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Pagbabangong dangal etg2006

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  • Self-orientation – lab studies of memory Experimenter-orientation – Asch studies on person perception Reaction-orientation – verbal conditioning research Mutual-orientation – Piaget’s early research on conservation
  • Self-orientation – lab studies of memory Experimenter-orientation – Asch studies on person perception Reaction-orientation – verbal conditioning research Mutual-orientation – Piaget’s early research on conservation

Transcript

  • 1. SE Asia Reconstructions 50-0 Ma © Robert Hall 1995
  • 2. 50
  • 3. 50
  • 4. 46
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  • 6. 41
  • 7. 40
  • 8. 30
  • 9. 20
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  • 13. 1
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  • 15. PAGBABANGONG-DANGAL Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Research Methods Indigenous Resistance to Oppression Resisting Class Oppression Resisting Gender Oppression Resisting Academic Dependency
  • 16. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment
  • 17. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels Absolutist Relativist PagKAMI PanTAYO Universalist
  • 18. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels Absolutist Prevalent orientation Objective data-gathering Objective reporting
  • 19. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels  Relativist Understanding people “in their own terms” Avoid: derogating other cultures, describing, categorizing, understanding others from external point of view Need to specify frame of reference
  • 20. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsAbsolutist vs Relativist Absolutist Relativist Basic Differences congruence of “across psychological cultures”, if not phenomena the “across uniqueness of humankind” each one
  • 21. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist  PangKAMI  PanTAYO (we-inclusive) (we-exclusive)  Utility of an alien  An absolutist frame of reference indigenous  Could be research perspective on one’s heritage  Assumes that one but using a pseudo- must have been etic mindframe born and raised in a  Should be Filipino particular culture to frame of reference understand it and standard
  • 22. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist  PangKAMI  PanTAYO (we-inclusive) (we-exclusive)  Reactive  Self-contained  Suffers from the  Suffers from the limitations of any mistaken belief that invidious it is necessarily comparison superior to the pangKAMI
  • 23. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist  PanTAYO (we-exclusive)  May still have a future in the abler hands of other historians who might care to redeem the panTAYO from absolute relativism
  • 24. Perspectival and InterpretativeModels  Universalist  Basic psychological processes are likely to be common features of human life everywhere, but their manifestations are likely to be influenced by culture
  • 25. Perspectival and Interpretative ModelsRelativist vs Universalist  Relativist  Universalist  Culture is unique and  The question of needs to be universality, or the understood within its possible own context generalizability of certainly psychological  Emic approach properties, needs to be entertained in the very least (Kim, 1990:386)  Etic approach
  • 26. Perspectival and Interpretative Models PANGKAMI research onABSOLUTIST RELATIVIST one’s heritage but using a UNIVERSALIST pseudo-etic difference mindframe across psychological across humankind universal cultures PANTAYO Absolutist indigenous perspective
  • 27. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  The need for SP scholars to articulate its own history (Pe-Pua, 1978)  No need for a separate science for the Philippines- espousing the empirical approach and various techniques  Philosophical traditions and paradigms of science as either Eastern or Western but GLOBAL
  • 28. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY ANGLO-AMERICAN OF SCIENCE Replicability recognition “Katatagan” and reliability Multiple acceptance “Katapatan” operationalism and validity empirical “Patibay” Certification standards Affirmability of validation “Patotoo” and attestability “Patunay” Authenticity
  • 29. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY Talisayon (1991) study OF SCIENCE among indigenous “Katatagan” Filipino spiritual groups “Katapatan” • study validation (empirical) “Patibay” • presentation of final reports to the participants for affirmation “Patotoo” •attestation by concerned non-participants “Patunay”
  • 30. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards SP interprets results of analysis with bias for: Experiential validation Authenticity Wholeness
  • 31. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  Three additional imperatives aside from the demands of scientific rigor:  MAKATAO (Ethical) – utilizing science for the interest of all mankind  MAKABULUHAN (Relevant) – sensitivity to social issues; social problems and national issues as part of Filipino researchers’ responsibility  ANGKOP SA KULTURA (Culturally-appropriate) – affirming the uniqueness of man as a socio-cultural being
  • 32. Levels of Validity andScientific Standards  Anglo-American  Sikolohiyang Pilipino  Gives extreme and  Emphasizes the objective myopic emphasis to the study of psychology individual psyche  The use of the science of psychology as a tool in developing a Philippine national culture which highlights and celebrates minority cultural characteristics as integral to its identity  Greater weight on the collective experience of a people with a common bond of history
  • 33. Indigenous Social Interaction Theory  Pakikipagkapwa-tao / Pakikitungo (collectivist)  Ibang Tao  Hindi Ibang Tao  Pag-iisa (individuation)  Ibang Tao  Hindi Ibang Tao
  • 34. Indigenous Social Interaction Theory General Pakikipagkapwa Pag-iisa Categories -Tao Ibang Tao Pakikitungo Pagsasarili Pakikisalamuha Pag-iwas Pakikilahok Pahiwalay Pakikibagay Pagmamalaki Pakikisama Pakikinabang Hindi Ibang Pakikipagpalagayang- Pagkukubli loob Pagwawalang-bahala Tao Pakikisangkot Pagsalungat Pakikiisa
