Surveys, Interviews, and FGDsPresentation Transcript
SURVEYS, INTERVIEWSSURVEYS, INTERVIEWS& FOCUSED GROUP& FOCUSED GROUPDISCUSSIONSDISCUSSIONSA Report for Psy 220 by:A Report for Psy 220 by:Jennifer Carpio, Phil de Leon,Jennifer Carpio, Phil de Leon,Mary Grace Trinidad, and Eden GallardoMary Grace Trinidad, and Eden Gallardo
SURVEY RESEARCHSURVEY RESEARCH one of the most importantone of the most importantareas of measurement inareas of measurement inapplied social researchapplied social research can be anything from a shortcan be anything from a shortpaper-and-pencil feedbackpaper-and-pencil feedbackform to an intensive one-on-form to an intensive one-on-one in-depth interviewone in-depth interview
SURVEY RESEARCHSURVEY RESEARCHIn essence,In essence,aa SURVEYSURVEY is a structured set ofis a structured set ofquestions given to a group ofquestions given to a group ofpeople in order to measure theirpeople in order to measure theirattitudes, beliefs, values orattitudes, beliefs, values ortendencies to act.tendencies to act.
SURVEY RESEARCHSURVEY RESEARCH The purpose of the survey mightThe purpose of the survey mightbe to provide answers to appliedbe to provide answers to appliedresearch question or advanceresearch question or advancebasic research.basic research. Seems simple but must be doneSeems simple but must be donecarefully and conscientiously ascarefully and conscientiously asany other type of scientificany other type of scientificresearch if the results are to beresearch if the results are to beuseful and interpretable.useful and interpretable.
SURVEY RESEARCHSURVEY RESEARCHSurveys can be divided into twoSurveys can be divided into twobroad categories:broad categories:thethe questionnairequestionnaire and theand theinterviewinterview..
VARIETIES OF SURVEYVARIETIES OF SURVEYMETHODS:METHODS: Mail SurveysMail Surveys are written, self-administeredare written, self-administeredquestionnaires.questionnaires. especially important that it beespecially important that it beself-explanatory and that allself-explanatory and that allquestions be clearly worded. Itquestions be clearly worded. Itwould be ideal for the survey towould be ideal for the survey toalso be interesting.also be interesting.
Mail Surveys:Mail Surveys:AdvantagesAdvantages it can reach a large number and ait can reach a large number and awide variety of potential respondentswide variety of potential respondents mail surveys can be distributedmail surveys can be distributedwidely, there is less chance ofwidely, there is less chance ofsampling biassampling bias self-administered questionnaireself-administered questionnaireeliminates interviewer biaseliminates interviewer bias
Mail Surveys:Mail Surveys:AdvantagesAdvantages the respondents complete the surveythe respondents complete the surveyaccording to their own schedulesaccording to their own scheduleshence, the replies are likely to behence, the replies are likely to bemore completemore complete mail questionnaires can be sentmail questionnaires can be sentalmost anywhere in the world for thealmost anywhere in the world for thecost of postagecost of postage appropriate for collecting sensitiveappropriate for collecting sensitiveinformationinformation
Mail Surveys:Mail Surveys:DisadvantagesDisadvantages low response rate (averagelow response rate (averageresponse rate is 30%)response rate is 30%) the researcher must takethe researcher must takespecial steps to increase thespecial steps to increase theresponse rate such as sendingresponse rate such as sendingfollow-up mails, add personalfollow-up mails, add personaltouches such as a hand writtentouches such as a hand writtencover letter, supply an incentivecover letter, supply an incentiveor use first class postage.or use first class postage.
VARIETIES OF SURVEYVARIETIES OF SURVEYMETHODS:METHODS:Group-Administered SurveysGroup-Administered Surveys Surveys that are given to aSurveys that are given to agroup of respondents (e.g. in agroup of respondents (e.g. in aclassroom), share manyclassroom), share manycharacteristics with mailcharacteristics with mailsurveys.surveys.
VARIETIES OF SURVEYVARIETIES OF SURVEYMETHODS:METHODS:Group-Administered SurveysGroup-Administered Surveys Since group-administeredSince group-administeredsurveys are usually given in asurveys are usually given in asetting where it is easy forsetting where it is easy forrecipients to complete them,recipients to complete them,most people will complymost people will complyresulting in a higher responseresulting in a higher responserate than mail surveys.rate than mail surveys.
