SE Asia Reconstructions        50-0 Ma     © Robert Hall 1995
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PAGBABANGONG-DANGAL Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Research Methods Indigenous...
PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment   Indigenous Theorizing   and Empowerment
Perspectival and InterpretativeModels Absolutist Relativist    PagKAMI    PanTAYO Universalist
Perspectival and InterpretativeModels Absolutist    Prevalent orientation    Objective data-gathering    Objective rep...
Perspectival and InterpretativeModels  Relativist    Understanding   people “in their own     terms”    Avoid: derogati...
Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsAbsolutist vs Relativist  Absolutist              Relativist     Basic           ...
Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist   PangKAMI                  PanTAYO    (we-inclusive)            (we-ex...
Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist   PangKAMI                 PanTAYO    (we-inclusive)            (we-exc...
Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist   PanTAYO    (we-exclusive)      May  still have a future in the abler ...
Perspectival and InterpretativeModels  Universalist     Basic  psychological processes are likely to     be common featu...
Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist vs Universalist     Relativist                     Universalist       ...
Perspectival and Interpretative Models                           PANGKAMI                            research onABSOLUTIST...
Levels of Validity andScientific Standards   The  need for SP scholars to articulate its own    history (Pe-Pua, 1978)  ...
Levels of Validity andScientific Standards                           FILIPINO                         PHILOSOPHY   ANGLO-A...
Levels of Validity andScientific Standards     FILIPINO   PHILOSOPHY     Talisayon (1991) study    OF SCIENCE             ...
Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  SP  interprets results of analysis   with bias for:    Experiential   valida...
Levels of Validity andScientific Standards   Three        additional imperatives aside from the   demands of scientific r...
Levels of Validity andScientific Standards     Anglo-American                  Sikolohiyang Pilipino         Gives extr...
Indigenous Social Interaction Theory  Pakikipagkapwa-tao      / Pakikitungo   (collectivist)     Ibang  Tao     Hindi I...
Indigenous Social Interaction Theory General    Pakikipagkapwa Pag-iisa Categories -Tao Ibang Tao     Pakikitungo         ...
Reclaiming Filipino Concepts andModels of PersonalityMa’aramconcept of                                    Covar’s concept ...
PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment  Counterdomination  Through Indigenous  Methods
Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering Data Gathering  To test a theory  To better control a colonized people  To rec...
Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering COLLECTIVE                    Used in a local community setting INDIGENOUS METHOD...
Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering COLLECTIVE INDIGENOUS METHOD • a community dialogue                              ...
e.g. Piling-Piling Huwebes(inumin, pagkain, kaisipan)
Utilizing IndigenousResearch Methods Significance:  Shared  cultural responsibility  Antidote to the colonial monopoly o...
Utilizing IndigenousResearch Methods PARTICIPANT        Social                                       Data Quality OBSERVAT...
Facilitation Research An indigenous group has its own methods of   research and documentation  To empower the minority an...
Facilitation Research Indigenous Empowerment Psychology  Problem   identification      community dialogue  Knowledge   ...
Facilitation Research Participatory Research     Indigenous Facilitation                              Research    Equalit...
Facilitation Research Paves the way for the articulation of the        Garcia, 1994: authentic voice of the     • SP proje...
Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research Subjective experience is more primordial  than objectivity    Consuelo ...
Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research 4 Models of Data Collection:  Self-orientation  Experimenter-orientati...
Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research  Mutual-orientation     Model    Used  in indigenous psychology resear...
PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment  Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment  Counterdominat...
 [Goyi]
PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment  Resisting  Academic Dependency
Putting Filipino Books on theShelves  Philippinebooks and books on Filipinos   and the Philippines are hardly available ...
Putting Filipino Books on theShelves    Abroad                          In the Philippines,        Hawaii - Hard to com...
Deconstructing WesternConcepts and Models SP against imposition on a 3rd World Country of   psychologies developed in and ...
Creating Space and ReclaimingLocal Knowledge SP against a psychology used for the  exploitation of the masses SP as sikolo...
Creating Space and ReclaimingLocal Knowledge “Creating space for Filipinos in their own   terms” – Anong ibig sabihin nito...
“Pilipino kahit saan, kahit kailan”“First world countries may have great infrastructures, material comfort and modernity, ...
“Pilipino kahit saan, kahit kailan”… There may be potholes in the street where I live, but they speak to me in a way that ...
