Developing theDeveloping the
Research FrameworkResearch Framework
What is aWhat is a FRAMEWORKFRAMEWORK??
StructureStructure
ScaffoldScaffold
SkeletonSkeleton
SupportSupport
Construct...
What isWhat is RESEARCHRESEARCH??
InvestigationInvestigation
InquiryInquiry
ExaminationExamination
StudyStudy
Explora...
 Review/Definition of TermsReview/Definition of Terms
 Theoretical and ConceptualTheoretical and Conceptual
FrameworkFra...
TheoryTheory
 ““a set of inter-related constructs (variables),a set of inter-related constructs (variables),
definitions,...
TheoryTheory
Develops when researchers test a prediction manyDevelops when researchers test a prediction many
timestimes
...
TheoryTheory
Vary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,Vary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,
2000):2000):
 Micro...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories
 as inter-connected hypothesesas inter-connected hypotheses
 as statements that expla...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories
as inter-connectedas inter-connected
hypotheseshypotheses
Example:Example:
Hopkins (196...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories
as explanatoryas explanatory
statementsstatements
Example:Example:
Homans (1950) theory...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories
as a visual modelas a visual model
-- so that the reader can visualize the interconnect...
Visual ModelsVisual Models
Example: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposalExample: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposa...
Visual Model of Faculty Scholarly PerformanceVisual Model of Faculty Scholarly Performance
(Jungnickel, 1990)(Jungnickel, ...
Deductive Approach TypicallyDeductive Approach Typically
Used in Quantitative ResearchUsed in Quantitative Research
Resear...
Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study
PlacementPlacement Ad...
Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study
PlacementPlacement Ad...
A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section
(An Example)(An Example)
Crutchfield (1986) in a doctoral disse...
A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section
(An Example)(An Example)
 theory placed in a separate section ...
Theory Use inTheory Use in
Qualitative ResearchesQualitative Researches
 As a broad explanationAs a broad explanation
(li...
Inductive Logic of ResearchInductive Logic of Research
in a Qualitative Studyin a Qualitative Study
Researcher analyzes da...
TheThe
TheoreticalTheoretical
FrameworkFramework
and theand the
ConceptualConceptual
FrameworkFramework
Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework
 presents the theory from which thepresents the theory from which the
research...
Conceptual FrameworkConceptual Framework
 presents the relationship between thepresents the relationship between the
spec...
Theory and ConceptualTheory and Conceptual
FrameworkFramework
““Theory building relies on a few general constructs that su...
Theoretical/ConceptualTheoretical/Conceptual
FrameworkFramework
LevelLevel IndependentIndependent
VariableVariable
Interve...
Review ofReview of
ResearchesResearches
Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-
Concept. (College of Education, PhD)C...
AbstractAbstract
 Importance of self-concept, recognized the need forImportance of self-concept, recognized the need for
...
Theoretical PerspectiveTheoretical Perspective
Cited theories on the following:Cited theories on the following:
 Effects ...
Research ParadigmResearch Paradigm
 What are the subjects’ definition of their self-concept and itsWhat are the subjects’...
Mga
dimensions
ng self-
concept ng
Filipino
young adult
Konstrak
ng self-
concept ng
Filipino
young adult
Pagkaka-
unawa n...
MethodMethod
 Secondary data gathering, one-on-oneSecondary data gathering, one-on-one
interview, FGDinterview, FGD
 Pur...
Results/DiscussionResults/Discussion
 Demographics; including practices (e.g. disco,Demographics; including practices (e....
Pagkaka-
unawa ng
Filipino sa self-
concept
Katutubong
katawagan ng
Filipino para sa
salitang self-
concept
Dayagram ng Ko...
Domingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model ofDomingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model of
Organizational Commitment...
AbstractAbstract
 3 component model of organizational3 component model of organizational
commitment (affective, continuan...
AbstractAbstract
 correlation of the 3 component model withcorrelation of the 3 component model with
employees’ personal ...
Review of LiteratureReview of Literature
 commitmentcommitment
 organizational commitmentorganizational commitment
 thr...
ConceptualConceptual
FrameworkFramework
Personal and demographic
characteristics: Tenure,
current salary rate, no. of chil...
Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework
Definitions of commitment citedDefinitions of commitment cited
 Affective comm...
HypothesesHypotheses
 personal and demographic perception ofpersonal and demographic perception of
management factors wil...
MethodMethod
 Development of instruments; use ofDevelopment of instruments; use of
existing ones; explanationexisting one...