SURVEY CONSTRUCTIONSURVEY CONSTRUCTIONThe appearance of the survey isThe appearance of the survey isespecially important. It shouldespecially important. It shouldlook as if it would belook as if it would be easyeasy andandideally,ideally, interestinginteresting to complete.to complete.For mail survey, length isFor mail survey, length isimportant.important.
TYPES OF QUESTIONSTYPES OF QUESTIONSUSED IN A SURVEY:USED IN A SURVEY:Open-Ended QuestionsOpen-Ended Questions has no fixed answers but allows thehas no fixed answers but allows therespondent to answer in any mannerrespondent to answer in any manner have the advantage of allowing thehave the advantage of allowing theparticipant to provide completeparticipant to provide completeinformation, including anyinformation, including anyexplanatory information that may beexplanatory information that may benecessarynecessary on the other hand, they are muchon the other hand, they are muchmore difficult to score for statisticalmore difficult to score for statisticalanalysisanalysis
TYPES OF QUESTIONSTYPES OF QUESTIONSUSED IN A SURVEY:USED IN A SURVEY:Closed QuestionsClosed Questions ask the respondent to choose fromask the respondent to choose fromalternative potential answersalternative potential answers they limit the responses to athey limit the responses to apredetermined list of alternativespredetermined list of alternatives options given must be mutuallyoptions given must be mutuallyexclusive and exhaustiveexclusive and exhaustive
TYPES OF QUESTIONSTYPES OF QUESTIONSUSED IN A SURVEY:USED IN A SURVEY:Closed QuestionsClosed Questions if the researcher is not careful,if the researcher is not careful,alternatives that the respondentsalternatives that the respondentswould have used may be omitted.would have used may be omitted. the respondent does not have thethe respondent does not have theopportunity to expand or explainopportunity to expand or explainanswersanswers to find more subtle differencesto find more subtle differencesamong subgroups of respondentsamong subgroups of respondentsthan yes/no questions might allow,than yes/no questions might allow,the researcher might use ratingthe researcher might use ratingscalesscales
QUESTIONS TO AVOID:QUESTIONS TO AVOID:Loaded QuestionsLoaded Questions include terms that are non-include terms that are non-neutral or are emotionally ladenneutral or are emotionally laden they tend to produce biasedthey tend to produce biasedresponses, which reflect whatresponses, which reflect whatthe questioner wants to hear butthe questioner wants to hear butnot necessarily what thenot necessarily what therespondents believerespondents believe
QUESTIONS TO AVOID:QUESTIONS TO AVOID:Leading QuestionsLeading Questions present the information withinpresent the information withinthe question so as to lead thethe question so as to lead therespondent to answer in arespondent to answer in adesired mannerdesired manner
QUESTIONS TO AVOID:QUESTIONS TO AVOID:Double-Barreled QuestionsDouble-Barreled Questions ask more than one question atask more than one question atthe same time. Often, theythe same time. Often, theyinclude the word “or.”include the word “or.”
SURVEY DEVELOPMENTSURVEY DEVELOPMENTSTEP 1:STEP 1:Determine exactlyDetermine exactlywhat informationwhat information is neededis neededand then askand then askfor that specific information.for that specific information.
SURVEY DEVELOPMENTSURVEY DEVELOPMENTSTEP 2:STEP 2:Carry out aCarry out a pilot studypilot study..Ask for comments.Ask for comments.
SURVEY DEVELOPMENTSURVEY DEVELOPMENTSTEP 3:STEP 3:After modifying the surveyAfter modifying the surveyin light of the pilot study results,in light of the pilot study results,the final version should bethe final version should betaken for ataken for a test runtest runto a small sample of participantsto a small sample of participantswho are to complete itwho are to complete itusing the same proceduresusing the same proceduresthe larger sample will use.the larger sample will use.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUESSAMPLING TECHNIQUES The goal of sampling is toThe goal of sampling is tocreate a sample that iscreate a sample that isrepresentative of the population.representative of the population.Random SelectionRandom Selection all members of the populationall members of the populationare equally likely to be chosenare equally likely to be chosenas part of the sample.as part of the sample.
PROBABILITY SAMPLINGPROBABILITY SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES:TECHNIQUES:Systematic SamplingSystematic SamplingElements are not chosenElements are not chosenrandomly but instead arerandomly but instead arechosen to some specific plan orchosen to some specific plan orstrategy.strategy.Every nth person is chosen from aEvery nth person is chosen from alist of the total population.list of the total population.
PROBABILITY SAMPLINGPROBABILITY SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES:TECHNIQUES:Stratified SamplingStratified SamplingIntended to guarantee that theIntended to guarantee that thesample will be representative ofsample will be representative ofthe population on specificthe population on specificcharacteristics.characteristics.