  • 35. Reclaiming Filipino Concepts andModels of PersonalityMa’aramconcept of Covar’s concept ofPAGKATAO Filipino personhood Baltazar’s(personhood): based on 4 elements: Ginhawa Bait Buot Muni Isip Hatol Kaluluwa Dungan Kalag Budhi Katauhang Panlabas Katauhang Panloob Katauhang Panlabas Western conceptions of (physical) “personality”: Katauhang Panloob (innermost feelings) persona – mask external manifestations
  • 36. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Methods
  • 37. Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering Data Gathering  To test a theory  To better control a colonized people  To reclaim their heritage and culture
  • 38. Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering COLLECTIVE Used in a local community setting INDIGENOUS METHOD Can be done openly or hidden • a community dialogue Puts premium on cultural • focused group discussion appropriateness • natural cluster interview Not advertised as a • group attestation “research methodology” Consciousness-raising as part of the agenda; data contamination is carefully avoided
  • 39. Questioning the Primacy ofData Gathering COLLECTIVE INDIGENOUS METHOD • a community dialogue “Mula sa bayan, • focused group discussion • natural cluster interview tungo sa bayan” • group attestation
  • 40. e.g. Piling-Piling Huwebes(inumin, pagkain, kaisipan)
  • 41. Utilizing IndigenousResearch Methods Significance:  Shared cultural responsibility  Antidote to the colonial monopoly on the production of knowledge (paali-aligid, pagtatanong-tanong)
  • 42. Utilizing IndigenousResearch Methods PARTICIPANT Social Data Quality OBSERVATION Interaction Padalaw-dalaw: Pakikipanuluyan • informal visiting • live-in visitor • dropping-in, “napadaan lang po” Pakikipanirahan • participant dweller Pakikisalamuha Pagpisan • interactive • live-in, one of us, research participant Pakikipamuhay • living with
  • 43. Facilitation Research An indigenous group has its own methods of research and documentation  To empower the minority and immigrant peoples who used to be just a source of data  The researcher merely facilitates or assists the participants to find a solution to a particular problem or search for knowledge or answers
  • 44. Facilitation Research Indigenous Empowerment Psychology  Problem identification  community dialogue  Knowledge and expertise sharing  Expert explains in local language  IPs tapped for knowledge on data gathering, sampling, experimentation, analysis and presentation of data  Indigenous methods
  • 45. Facilitation Research Participatory Research Indigenous Facilitation Research  Equality between the researcher and the  Superior role of the participants participants or culture-bearer  Aims to promote research activities on topics of interest to and ultimately of benefit to the community and not to the outside groups
  • 46. Facilitation Research Paves the way for the articulation of the Garcia, 1994: authentic voice of the • SP project “dangerous”; underrepresented SP researcher can collect community or the samples from the field, and self-representation reproduce knowledge about and for them of a particular group of powerless people • Derrida – “Language, being a system of differentials, mediates and distorts meanings too
  • 47. Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research Subjective experience is more primordial than objectivity  Consuelo Clemente dissertation on Filipino “psychic toothpullers” (Talisayon, 1991)
  • 48. Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research 4 Models of Data Collection:  Self-orientation  Experimenter-orientation  Reaction-orientation  Mutual-orientation
  • 49. Mutual Orientation and PersonalEncounter Research  Mutual-orientation Model  Used in indigenous psychology research; the cultural researcher is a culture bearer himself  Appears to be the only model of data collection free from the distorting assumptions of the other three models
  • 50. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Indigenous Theorizing and Empowerment Counterdomination Through Indigenous Research Methods Indigenous Resistance to Oppression Resisting Class Oppression Resisting Gender Oppression Resisting Academic Dependency
  • 51.  [Goyi]
  • 52. PAGBABANGONG-DANGALDecolonization, Counterdominationand Empowerment Resisting Academic Dependency
  • 53. Putting Filipino Books on theShelves  Philippinebooks and books on Filipinos and the Philippines are hardly available  Filipinos – the “invisible minority” in the US; “minority within a minority” among Asian Americans
  • 54. Putting Filipino Books on theShelves  Abroad  In the Philippines,  Hawaii - Hard to come  Filipino bookstores- by despite big hidden somewhere concentration of Filipinos  Libraries – UP  LA (one bookstore), Filipiniana Section, San Francisco - can National Library hardly find  No books, no tapes, no manuals on Filipino language
  • 55. Deconstructing WesternConcepts and Models SP against imposition on a 3rd World Country of psychologies developed in and appropriate to industrialized countries Sikolohiyang Sikolohiyang Pang-industriya Pangkabuhayan • shift in research focus, shift in application of psychology towards serving the underserved = a return from the city to the rural villages
  • 56. Creating Space and ReclaimingLocal Knowledge SP against a psychology used for the exploitation of the masses SP as sikolohiyang mapagpalaya (liberating empowerment psychology)  “Creatingspace for Filipinos in their own terms” (Ma. Carmen Kirk)  The Moncada Movement  Teatro ng Tanan  The Filipino American Collegiate Endeavor  Filipino Stories in Southern California
  • 57. Creating Space and ReclaimingLocal Knowledge “Creating space for Filipinos in their own terms” – Anong ibig sabihin nito para inyo?
  • 58. “Pilipino kahit saan, kahit kailan”“First world countries may have great infrastructures, material comfort and modernity, but this cannot compare with the way the homeland speaks to a Filipino’s heart…
  • 59. “Pilipino kahit saan, kahit kailan”… There may be potholes in the street where I live, but they speak to me in a way that a flawless highway in a developed country cannot. I may be upset by the potholes, but the feeling is a familiar one, and an easier one to endure than alienation in a foreign land.” (Jim Paredes before leaving for Australia)
  • 60. Eden Tamayo-Gallardo at Goyena Solis