MethodMethod
 After data gathering, found that the 3After data gathering, found that the 3
deleted variables could be con...
Results and DiscussionResults and Discussion
 Discussion of statisticalDiscussion of statistical
findings/interpretationf...
ConclusionsConclusions
 DiagramsDiagrams
 Agreement with theories; mentioned howAgreement with theories; mentioned how
t...
SomeSome
IssuesIssues
inin
DevelopingDeveloping
thethe
ResearchResearch
FrameworkFramework
Some Issues (Punch, 2000)Some Issues (Punch, 2000)
 The perspective behind the researchThe perspective behind the researc...
The PerspectiveThe Perspective
Behind the ResearchBehind the Research
 Issue: whether there is a particularIssue: whether...
The Role of TheoryThe Role of Theory
 ““substantive theory”; sometimes considered moresubstantive theory”; sometimes cons...
Simplified Model of ResearchSimplified Model of Research
(with hypotheses)(with hypotheses)
Empirical
stage
What data are ...
Pre-specified versus Unfolding:Pre-specified versus Unfolding:
The Timing of StructureThe Timing of Structure
Qualitative
...
The Relevant LiteratureThe Relevant Literature
Common criticisms:Common criticisms:
 Not thematicNot thematic
 Not prope...
Quantitative, Qualitative or BothQuantitative, Qualitative or Both
 Fundamental issue of approach andFundamental issue of...
ExperiencesExperiences
inin
ThesisThesis
WritingWriting
Music as a Metaphor for Thesis WritingMusic as a Metaphor for Thesis Writing
by Gertina J van Schalkwykby Gertina J van Sc...
A five part polyrhythmic structure
for thesis writing
Phenomenology as Research MethodPhenomenology as Research Method
by Beverley Campbellby Beverley Campbell
…“I needed a met...
ReferencesReferences
Bell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learning from research: Getting MoreBell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learn...
-- end of slidesend of slides --
IssuesIssues
 Choosing the paradigm/perspectiveChoosing the paradigm/perspective
 Finding a structure for presenting the...
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  • Face work – explains how people engage in rituals during face-to-face interactions
    Theory of stratification – explains how the amount of surplus a society produces increases with the development of the society
  • Figure 1- 3 independent variables influencing a single dependent variable mediated by 2 intervening variables
    Figure 2- 2 groups given different treatments on X1 are compared in terms of Y1 controlling for X2
  • Placed towards the beginning of the plan for a study
    Objective is to test a theory rather than develop it
    The theory becomes the framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypothesis and for the data collection procedure
    On step 2:the hypotheses or questions contain variables (or constructs) that the researcher needs to define. Alternatively, an acceptable definition might be found in the literature. From here, the investigator locates an instrument to use in measuring or observing attitudes or behaviors of participants in a study Then the investigator collects the scores on these instruments to confirm or disconfirm the theory.
  • Librero – in review of related literature
    Creswell – preference for separate section; for clear identification from other components of the research process; provides complete explication of the theory section, its use and how it relates to the study being proposed
  • Librero – in review of related literature
    Creswell – preference for separate section; for clear identification from other components of the research process; provides complete explication of the theory section, its use and how it relates to the study being proposed
  • See page 128, Creswell
  • See page 128, Creswell
  • As a broad explanation (like in quantitative research); provides an explanation for behavior and attitudes; may be complete with variables , constructs, and hypotheses
    Use of a theoretical lens or perspective – to guide researchers as to what issues are important to examine and the people that need to be studied; also indicate how the researcher positions himself or herself in the qualitative study and how the final written accounts should be written
    As the end point for a study – it is an inductive process from the data to broad themes to a generalized model or theory
    assertion as a propositional generalization – the researcher’s summary of interpretations and claims to which is added the researcher’s own personal experiences, called “naturalistic generalizations”
    grounded theory – inquirers hope to discover a theory that is grounded in information from participants
    pattern theories – an explanation that develops during naturalistic or qualitative research
    These pattern theories or generalizations represent interconnected thoughts or parts linked to a whole
    PATTERN THEORY – does not emphasize logical deductive reasoning; like causal theory, contains an interconnected set of concepts and relationships but does not require causal statements; uses metaphor or analogies so that relationship “makes sense”; system of ideas that inform; concepts and relationships within them form a mutually reinforcing, closed system; specify a sequence of phases or link parts to a whole
    Some do not employ any explicit theory – no qualitative study begins from pure observation and that prior conceptual structure composed of theory and method provides the starting point for all observations
    Phenomenology – inquirers attempt to build the essence of experience from participants; the inquirer constructs a rich, detailed description of a central phenomenon
  • The perspective behind the research - concerns the overall direction and orientation of the research
    The role of theory - concerns the overall direction and orientation of the research
    Pre-structured vs. Unfolding - mostly concerns design and methods
    The relevant literature - concerned with the context of the research and with the way its research questions and strategy are developed
    Quantitative, qualitative or both - mostly concerns design and methods
  • Paradigm – a way of looking at the world; a view of how science should be done; e.g., positivism, post-positivism, critical theory and constructivism
    Metatheory - ideas about conceptions of science; thoughts about what is scientifically possible and what is not; e.g., logical empiricism, critical rationalism, phenomenology, etc.