PROBABILITY SAMPLINGPROBABILITY SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES:TECHNIQUES:Cluster SamplingCluster SamplingClusters of potential respondentsClusters of potential respondentsthat represent the populationthat represent the populationare identified, and then all of theare identified, and then all of thepeople in those clusters arepeople in those clusters areincluded in the sample.included in the sample.
NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGNON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES:TECHNIQUES:Convenience SamplingConvenience Samplingalso called haphazard sampling oralso called haphazard sampling oraccidental samplingaccidental samplingParticipants are chosen from aParticipants are chosen from areadily available situation.readily available situation.
NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGNON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES:TECHNIQUES:Quota SamplingQuota SamplingA combination of convenienceA combination of conveniencesampling and stratified samplingsampling and stratified samplingConvenient sources of subgroupConvenient sources of subgroupmembers are identified andmembers are identified andparticipants are sought fromparticipants are sought fromthese sources.these sources.
NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGNON-PROBABILITY SAMPLINGTECHNIQUES:TECHNIQUES:Snowball SamplingSnowball SamplingResearch participants are askedResearch participants are askedto identify other potentialto identify other potentialparticipantsparticipants
INTERVIEWSINTERVIEWS primary purpose is collect dataprimary purpose is collect dataand information that cannot beand information that cannot beeasily gathered elsewhereeasily gathered elsewhere involve a set of assumptionsinvolve a set of assumptionsand understandings about theand understandings about thesituation which are not normallysituation which are not normallyassociated with a casualassociated with a casualconversationconversation
INTERVIEWSINTERVIEWS are used when other researchare used when other researchinstruments seem inappropriateinstruments seem inappropriate compared to surveycompared to surveyquestionnaires, are far morequestionnaires, are far moreresource-intensiveresource-intensive can last longer than an hour andcan last longer than an hour andcan produce vast amounts ofcan produce vast amounts ofdatadata
INTERVIEWSINTERVIEWS give the researcher more of angive the researcher more of aninsight into the meaning andinsight into the meaning andsignificance of what issignificance of what ishappeninghappening traditionally less structured thantraditionally less structured thanother research instruments (i.e.other research instruments (i.e.questionnaires)questionnaires)
STAGES INSTAGES INDEVELOPINGDEVELOPINGINTERVIEWSINTERVIEWSDraft theinterviewPilot yourquestionsSelect yourintervieweesConduct theinterviewsAnalyze theinterview data
STAGE 1:STAGE 1:Drafting the interviewDrafting the interview interview development processinterview development processbegins by indicating the questions tobegins by indicating the questions tobe askedbe asked the #, type and format of questionsthe #, type and format of questionswill depend on the level of structurewill depend on the level of structureto be imposed on the interviewto be imposed on the interview Three Models:Three Models: unstructured, semi-unstructured, semi-structured, structuredstructured, structured
Three Models for Interview:Three Models for Interview:UnstructuredUnstructured very flexible approach, areas ofvery flexible approach, areas ofinterest are established by theinterest are established by theresearcher but the discussion isresearcher but the discussion isguided by the intervieweeguided by the interviewee control lies with the interviewee,control lies with the interviewee,can be difficult to plan, difficultcan be difficult to plan, difficultto steer, can prove extremelyto steer, can prove extremelydifficult to analyzedifficult to analyze
Three Models for Interview:Three Models for Interview:Semi-StructuredSemi-Structured has less flexibility, interviewerhas less flexibility, interviewerdirects interview more closely,directs interview more closely,more questions aremore questions arepredetermined though there ispredetermined though there issufficient flexibilitysufficient flexibility
Three Models for Interview:Three Models for Interview:StructuredStructured seen as no more than aseen as no more than aquestionnaire completed face toquestionnaire completed face toface, all questions are predeterminedface, all questions are predeterminedand the interviewer has full controland the interviewer has full controlover the order of questions.over the order of questions. has the advantage of beinghas the advantage of beingcomprehensive ad of yielding highlycomprehensive ad of yielding highlydetailed informationdetailed information
Three Models for Interview:Three Models for Interview:StructuredStructured has an element of predictabilityhas an element of predictabilitywhich allows the event to bewhich allows the event to betimetabledtimetabled may provide an easier framework formay provide an easier framework foranalysisanalysis