Eden Tamayo-Gallardo at Goyena Solis
Pagbabangong dangal etg2006
Pagbabangong dangal etg2006
Pagbabangong dangal etg2006
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  • Self-orientation – lab studies of memory Experimenter-orientation – Asch studies on person perception Reaction-orientation – verbal conditioning research Mutual-orientation – Piaget’s early research on conservation
  • Self-orientation – lab studies of memory Experimenter-orientation – Asch studies on person perception Reaction-orientation – verbal conditioning research Mutual-orientation – Piaget’s early research on conservation
  • Pagbabangong dangal etg2006

    1. 1. SE Asia Reconstructions 50-0 Ma © Robert Hall 1995
    2. 2. 50
    3. 3. 50
    4. 4. 46
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    15. 15. PAGBABANGONG-DANGAL Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Research Methods Indigenous Resistance to Oppression Resisting Class Oppression Resisting Gender Oppression Resisting Academic Dependency
    16. 16. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment
    17. 17. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels Absolutist Relativist PagKAMI PanTAYO Universalist
    18. 18. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels Absolutist Prevalent orientation Objective data-gathering Objective reporting
    19. 19. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels  Relativist Understanding people “in their own terms” Avoid: derogating other cultures, describing, categorizing, understanding others from external point of view Need to specify frame of reference
    20. 20. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsAbsolutist vs Relativist Absolutist Relativist Basic Differences congruence of “across psychological cultures”, if not phenomena the “across uniqueness of humankind” each one
    21. 21. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist  PangKAMI  PanTAYO (we-inclusive) (we-exclusive)  Utility of an alien  An absolutist frame of reference indigenous  Could be research perspective on one’s heritage  Assumes that one but using a pseudo- must have been etic mindframe born and raised in a  Should be Filipino particular culture to frame of reference understand it and standard
    22. 22. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist  PangKAMI  PanTAYO (we-inclusive) (we-exclusive)  Reactive  Self-contained  Suffers from the  Suffers from the limitations of any mistaken belief that invidious it is necessarily comparison superior to the pangKAMI
    23. 23. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist  PanTAYO (we-exclusive)  May still have a future in the abler hands of other historians who might care to redeem the panTAYO from absolute relativism
    24. 24. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels  Universalist  Basic psychological processes are likely to be common features of human life everywhere, but their manifestations are likely to be influenced by culture
    25. 25. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist vs Universalist  Relativist  Universalist  Culture is unique and  The question of needs to be universality, or the understood within its possible own context generalizability of certainly psychological  Emic approach properties, needs to be entertained in the very least (Kim, 1990:386)  Etic approach
    26. 26. Perspectival and Interpretative Models PANGKAMI research onABSOLUTIST RELATIVIST one’s heritage but using a UNIVERSALIST pseudo-etic difference mindframe across psychological across humankind universal cultures PANTAYO Absolutist indigenous perspective
    27. 27. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  The need for SP scholars to articulate its own history (Pe-Pua, 1978)  No need for a separate science for the Philippines- espousing the empirical approach and various techniques  Philosophical traditions and paradigms of science as either Eastern or Western but GLOBAL
    28. 28. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY ANGLO-AMERICAN OF SCIENCE Replicability recognition “Katatagan” and reliability Multiple acceptance “Katapatan” operationalism and validity empirical “Patibay” Certification standards Affirmability of validation “Patotoo” and attestability “Patunay” Authenticity
    29. 29. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY Talisayon (1991) study OF SCIENCE among indigenous “Katatagan” Filipino spiritual groups “Katapatan” • study validation (empirical) “Patibay” • presentation of final reports to the participants for affirmation “Patotoo” •attestation by concerned non-participants “Patunay”
    30. 30. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards SP interprets results of analysis with bias for: Experiential validation Authenticity Wholeness
    31. 31. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  Three additional imperatives aside from the demands of scientific rigor:  MAKATAO (Ethical) – utilizing science for the interest of all mankind  MAKABULUHAN (Relevant) – sensitivity to social issues; social problems and national issues as part of Filipino researchers’ responsibility  ANGKOP SA KULTURA (Culturally-appropriate) – affirming the uniqueness of man as a socio-cultural being
    32. 32. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  Anglo-American  Sikolohiyang Pilipino  Gives extreme and  Emphasizes the objective myopic emphasis to the study of psychology individual psyche  The use of the science of psychology as a tool in developing a Philippine national culture which highlights and celebrates minority cultural characteristics as integral to its identity  Greater weight on the collective experience of a people with a common bond of history
    33. 33. Indigenous Social Interaction Theory  Pakikipagkapwa-tao / Pakikitungo (collectivist)  Ibang Tao  Hindi Ibang Tao  Pag-iisa (individuation)  Ibang Tao  Hindi Ibang Tao
    34. 34. Indigenous Social Interaction Theory General Pakikipagkapwa Pag-iisa Categories -Tao Ibang Tao Pakikitungo Pagsasarili Pakikisalamuha Pag-iwas Pakikilahok Pahiwalay Pakikibagay Pagmamalaki Pakikisama Pakikinabang Hindi Ibang Pakikipagpalagayang- Pagkukubli loob Pagwawalang-bahala Tao Pakikisangkot Pagsalungat Pakikiisa