    Perspectives – broader, more general (and less formidable) term to describe the idea that there might be a particular paradigm or metatheory or philosophical position behind the research; e.g., feminism, post-modernism, symbolic interactionism, discourse analysis
    The issue applies unevenly across different social science areas, its role and importance may be interpreted differently in different areas; applied differently at different levels of higher degree work; some areas are more subject to paradigm disputes and debates than others
  • Explanatory knowledge is more powerful than descriptive knowledge – when we know why (or how) something happens, we know more than just what happens, and we can use the explanation for prediction
    Some areas of research, such as ethnography and anthropology (and in some applied social research areas) full ethnographic description may be the goal of the research
  • Hypotheses can give structure to the design, data collection and data analysis aspects of the study, and can expose other concepts in the researcher’s thinking
    Useful; but remember that research questions can do these functions as well
    Use hypotheses not for the sake of having hypotheses but use them if appropriate and don’t if not appropriate
  • Developing the Research Framework_eden2005

    1. 1. Developing theDeveloping the Research FrameworkResearch Framework
    2. 2. What is aWhat is a FRAMEWORKFRAMEWORK?? StructureStructure ScaffoldScaffold SkeletonSkeleton SupportSupport ConstructionConstruction Outline AgendaAgenda BasisBasis ContextContext
    3. 3. What isWhat is RESEARCHRESEARCH?? InvestigationInvestigation InquiryInquiry ExaminationExamination StudyStudy ExplorationExploration
    4. 4.  Review/Definition of TermsReview/Definition of Terms  Theoretical and ConceptualTheoretical and Conceptual FrameworkFramework  Review of ResearchesReview of Researches  Some IssuesSome Issues  Experiences in Thesis WritingExperiences in Thesis Writing
    5. 5. TheoryTheory  ““a set of inter-related constructs (variables),a set of inter-related constructs (variables), definitions, and propositions that presents adefinitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifyingsystematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose ofrelations among variables, with the purpose of explaining natural phenomena” (Kerlinger,explaining natural phenomena” (Kerlinger, 1979,p.64)1979,p.64)
    6. 6. TheoryTheory Develops when researchers test a prediction manyDevelops when researchers test a prediction many timestimes  combining independent, mediating and dependentcombining independent, mediating and dependent variables based on different forms of measures intovariables based on different forms of measures into hypotheses of research questionshypotheses of research questions  hypotheses or questions provide information abouthypotheses or questions provide information about the type of relationship (positive, negative orthe type of relationship (positive, negative or unknown) and its magnitude (e.g., high or low)unknown) and its magnitude (e.g., high or low)  Example: hypothesis- The greater the centralizationExample: hypothesis- The greater the centralization of power in leaders, the greater theof power in leaders, the greater the disenfranchisement of the followersdisenfranchisement of the followers
    7. 7. TheoryTheory Vary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,Vary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman, 2000):2000):  Micro-levelMicro-level – explanations limited to small– explanations limited to small slices of time, space or numbers of peopleslices of time, space or numbers of people (e.g., Goffman’s theory of “face work”)(e.g., Goffman’s theory of “face work”)  Meso-levelMeso-level – link micro and macro levels;– link micro and macro levels; theories of organizations, social movement, ortheories of organizations, social movement, or communities (e.g., Collins’ theory of control incommunities (e.g., Collins’ theory of control in organizations)organizations)  Macro-levelMacro-level – explain larger aggregates,– explain larger aggregates, such as social institutions, cultural systems,such as social institutions, cultural systems, and whole societies (e.g. Lenski’s macro-leveland whole societies (e.g. Lenski’s macro-level theory of social stratification)theory of social stratification)
    8. 8. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories  as inter-connected hypothesesas inter-connected hypotheses  as statements that explains why oneas statements that explains why one would expect the independent variable towould expect the independent variable to influence or cause the dependentinfluence or cause the dependent variablesvariables  as a visual model that translates variablesas a visual model that translates variables into a visual pictureinto a visual picture
    9. 9. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories as inter-connectedas inter-connected hypotheseshypotheses Example:Example: Hopkins (1964) theoryHopkins (1964) theory of influenceof influence processesprocesses  The higher her rank, the greater herThe higher her rank, the greater her centrality.centrality.  The greater his centrality, theThe greater his centrality, the greater his observability.greater his observability.  The higher her rank, the greater herThe higher her rank, the greater her observability.observability.  The greater his centrality, theThe greater his centrality, the greater his conformity.greater his conformity.  The higher her rank, the greater herThe higher her rank, the greater her conformity.conformity.  The greater his observability, theThe greater his observability, the greater his conformity.greater his conformity.  The greater her conformity, theThe greater her conformity, the greater her observabiity.greater her observabiity.