STAGE 1:STAGE 1:Drafting the interviewDrafting the interview it can be difficult to accuratelyit can be difficult to accuratelydistinguish between unstructureddistinguish between unstructuredand semi-structured interviews, butand semi-structured interviews, butthere is agreement thatthere is agreement thatunstructuredunstructured interviews areinterviews arecontrolled and directed by thecontrolled and directed by theintervieweeinterviewee, whereas, whereas semi-semi-structuredstructured interviews haveinterviews havepredefined areas for discussionpredefined areas for discussion in any interview, it is important forin any interview, it is important forthe interviewer to prepare a list ofthe interviewer to prepare a list ofkey questionskey questions
STAGE 1:STAGE 1:Drafting the interviewDrafting the interview it is important to clarify both the numberit is important to clarify both the numberand type of questions to be asked and howand type of questions to be asked and howthey will be sequenced in the interviewthey will be sequenced in the interview some interview questions address moresome interview questions address moresensitive and controversial subjects, and asensitive and controversial subjects, and auseful way of approaching theuseful way of approaching thedevelopment of such questions is to applydevelopment of such questions is to applya funnelling techniquea funnelling technique in all good interviews, questions will bein all good interviews, questions will beclustered or grouped around themes orclustered or grouped around themes orissues which will be communicated to theissues which will be communicated to theinterviewee at the beginning of the sessioninterviewee at the beginning of the session
STAGE 1:STAGE 1:Drafting the interviewDrafting the interview a decision should be made concerning howa decision should be made concerning howinterviews will be recordedinterviews will be recorded use of audio recorders allow foruse of audio recorders allow fortranscriptiontranscription use of video recorders has moreuse of video recorders has moreadvantages such as recording what isadvantages such as recording what isbeing said together with the visual cues,being said together with the visual cues,clear identification who is speaking in theclear identification who is speaking in thegroup, and allows for observation andgroup, and allows for observation andtaking note of body languagetaking note of body language
STAGE 2:STAGE 2:Piloting your questionsPiloting your questions you can begin to identify and correctyou can begin to identify and correctimperfections by piloting yourimperfections by piloting yourquestions with a select few people inquestions with a select few people inorder to establish clarityorder to establish clarity piloting ispiloting is crucialcrucial, as it assists in, as it assists ineliminating ambiguous questions aseliminating ambiguous questions aswell as in generating useful feedbackwell as in generating useful feedbackon the structure and flow of heon the structure and flow of heintended interviewintended interview
STAGE 3:STAGE 3:Selecting yourSelecting yoursample intervieweessample interviewees extra care must be taken whenextra care must be taken whenselecting the sample group ofselecting the sample group ofintervieweesinterviewees sample of interviewees must besample of interviewees must berepresentative and sensible, ifrepresentative and sensible, ifyou are to make generalizationsyou are to make generalizationsfrom the data they providefrom the data they provide
STAGE 4:STAGE 4:Conducting the interviewConducting the interview physical organization of the interviewphysical organization of the interviewsetting is an important part of the interviewsetting is an important part of the interviewprocessprocess very formal interview situations tend tovery formal interview situations tend toposition the interviewer in front of theposition the interviewer in front of theinterviewee (this can appearinterviewee (this can appearconfrontational and many intimidate theconfrontational and many intimidate theinterviewee)interviewee) less formal seating arrangements tend toless formal seating arrangements tend toput both parties at ease, the most commonput both parties at ease, the most commonconsist of the interviewee and interviewerconsist of the interviewee and interviewersitting alongside each othersitting alongside each other
STAGE 4:STAGE 4:Conducting the interviewConducting the interview note-taking can slow down thenote-taking can slow down theinterview and distract the interviewerinterview and distract the interviewerunless restricted to brief notations orunless restricted to brief notations orsummariessummaries it is also good practice for theit is also good practice for theresearcher to begin by introducingresearcher to begin by introducinghimself, outlining the purpose of thehimself, outlining the purpose of theinterview and its intended format andinterview and its intended format andstructure, interviewer should alsostructure, interviewer should alsoindicate how the data from theindicate how the data from theinterview will be used and whetherinterview will be used and whetheranonymity will be preservedanonymity will be preserved