    35. 35. Reclaiming Filipino Concepts andModels of PersonalityMa’aramconcept of Covar’s concept ofPAGKATAO Filipino personhood Baltazar’s(personhood): based on 4 elements: Ginhawa Bait Buot Muni Isip Hatol Kaluluwa Dungan Kalag Budhi Katauhang Panlabas Katauhang Panloob Katauhang Panlabas Western conceptions of (physical) “personality”: Katauhang Panloob (innermost feelings) persona – mask external manifestations
    36. 36. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Methods
    37. 37. Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering Data Gathering  To test a theory  To better control a colonized people  To reclaim their heritage and culture
    38. 38. Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering COLLECTIVE Used in a local community setting INDIGENOUS METHOD Can be done openly or hidden • a community dialogue Puts premium on cultural • focused group discussion appropriateness • natural cluster interview Not advertised as a • group attestation “research methodology” Consciousness-raising as part of the agenda; data contamination is carefully avoided
    39. 39. Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering COLLECTIVE INDIGENOUS METHOD • a community dialogue “Mula sa bayan, • focused group discussion • natural cluster interview tungo sa bayan” • group attestation
    40. 40. e.g. Piling-Piling Huwebes(inumin, pagkain, kaisipan)
    41. 41. Utilizing IndigenousResearch Methods Significance:  Shared cultural responsibility  Antidote to the colonial monopoly on the production of knowledge (paali-aligid, pagtatanong-tanong)
    42. 42. Utilizing IndigenousResearch Methods PARTICIPANT Social Data Quality OBSERVATION Interaction Padalaw-dalaw: Pakikipanuluyan • informal visiting • live-in visitor • dropping-in, “napadaan lang po” Pakikipanirahan • participant dweller Pakikisalamuha Pagpisan • interactive • live-in, one of us, research participant Pakikipamuhay • living with
    43. 43. Facilitation Research An indigenous group has its own methods of research and documentation  To empower the minority and immigrant peoples who used to be just a source of data  The researcher merely facilitates or assists the participants to find a solution to a particular problem or search for knowledge or answers
    44. 44. Facilitation Research Indigenous Empowerment Psychology  Problem identification  community dialogue  Knowledge and expertise sharing  Expert explains in local language  IPs tapped for knowledge on data gathering, sampling, experimentation, analysis and presentation of data  Indigenous methods
    45. 45. Facilitation Research Participatory Research Indigenous Facilitation Research  Equality between the researcher and the  Superior role of the participants participants or culture-bearer  Aims to promote research activities on topics of interest to and ultimately of benefit to the community and not to the outside groups
    46. 46. Facilitation Research Paves the way for the articulation of the Garcia, 1994: authentic voice of the • SP project “dangerous”; underrepresented SP researcher can collect community or the samples from the field, and self-representation reproduce knowledge about and for them of a particular group of powerless people • Derrida – “Language, being a system of differentials, mediates and distorts meanings too
    47. 47. Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research Subjective experience is more primordial than objectivity  Consuelo Clemente dissertation on Filipino “psychic toothpullers” (Talisayon, 1991)
    48. 48. Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research 4 Models of Data Collection:  Self-orientation  Experimenter-orientation  Reaction-orientation  Mutual-orientation
    49. 49. Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research  Mutual-orientation Model  Used in indigenous psychology research; the cultural researcher is a culture bearer himself  Appears to be the only model of data collection free from the distorting assumptions of the other three models
    50. 50. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Research Methods Indigenous Resistance to Oppression Resisting Class Oppression Resisting Gender Oppression Resisting Academic Dependency
    51. 51.  [Goyi]
    52. 52. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Resisting Academic Dependency
    53. 53. Putting Filipino Books on theShelves  Philippinebooks and books on Filipinos and the Philippines are hardly available  Filipinos – the “invisible minority” in the US; “minority within a minority” among Asian Americans
    54. 54. Putting Filipino Books on theShelves  Abroad  In the Philippines,  Hawaii - Hard to come  Filipino bookstores- by despite big hidden somewhere concentration of Filipinos  Libraries – UP  LA (one bookstore), Filipiniana Section, San Francisco - can National Library hardly find  No books, no tapes, no manuals on Filipino language
    55. 55. Deconstructing WesternConcepts and Models SP against imposition on a 3rd World Country of psychologies developed in and appropriate to industrialized countries Sikolohiyang Sikolohiyang Pang-industriya Pangkabuhayan • shift in research focus, shift in application of psychology towards serving the underserved = a return from the city to the rural villages
    56. 56. Creating Space and ReclaimingLocal Knowledge SP against a psychology used for the exploitation of the masses SP as sikolohiyang mapagpalaya (liberating empowerment psychology)  “Creatingspace for Filipinos in their own terms” (Ma. Carmen Kirk)  The Moncada Movement  Teatro ng Tanan  The Filipino American Collegiate Endeavor  Filipino Stories in Southern California
    57. 57. Creating Space and ReclaimingLocal Knowledge “Creating space for Filipinos in their own terms” – Anong ibig sabihin nito para inyo?
    58. 58. “Pilipino kahit saan, kahit kailan”“First world countries may have great infrastructures, material comfort and modernity, but this cannot compare with the way the homeland speaks to a Filipino’s heart…
    59. 59. “Pilipino kahit saan, kahit kailan”… There may be potholes in the street where I live, but they speak to me in a way that a flawless highway in a developed country cannot. I may be upset by the potholes, but the feeling is a familiar one, and an easier one to endure than alienation in a foreign land.” (Jim Paredes before leaving for Australia)
    60. 60. Eden Tamayo-Gallardo at Goyena Solis

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