    10. 10. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories as explanatoryas explanatory statementsstatements Example:Example: Homans (1950) theoryHomans (1950) theory of interactionof interaction If the frequency of interaction betweenIf the frequency of interaction between two or more persons increases, thetwo or more persons increases, the degree of their liking for onedegree of their liking for one another will increase, and viceanother will increase, and vice versa… persons who feelversa… persons who feel sentiments of liking for oncesentiments of liking for once another will express theseanother will express these sentiments in activities over andsentiments in activities over and above the activities of the externalabove the activities of the external system, and these activities maysystem, and these activities may further strengthen the sentiments offurther strengthen the sentiments of liking. The more frequently personsliking. The more frequently persons interact with one another, the moreinteract with one another, the more alike in some respects both theiralike in some respects both their activities and their sentiments tendactivities and their sentiments tend to become (pp.112,118,120)to become (pp.112,118,120)
    11. 11. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories as a visual modelas a visual model -- so that the reader can visualize the interconnections of variablesso that the reader can visualize the interconnections of variables X1 X2 X3 + + + + + - Y1 Y2 Z Independent Variables Intervening Variables Dependent Variables X1 Xa Xb + Y1Experimental Group (+) Control Group (-) X2
    12. 12. Visual ModelsVisual Models Example: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposalExample: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposal about research productivity among faculty inabout research productivity among faculty in pharmacy schoolspharmacy schools 1.1. Asked what factors influence a member’s scholarly researchAsked what factors influence a member’s scholarly research proposalproposal 2.2. Identified these factors in the literatureIdentified these factors in the literature 3.3. Adapted a theoretical framework found in nursing researchAdapted a theoretical framework found in nursing research 4.4. Developed a visual model portraying the relationship amongDeveloped a visual model portraying the relationship among these factors; + and – valences to indicate the hypothesizedthese factors; + and – valences to indicate the hypothesized directiondirection
    13. 13. Visual Model of Faculty Scholarly PerformanceVisual Model of Faculty Scholarly Performance (Jungnickel, 1990)(Jungnickel, 1990) Institutional Tenure Standards Tenure-Track Appointment College in Health Sciences Center Self-Perception as Researcher Prior Research Training Demographic Variables Type of Appointment (Chair vs. Faculty) Workload (non- research) Pressure to conduct research Collaboration Resources Support from Colleagues Support from Dept. Chair Exogenous Endogenous Independent Dependent Scholarly Performance •Presentations (non- research) •Presentations (research) •Journal articles (non- referred) •Referred articles (research) •Referred articles (non- research) •Book chapters •Books •Federal grants (approved) •Federal grants (funded) •Non-federal grants •Contacts + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + - - -
    14. 14. Deductive Approach TypicallyDeductive Approach Typically Used in Quantitative ResearchUsed in Quantitative Research Researcher tests or verifies a theory Researcher tests hypotheses or research questions from the theory Researcher defines and operationalizes variables derived from the theory Researcher measures or observes variables using an instrument to obtain scores
    15. 15. Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study PlacementPlacement AdvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesDisadvantages In theIn the introductionintroduction An approach oftenAn approach often found in journal articles,found in journal articles, it will be familiar toit will be familiar to readersreaders It conveys a deductiveIt conveys a deductive approachapproach It is difficult for aIt is difficult for a reader to isolatereader to isolate and separate theoryand separate theory base from otherbase from other components of thecomponents of the research processresearch process In the literatureIn the literature reviewreview Theories are found inTheories are found in the literature, and theirthe literature, and their inclusion in a literatureinclusion in a literature review is a logicalreview is a logical extension or part of theextension or part of the literatureliterature It is difficult for aIt is difficult for a reader to see thereader to see the theory in isolationtheory in isolation from the scholarlyfrom the scholarly review of thereview of the literatureliterature