STAGE 4:STAGE 4:Conducting the interviewConducting the interview the interviewer should also providethe interviewer should also providethe interviewee with comforting signsthe interviewee with comforting signsor acceptance cues, for these canor acceptance cues, for these canenhance the interview and generallyenhance the interview and generallyencourage the interviewee to provideencourage the interviewee to provideinformationinformation to ensure that effectiveto ensure that effectivecommunication has taken place, itcommunication has taken place, itcan be useful for the interviewer tocan be useful for the interviewer torestate part or all of the interviewee’srestate part or all of the interviewee’sresponseresponse
STAGE 4:STAGE 4:Conducting the interviewConducting the interview silencesilence during an interview needduring an interview neednot be uncomfortable, use silence asnot be uncomfortable, use silence asan aid to gathering more information,an aid to gathering more information,silence following the interviewer’ssilence following the interviewer’squestion allows the interviewee toquestion allows the interviewee tocollect thoughts and begin to framecollect thoughts and begin to framean answer, silence used carefullyan answer, silence used carefullycan also encourage an extendedcan also encourage an extendedresponseresponse
STAGE 4:STAGE 4:Conducting the interviewConducting the interview after all question areas have beenafter all question areas have beencovered, it is necessary to draw thecovered, it is necessary to draw theinterview to a close, this provides aninterview to a close, this provides anopportunity for the researcher toopportunity for the researcher toparaphrase what has been said andparaphrase what has been said anddiscusseddiscussed it is also common practice to thankit is also common practice to thankthe interviewee and offer to provide athe interviewee and offer to provide awritten summary of the interviewwritten summary of the interview
Telephone InterviewsTelephone Interviews uses random-digit dialinguses random-digit dialing requires far less resourcingrequires far less resourcing combines the efficiency of acombines the efficiency of amail survey with the personalmail survey with the personalcontact of an interviewcontact of an interview many more people can bemany more people can beinterviewed by telephone in theinterviewed by telephone in thetime it would take to perform justtime it would take to perform justone face to face interviewone face to face interview
Telephone InterviewsTelephone Interviews less personal than face to face, andless personal than face to face, andall of the body language data will beall of the body language data will belostlost best used for short and very focusedbest used for short and very focusedinterviewsinterviews response rate can also be low, butresponse rate can also be low, butthis can be remedied by precedingthis can be remedied by precedingthe call with a brief letter or post cardthe call with a brief letter or post cardalerting the respondent that a phonealerting the respondent that a phonecall is on the waycall is on the way
STEP 5:STEP 5:Analyzing the interview dataAnalyzing the interview data the final stage of the interview processthe final stage of the interview processbegins by drawing together the databegins by drawing together the datacollected and structuring them in such acollected and structuring them in such away as to make ready for analysisway as to make ready for analysis in small scale work, this typically involvesin small scale work, this typically involvesgrouping the responses to each questiongrouping the responses to each questionfrom all interviewees to make comparisonfrom all interviewees to make comparisonbetween respondents easy, this allowsbetween respondents easy, this allowsthemes, issues and concerns to be easilythemes, issues and concerns to be easilyidentified and quantifiedidentified and quantified When analyzing a large number ofWhen analyzing a large number ofinterview transcripts it may be necessary tointerview transcripts it may be necessary toutilize the functions of computer basedutilize the functions of computer basedtoolstools
INTERVIEWS:INTERVIEWS:AdvantagesAdvantages because of your indirect involvement as abecause of your indirect involvement as aresearcher, you can achieve a 100%researcher, you can achieve a 100%response rate for your questionsresponse rate for your questions you can decide on follow up questionsyou can decide on follow up questions you “hear” far more than just what theyou “hear” far more than just what theinterviewee “tells” youinterviewee “tells” you participants often see interviews asparticipants often see interviews asopportunities to voice opinions and “let off”opportunities to voice opinions and “let off”steamsteam in most cases, they provide vast amountsin most cases, they provide vast amountsof rich and useful data for further analysisof rich and useful data for further analysis
INTERVIEWS:INTERVIEWS:DisadvantagesDisadvantages a good interviewer requiresa good interviewer requiresconsiderable trainingconsiderable training interviews are time consuming, andinterviews are time consuming, andcostly to conductcostly to conduct data generated through interviewsdata generated through interviewscan prove difficult for the lonecan prove difficult for the loneresearcher to analyzeresearcher to analyze interpretations of interview data mayinterpretations of interview data maydiffer between researchersdiffer between researchers unless strictly controlled, interviewsunless strictly controlled, interviewscan easily meander from the maincan easily meander from the mainsubjectsubject
