transition New values Culture Civil society Social issues Institutional barriers Governance Rights revolution Revised model of development Demography Wealth generation Technology Technical change Economy Environmental revolution Civilising Globalization Networks ? ? Engaged citizens Source: Raskin, Great Transition, 2002
  36. 36. Global Warming Lit on the 4 Quadrants Interior Exterior Individual Collective Brown, Diamond, Faris Lovelock,Lynas, Meadows Monbiot, Spratt & Sutton Starke, Taylor Flannery Hamilton Steffen McIntosh Source: Slaughter, Beyond the Threshold, JITP, Vol 4, No 4, 2009
  37. 37. AFI Metascanning Framework <ul><li>Social interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilisational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focal domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures / processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social legitimation </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. SoPiFF Metascan Results Source: Foresight, special issue, vol 11 No 5, 2009 LR LL UR UL
  39. 39. Levels of Consciousness Source: The Biggest Wakeup Call in History, eBook, FI, 2010
  40. 40. Individual & Collective Worldviews <ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Egocentric Locus of attention exclusively on wellbeing of self </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocentric Self integrated into society; achievement / status oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Worldcentric Networked self, explicitly integrated into global system </li></ul><ul><li>Transpersonal Spiritual self linked with others at many levels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional Derived from past: conservative, authoritarian, absolutistic </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Materialistic, rational, strategic, bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>Post-modern Relativistic, communitarian, egalitarian, reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>Integral Subtle, integrated, tolerant and open. </li></ul>Source: The Biggest Wakeup Call in History, eBook, FI, 2010
  41. 41. Kosmic Simplicity Default Decentralisation Contending Tribes Ecocide, Extinction Hives, Lifeboats Dystopia, Extinction Civilisational Renewal & Fresh Horizons Renewed Infrastructure, Rebuild, Rise & Fall Turquoise Kosmocentric Teal Planetcentric Green Worldcentric Orange Sociocentric Amber Ethnocentric Red Egocentric First Tier Second Tier Low Technology High Technology “ Sweet Zone” Values Worldviews Source: The Biggest Wakeup Call in History, eBook, FI, 2010
  42. 42. Conclusions <ul><li>Integral futures provides a broader, deeper canvas for theory, method, tools and practice </li></ul><ul><li>By integrating UL, LL with UR, LR it helps to re-balance work that has been too preoccupied with exteriors (& overlooked interiors) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests new avenues of enquiry, new types of solutions to global problems </li></ul><ul><li>Puts the practitioner back into focus - depth in the practitioner is what evokes depth, capacity, in whatever method is being employed </li></ul><ul><li>New perspectives for / in / on & within FS and Edn </li></ul>
  43. 43. Overview for Global Solutions The infrastructure needs to be re-developed for sustainable uses Interior Exterior Individual Collective Individuals need to elevate their consciousness & capacities to more inclusive stages Organisations and societies need to move on toward more integrated states and stages of development We need to lift our level of competence & performance in a number of areas Source: The Biggest Wakeup Call in History, eBook, FI, 2010
  44. 44. Foresight international More info at: foresightinternational.com.au richardslaughter.com.au

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