    16. 16. Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study PlacementPlacement AdvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesDisadvantages After hypothesesAfter hypotheses or researchor research questionsquestions The theory discussion is aThe theory discussion is a logical extension oflogical extension of hypotheses or researchhypotheses or research questions because itquestions because it explains how and whyexplains how and why variables are relatedvariables are related A writer may include aA writer may include a theoretical rationaletheoretical rationale after hypotheses andafter hypotheses and question, and leave outquestion, and leave out an extended discussionan extended discussion about the origin andabout the origin and use of the theoryuse of the theory In a separateIn a separate sectionsection This approach clearlyThis approach clearly separates the theory fromseparates the theory from other components of theother components of the research process, and itresearch process, and it enables a reader to betterenables a reader to better identify and to understandidentify and to understand the theory base for thethe theory base for the studystudy The theory discussionThe theory discussion stands in isolation fromstands in isolation from other components ofother components of the research processthe research process and, as such, a readerand, as such, a reader may not easily connectmay not easily connect it with otherit with other components of thecomponents of the research processresearch process
    17. 17. A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section (An Example)(An Example) Crutchfield (1986) in a doctoral dissertationCrutchfield (1986) in a doctoral dissertation titled Locus of Control, Interpersonaltitled Locus of Control, Interpersonal Trust, and Scholarly ProductivityTrust, and Scholarly Productivity  survey of nursing educatorssurvey of nursing educators  to determine if locus of control andto determine if locus of control and interpersonal trust affected the levels ofinterpersonal trust affected the levels of publications of the facultypublications of the faculty
    18. 18. A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section (An Example)(An Example)  theory placed in a separate section in thetheory placed in a separate section in the introductory chapter titledintroductory chapter titled “Theoretical“Theoretical Perspective”Perspective”  Included the following points:Included the following points: 1.1. the theory she planned to usethe theory she planned to use 2.2. the central hypotheses of the theorythe central hypotheses of the theory 3.3. information about who has used the theoryinformation about who has used the theory and its applicabilityand its applicability 4.4. an adaptation of the theory to variables in heran adaptation of the theory to variables in her study using the “if…then” logicstudy using the “if…then” logic
    19. 19. Theory Use inTheory Use in Qualitative ResearchesQualitative Researches  As a broad explanationAs a broad explanation (like in quantitative research)(like in quantitative research) aa theoretical lenstheoretical lens oror perspectiveperspective (opening passages of the(opening passages of the study)study)  As theAs the end pointend point for a studyfor a study naturalistic generalizationsnaturalistic generalizations grounded theorygrounded theory pattern theoriespattern theories  SomeSome do not employ any explicit theorydo not employ any explicit theory e.g., phenomenologye.g., phenomenology
    20. 20. Inductive Logic of ResearchInductive Logic of Research in a Qualitative Studyin a Qualitative Study Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records field notes Researcher gathers information (e.g., interviews, observations) Generalizations or theories to past experiences and literature
    21. 21. TheThe TheoreticalTheoretical FrameworkFramework and theand the ConceptualConceptual FrameworkFramework
    22. 22. Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework  presents the theory from which thepresents the theory from which the research problem was derived (in the caseresearch problem was derived (in the case of some experimental studies), or to whichof some experimental studies), or to which it is linked (in the case of some surveyit is linked (in the case of some survey studies)studies)  A discussion of the theory which serves asA discussion of the theory which serves as the basis for the studythe basis for the study
    23. 23. Conceptual FrameworkConceptual Framework  presents the relationship between thepresents the relationship between the specific concepts that may be studiedspecific concepts that may be studied  The concepts used at this level should beThe concepts used at this level should be derived from the concepts used in thederived from the concepts used in the theoretical framework.theoretical framework.  should be more concreteshould be more concrete