FOCUSED GROUPFOCUSED GROUPDISCUSSIONSDISCUSSIONSAA carefully planned and moderated informalcarefully planned and moderated informaldiscussiondiscussion where one’s ideas bounce offwhere one’s ideas bounce offanother’s creatinganother’s creating a chain reaction ofa chain reaction ofinformative dialogueinformative dialogue..Its purpose is to addressIts purpose is to address a specific topic, ina specific topic, indepth, in a comfortable environmentdepth, in a comfortable environment totoelicit aelicit a wide range of opinions, attitudes,wide range of opinions, attitudes,feelings or perceptionsfeelings or perceptions fromfrom a group ofa group ofindividuals who share common experienceindividuals who share common experiencerelative to the dimension under study.relative to the dimension under study.The product of a focus group is a unique formThe product of a focus group is a unique formofof qualitative informationqualitative information which bringswhich bringsunderstanding about how people react tounderstanding about how people react toan experience or product.an experience or product.(Anderson 1996:200)(Anderson 1996:200)
FOCUSED GROUPFOCUSED GROUPDISCUSSIONSDISCUSSIONS guided or unguided discussionguided or unguided discussionaddressing a particular topic ofaddressing a particular topic ofinterest or relevance to the groupinterest or relevance to the groupand the researcherand the researcher an extremely dynamic method ofan extremely dynamic method ofresearch which provides a means forresearch which provides a means forcollecting qualitative data in ancollecting qualitative data in aninformal atmosphereinformal atmosphere consists of a small number ofconsists of a small number ofparticipants under the guidance of aparticipants under the guidance of afacilitator (moderator)facilitator (moderator)
FOCUSED GROUPFOCUSED GROUPDISCUSSIONSDISCUSSIONS It was first used by militaryIt was first used by militarypsychologists and civilianpsychologists and civilianconsultants in the beginning ofconsultants in the beginning ofWW2.WW2. It was popularized in the 90sIt was popularized in the 90sand has taken center-stage fromand has taken center-stage fromthen as a method of gatheringthen as a method of gatheringdata especially in marketdata especially in marketresearch.research.
FOCUSED GROUP INTERVIEWSFOCUSED GROUP INTERVIEWSvs.vs.FACE-TO-FACE INTERVIEWSFACE-TO-FACE INTERVIEWS There is interaction within groupThere is interaction within groupparticipantsparticipants Less costly in terms of humanLess costly in terms of humanresource, time and moneyresource, time and money Provides room for extremeProvides room for extremeresponses thus, resulting toresponses thus, resulting tosubstantially less relevant data thansubstantially less relevant data thanFace-to-Face InterviewingFace-to-Face Interviewing
FOCUSED GROUP INTERVIEWSFOCUSED GROUP INTERVIEWSvs.vs.PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONPARTICIPANT OBSERVATION FGI does provide for a trulyFGI does provide for a trulynaturalistic conversation to transpirenaturalistic conversation to transpire- it is facilitated- it is facilitated Appropriate for large range ofAppropriate for large range ofbehavior, wide range of interactionsbehavior, wide range of interactionsand comprehensive and openand comprehensive and opendiscussion about certain topics ordiscussion about certain topics orissuesissues Bulk of observed behavior is verbalBulk of observed behavior is verbal
FOCUSED GROUP INTERVIEWSFOCUSED GROUP INTERVIEWSvs.vs.UNOBTRUSIVE OBSERVATIONUNOBTRUSIVE OBSERVATION FGI requires a lot preparationFGI requires a lot preparation Interaction within theInteraction within theparticipants allows for rich dataparticipants allows for rich data Biographical experiences areBiographical experiences arelooked into at deeper levellooked into at deeper level
DISTINCTIONDISTINCTION AssumptionsAssumptionsPeople naturally engage in “conversations”People naturally engage in “conversations”Individuals have their own thoughts,Individuals have their own thoughts,feelings or opinionsfeelings or opinionsOne aim of research is to gain access toOne aim of research is to gain access tothose opinionsthose opinionsInformal meeting is conducive to self-Informal meeting is conducive to self-expressionexpression ResultResultDiscussions that are richer, deeper andDiscussions that are richer, deeper andmore honest and incisive than anymore honest and incisive than anyinterview with a single participant couldinterview with a single participant couldproduceproduce
DISTINCTION:DISTINCTION:The 5 S’s of Group InteractionThe 5 S’s of Group Interaction(Hess (1968:194)(Hess (1968:194) SynergismSynergism SnowballingSnowballing StimulationStimulation SecuritySecurity SpontaneitySpontaneity
FGDs:FGDs:Summary of PurposesSummary of Purposes To gather insight to, or raiseTo gather insight to, or raiseawareness, of an issue or topicawareness, of an issue or topic To uncover complex motivations,To uncover complex motivations,attitudes or behaviorsattitudes or behaviors To prepare for a larger studyTo prepare for a larger study To interpret previously obtainedTo interpret previously obtainedresearch resultsresearch results To develop new research questionsTo develop new research questionsand issues for further explorationand issues for further exploration To obtain market research dataTo obtain market research data
FGDs:FGDs:Summary of PurposesSummary of Purposes To develop understanding ofTo develop understanding ofconsumersconsumers To stimulate new ideas and creativeTo stimulate new ideas and creativeconceptsconcepts To discern participants’ needs whenTo discern participants’ needs whenplanning, improving or evaluatingplanning, improving or evaluatingservicesservices To identify problems with existingTo identify problems with existingservicesservices To learn how respondents talk inTo learn how respondents talk intheir own words about your focus oftheir own words about your focus ofinterestinterest
STEP 1:STEP 1:Establishing your focus groupEstablishing your focus group 4 < Participants < 124 < Participants < 12 have strong opinions most likely fromhave strong opinions most likely frompersonal experience about the topicpersonal experience about the topicor issueor issue group which pre-exists your researchgroup which pre-exists your researchexerciseexercise more common: strangers who sharemore common: strangers who sharesimilar qualitiessimilar qualities representative of the “general public”representative of the “general public”or the “person on the street”or the “person on the street” screen pool of participants toscreen pool of participants toproduce aproduce a sampling framesampling frame
STEP 2:STEP 2:Developing your questionsDeveloping your questions Write downWrite down as many questions as seemas many questions as seempertinent, beginning, if appropriate with thepertinent, beginning, if appropriate with thequestion(s) which acted as the impetus forquestion(s) which acted as the impetus foryour researchyour research RefineRefine (Which of these questions are the(Which of these questions are themost important and which will my possiblemost important and which will my possibleparticipants be able to answer?) – wording,participants be able to answer?) – wording,open-ended questionsopen-ended questions OrderOrder questions in a way which ensures aquestions in a way which ensures anatural flow from one to the nextnatural flow from one to the next
STEP 2:STEP 2:Developing your questionsDeveloping your questions[Example: Research project about proposed[Example: Research project about proposedchanges to rules for allocating schoolchanges to rules for allocating schoolspaces]spaces] Which children should be given priority inWhich children should be given priority inallocations of school places?allocations of school places? How did parents feel about the informationHow did parents feel about the informationpack they had received from the countypack they had received from the countycouncil?council? How helpful had the county council been inHow helpful had the county council been inresponding to parents’ questions andresponding to parents’ questions andconcerns?concerns? How did parents feel about the schoolHow did parents feel about the schoolwhich had offered their child a place?which had offered their child a place? How could the current system beHow could the current system beimproved?improved?
STEP 3:STEP 3:Conducting your focus groupConducting your focus group The Moderator/FacilitatorThe Moderator/FacilitatorAsk research questionsAsk research questionsProbe furtherProbe furtherInvolve participantsInvolve participantsUse of stimuliUse of stimuli
STEP 3:STEP 3:Conducting your focus groupConducting your focus group(Tips for the facilitator)(Tips for the facilitator) Be comfortable with group processesBe comfortable with group processes Encourage discussionEncourage discussion Balance the contributionsBalance the contributions ListenListen Paraphrase and summarize participants’Paraphrase and summarize participants’commentscomments Be empathetic and sensitiveBe empathetic and sensitive Function as a facilitator, not a performerFunction as a facilitator, not a performer Keep the discussion moving and focusedKeep the discussion moving and focused Use silences, pauses and probesUse silences, pauses and probeseffectivelyeffectively Exert mild control, but avoid leading theExert mild control, but avoid leading theparticipantsparticipants
STEP 3:STEP 3:Conducting your focus groupConducting your focus group(Tips for the facilitator)(Tips for the facilitator) Remain flexible and adaptiveRemain flexible and adaptive Stay in the background- it is the opinions ofStay in the background- it is the opinions ofthe participants that are wantedthe participants that are wanted Suspend your personal biasesSuspend your personal biases Acknowledge individual contributionsAcknowledge individual contributions Remain conscious of timeRemain conscious of time Be respectful to the participants and thankBe respectful to the participants and thankthem for their contributionsthem for their contributions Have adequate background knowledge ofHave adequate background knowledge ofthe topicthe topic Have effective communication skillsHave effective communication skills Understand how to use humor and naïveUnderstand how to use humor and naïvequestionsquestions Thank participants for their time andThank participants for their time andcontributioncontribution