    24. 24. Theory and ConceptualTheory and Conceptual FrameworkFramework ““Theory building relies on a few general constructs that subsumeTheory building relies on a few general constructs that subsume a mountain of particulars. Terms such as ‘stress’ or ‘rolea mountain of particulars. Terms such as ‘stress’ or ‘role conflict’ are typically labels we put on our bins containing a lotconflict’ are typically labels we put on our bins containing a lot of discrete events and behaviors. When we assign a label to aof discrete events and behaviors. When we assign a label to a bin, we may or may not know how all the contents of the bin fitbin, we may or may not know how all the contents of the bin fit together, or how this bin relates to another. But any researcher,together, or how this bin relates to another. But any researcher, no matter how inductive in approach, knows which bin to startno matter how inductive in approach, knows which bin to start with and what their general contents are likely to be.with and what their general contents are likely to be. BinsBins come from theory and experience and (often) fromcome from theory and experience and (often) from the general objectives of the study envisioned.the general objectives of the study envisioned. Laying out those bins, giving each a descriptive orLaying out those bins, giving each a descriptive or inferential name, and getting some clarity aboutinferential name, and getting some clarity about their interrelationships is what a conceptualtheir interrelationships is what a conceptual framework is all about.”framework is all about.” (Miles and Huberman 1994:18)(Miles and Huberman 1994:18)
    25. 25. Theoretical/ConceptualTheoretical/Conceptual FrameworkFramework LevelLevel IndependentIndependent VariableVariable InterveningIntervening VariableVariable DependentDependent VariableVariable TheoreticalTheoretical StimulusStimulus ResponseResponse ConceptualConceptual 16mm film16mm film Knowledge GainKnowledge Gain Mental set:Mental set: MotivationMotivation
    26. 26. Review ofReview of ResearchesResearches
    27. 27. Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self- Concept. (College of Education, PhD)Concept. (College of Education, PhD)  Qualitative research; inductive approachQualitative research; inductive approach  Research framework was subsumed inResearch framework was subsumed in the review of literature (development ofthe review of literature (development of theories on self-concept, dimensions oftheories on self-concept, dimensions of self-concept)self-concept)
    28. 28. AbstractAbstract  Importance of self-concept, recognized the need forImportance of self-concept, recognized the need for further theoretical studies regarding Filipino self-conceptfurther theoretical studies regarding Filipino self-concept  Selected participants: purposive sampling of 72 FilipinoSelected participants: purposive sampling of 72 Filipino young adult from 20-30 yrs old (understanding of self-young adult from 20-30 yrs old (understanding of self- concept, local term, other dimensions) from 5 places- 3concept, local term, other dimensions) from 5 places- 3 Luzon, 1 Visayas and 1 MindanaoLuzon, 1 Visayas and 1 Mindanao  Individual interviews for each pax, 1 FGD for all usingIndividual interviews for each pax, 1 FGD for all using Filipino language (with interpreter when needed)Filipino language (with interpreter when needed)  Nakisalamuha, nakipag-ugnayan, at nakipagtalastasanNakisalamuha, nakipag-ugnayan, at nakipagtalastasan sa kalahoksa kalahok  Findings: Self-concept is important; major influence ofFindings: Self-concept is important; major influence of mother and religion; positive self-concept; highmother and religion; positive self-concept; high importance given to kindness and maturity; each withimportance given to kindness and maturity; each with own local terminologiesown local terminologies  Defined dimensions of self-conceptDefined dimensions of self-concept
    29. 29. Theoretical PerspectiveTheoretical Perspective Cited theories on the following:Cited theories on the following:  Effects of age in self-conceptEffects of age in self-concept  Models of self-concept constructModels of self-concept construct  Universal terminology for self-conceptUniversal terminology for self-concept (communication/language)(communication/language)  Personality theory of Rogers about the selfPersonality theory of Rogers about the self  Sources of learning about the self by Taylor et alSources of learning about the self by Taylor et al (sosyalisasyon, nasisinag na taya o reflected(sosyalisasyon, nasisinag na taya o reflected appraisal, sariling pandama, namumukod-appraisal, sariling pandama, namumukod- tanging pagkakakilanlan, and kasarilinangtanging pagkakakilanlan, and kasarilinang sosyal)sosyal)
    30. 30. Research ParadigmResearch Paradigm  What are the subjects’ definition of their self-concept and itsWhat are the subjects’ definition of their self-concept and its formationformation  Where located: thoughts, feelings, observation of others, asWhere located: thoughts, feelings, observation of others, as verbalized by others, or combination of theseverbalized by others, or combination of these  Who influenced them, what experiences made them learn their self-Who influenced them, what experiences made them learn their self- concept (why, how, and when these happened)concept (why, how, and when these happened)  Do they have decisions/wishes to change/alter their self-concept,Do they have decisions/wishes to change/alter their self-concept, why so-why so- test of contentmenttest of contentment  How has their self-concept influenced their everyday lifeHow has their self-concept influenced their everyday life  What are subjects’ opinions about what is self-construct; seeWhat are subjects’ opinions about what is self-construct; see relations of all constructs, connections of conceptsrelations of all constructs, connections of concepts recognizing thatrecognizing that the Philippines consists of different culturesthe Philippines consists of different cultures  Identification of local terminologies for better communicationIdentification of local terminologies for better communication between researcher and subjects; use of interpreter when neededbetween researcher and subjects; use of interpreter when needed  Test of positivity of their self-concept, and whyTest of positivity of their self-concept, and why