STEP 3:STEP 3:Conducting your focus groupConducting your focus group The Documenter (Colleague)The Documenter (Colleague)Use of audio-tape or videoUse of audio-tape or videoDetailed notes- verbatim accountsDetailed notes- verbatim accounts(names of individuals who(names of individuals whocommented, strength of feeling,commented, strength of feeling,facial expressions/gestures)facial expressions/gestures)Jot down approximate time forJot down approximate time forlocation on the tape laterlocation on the tape later
STEP 3:STEP 3:Analyzing your dataAnalyzing your data Transcribing the tapesTranscribing the tapes (as(assoon as possible!)soon as possible!)Tidying upTidying upOrganizing documentsOrganizing documentsProduction of preliminary record ofProduction of preliminary record ofeach sessioneach session
STEP 3:STEP 3:Analyzing your dataAnalyzing your data ScrutinizingScrutinizing the contentthe contentReading all summaries and transcriptsReading all summaries and transcripts ininone sittingone sittingOrganizing and categorizingOrganizing and categorizing datadata(themes, patterns and trends)(themes, patterns and trends)consider language, context, frequency andconsider language, context, frequency andintensity of comments and the extent tointensity of comments and the extent towhich they held on to or changed theirwhich they held on to or changed theiropinions and viewpointsopinions and viewpointslook forlook for the unexpectedthe unexpectedDistinguishDistinguish between the themes, patterns andbetween the themes, patterns andissuesissues
STEP 3:STEP 3:Analyzing your dataAnalyzing your dataOrganizing andOrganizing andcategorizing datacategorizing data(themes, patterns(themes, patternsand trends)and trends)Frameworkfor understandingand workingwith theinformation youhave collected
STEP 3:STEP 3:Analyzing your dataAnalyzing your data(Some Tips)(Some Tips) Transcribe your interviewsTranscribe your interviews Type up significant notesType up significant notes Gather together transcripts, notes,Gather together transcripts, notes,and other documents in a preliminaryand other documents in a preliminaryrecordrecord Cut-and-pate your data into themes,Cut-and-pate your data into themes,patterns and trends, etc., whetherpatterns and trends, etc., whethermanually, with your word processormanually, with your word processoror with specialized analysis softwareor with specialized analysis software
STEP 3:STEP 3:Analyzing your dataAnalyzing your data(Some Tips)(Some Tips) Organizes your categories into sub-Organizes your categories into sub-categories and arrange them in order ofcategories and arrange them in order ofimportanceimportance Edit your data to remove any extraneousEdit your data to remove any extraneousdetails and to ensure you reflect yourdetails and to ensure you reflect yourinterviews in a fair, balanced and accurateinterviews in a fair, balanced and accuratewayway Select and edit actual quotations toSelect and edit actual quotations toillustrate your emerging themes, takingillustrate your emerging themes, takingcare to avoid extreme views and to ensurecare to avoid extreme views and to ensureparticipants’ identities are concealedparticipants’ identities are concealed Think about investigating emerging issuesThink about investigating emerging issuesfurther, perhaps by using alternativefurther, perhaps by using alternativeinstrumentsinstruments
ADVANTAGES OF FOCUSADVANTAGES OF FOCUSGROUPSGROUPS Consistently popular as anConsistently popular as aneffective and economicaleffective and economicalinstrument of data collectioninstrument of data collection It is aIt is a “socially-oriented“socially-orientedresearch procedure”research procedure”.. (Krueger(Krueger2000:34)2000:34)
DISADVANTAGES OF FOCUSDISADVANTAGES OF FOCUSGROUPS:GROUPS: Inference within andInference within andbeyond the groupbeyond the group Participants may respond in ways designedParticipants may respond in ways designedto please others.to please others. People are reluctant to contradict prevailingPeople are reluctant to contradict prevailingviewpoints.viewpoints. Participants may choose not to revealParticipants may choose not to revealcertain information in a group setting.certain information in a group setting. Members may be influenced by opinions ofMembers may be influenced by opinions ofthe leader who best articulates theirthe leader who best articulates theiropinions.opinions. Group dynamics sometimes generate “hot-Group dynamics sometimes generate “hot-housing” or “polarization” effects by whichhousing” or “polarization” effects by whichemotions in already heated discussionsemotions in already heated discussionsescalate out of all proportion.escalate out of all proportion.
DISADVANTAGES OFDISADVANTAGES OFFOCUS GROUPS:FOCUS GROUPS:Working with a groupWorking with a group The selection of group membersThe selection of group membersis likely to affect the outcome ofis likely to affect the outcome ofthe discussions (intact groupthe discussions (intact groupvs. total strangers)vs. total strangers) The moderator has less controlThe moderator has less controlover the focus group comparedover the focus group comparedto one-to-one interviews.to one-to-one interviews.