    31. 31. Mga dimensions ng self- concept ng Filipino young adult Konstrak ng self- concept ng Filipino young adult Pagkaka- unawa ng Filipino sa self- concept Katutubong katawagan ng Filipino para sa salitang self- concept Research Paradigm
    32. 32. MethodMethod  Secondary data gathering, one-on-oneSecondary data gathering, one-on-one interview, FGDinterview, FGD  Purposive samplingPurposive sampling  Use of Sikolohiyang PilipinoUse of Sikolohiyang Pilipino methodologiesmethodologies
    33. 33. Results/DiscussionResults/Discussion  Demographics; including practices (e.g. disco,Demographics; including practices (e.g. disco, beerhouse)beerhouse)  Used quotes based on interviewsUsed quotes based on interviews  Discussion of self-concept of subjects per areaDiscussion of self-concept of subjects per area  Analysis of language/word usage per areaAnalysis of language/word usage per area  Consolidation by the researcherConsolidation by the researcher -Taylor et al mentioned 6 ways of understanding the self-Taylor et al mentioned 6 ways of understanding the self while the subjects referred to only 1while the subjects referred to only 1 - James’ definition of the spiritual self compared with the- James’ definition of the spiritual self compared with the Filipino religious contextFilipino religious context - Lukpetch on adults giving premium to their external- Lukpetch on adults giving premium to their external appearance vs. research findings (based on contentappearance vs. research findings (based on content analysis of interviews and FGDs)analysis of interviews and FGDs)
    34. 34. Pagkaka- unawa ng Filipino sa self- concept Katutubong katawagan ng Filipino para sa salitang self- concept Dayagram ng Konstrak ng FilipinoDayagram ng Konstrak ng Filipino Self-ConceptSelf-Concept Mga dimensions ng self-concept ng Filipino young adult Konstrak ng self-concept ng Filipino young adult
    35. 35. Domingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model ofDomingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model of Organizational Commitment: A Study of RetainedOrganizational Commitment: A Study of Retained Employees in the Context of Retrenchment. (CSSP, MAEmployees in the Context of Retrenchment. (CSSP, MA Psychology)Psychology)  Quantitative research; deductive approachQuantitative research; deductive approach  Research Framework subsumed in theResearch Framework subsumed in the Review of Literature; ConceptualReview of Literature; Conceptual Framework, then Theoretical FrameworkFramework, then Theoretical Framework
    36. 36. AbstractAbstract  3 component model of organizational3 component model of organizational commitment (affective, continuance andcommitment (affective, continuance and normative) applied to retained employeesnormative) applied to retained employees after the event of retrenchmentafter the event of retrenchment  used JP Meyer and NJ Allen measure ofused JP Meyer and NJ Allen measure of organizational commitmentorganizational commitment  employees perception of managementemployees perception of management factors and employees attitude towardsfactors and employees attitude towards work related variables measureswork related variables measures  64 retained technical rank and file64 retained technical rank and file employees within a single organizationemployees within a single organization
    37. 37. AbstractAbstract  correlation of the 3 component model withcorrelation of the 3 component model with employees’ personal and demographicemployees’ personal and demographic perceptions of management factors andperceptions of management factors and employeesemployees  identified which among variables contribute toidentified which among variables contribute to retained employees’ commitmentretained employees’ commitment  implications of the prevailing commitment ofimplications of the prevailing commitment of retrenched employees to the organization asretrenched employees to the organization as well as suggested ways to rebuild thewell as suggested ways to rebuild the organization’s cohesiveness and employeesorganization’s cohesiveness and employees commitment during time of crisis discussedcommitment during time of crisis discussed
    38. 38. Review of LiteratureReview of Literature  commitmentcommitment  organizational commitmentorganizational commitment  three components of organizationalthree components of organizational commitmentcommitment  antecedent and consequent variablesantecedent and consequent variables  employees perception of managementemployees perception of management factorsfactors  retrenchmentretrenchment
    39. 39. ConceptualConceptual FrameworkFramework Personal and demographic characteristics: Tenure, current salary rate, no. of children, highest educational attainment, age, type of school of children and amount of children’s tuition fee Employees’ perception of management factors: Respect and consideration, quality and customer service, job responsibility, stimulating job, quality of information and administrative effectiveness Attitude towards work- related variables after retrenchment: Relationship with co-workers, relationship with supervisor, job security, job clarity, job satisfaction, management’s decision-making, advancement in the company, rewards Organizational commitment: • affective commitment • continuance commitment • normative commitment
    40. 40. Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework Definitions of commitment citedDefinitions of commitment cited  Affective commitment- attachment to theAffective commitment- attachment to the organization,… enjoying membership…organization,… enjoying membership…  Continuance commitment- tendency toContinuance commitment- tendency to engage in consistent lines of activityengage in consistent lines of activity (Becker’s Side-Bet Theory of(Becker’s Side-Bet Theory of Commitment)Commitment)  Normative commitment- commitmentNormative commitment- commitment based on moral belief or obligationbased on moral belief or obligation
    41. 41. HypothesesHypotheses  personal and demographic perception ofpersonal and demographic perception of management factors will be positively related tomanagement factors will be positively related to organizational commitmentorganizational commitment  employees’ perception of management factorsemployees’ perception of management factors will be positively related to organizationalwill be positively related to organizational commitmentcommitment  employees’ attitude towards work relatedemployees’ attitude towards work related variable measures will be positively related tovariable measures will be positively related to organizational commitmentorganizational commitment  personal demographics perception ofpersonal demographics perception of management factors will be positively related tomanagement factors will be positively related to continuance commitmentcontinuance commitment
    42. 42. MethodMethod  Development of instruments; use ofDevelopment of instruments; use of existing ones; explanationexisting ones; explanation  Pre-testing; 3 variables taken out duePre-testing; 3 variables taken out due to very low coefficient alphato very low coefficient alpha  Questionnaires administered toQuestionnaires administered to subjects which were selected by thesubjects which were selected by the HRHR
    43. 43. MethodMethod  After data gathering, found that the 3After data gathering, found that the 3 deleted variables could be considereddeleted variables could be considered as a single-item measureas a single-item measure  Questionnaires administered to singleQuestionnaires administered to single personnel, no data regarding numberpersonnel, no data regarding number of children, type of school andof children, type of school and amount of tuition fee of childrenamount of tuition fee of children
    44. 44. Results and DiscussionResults and Discussion  Discussion of statisticalDiscussion of statistical findings/interpretationfindings/interpretation  Integration of findings with previousIntegration of findings with previous literature (e.g. assessment of Meyer’s tri-literature (e.g. assessment of Meyer’s tri- component model, looking into thecomponent model, looking into the model’s utility on Filipino operatorsmodel’s utility on Filipino operators working in a Japanese company)working in a Japanese company)
    45. 45. ConclusionsConclusions  DiagramsDiagrams  Agreement with theories; mentioned howAgreement with theories; mentioned how the study made additional impact to otherthe study made additional impact to other studiesstudies
    46. 46. SomeSome IssuesIssues inin DevelopingDeveloping thethe ResearchResearch FrameworkFramework
    47. 47. Some Issues (Punch, 2000)Some Issues (Punch, 2000)  The perspective behind the researchThe perspective behind the research  The role of theoryThe role of theory  Pre-structured vs. UnfoldingPre-structured vs. Unfolding  The relevant literatureThe relevant literature  Quantitative, qualitative or bothQuantitative, qualitative or both
    48. 48. The PerspectiveThe Perspective Behind the ResearchBehind the Research  Issue: whether there is a particularIssue: whether there is a particular perspectiveperspective, or philosophical position, or, or philosophical position, or paradigm or metatheory, which lies behindparadigm or metatheory, which lies behind and informs the researchand informs the research  Making certain assumptions and adoptingMaking certain assumptions and adopting certain systems of meaning, and rejectingcertain systems of meaning, and rejecting othersothers  The issue applies unevenly acrossThe issue applies unevenly across different social science areas; applieddifferent social science areas; applied differently at different levels of higherdifferently at different levels of higher degree workdegree work
    49. 49. The Role of TheoryThe Role of Theory  ““substantive theory”; sometimes considered moresubstantive theory”; sometimes considered more appropriate at the doctoral level than at the masters levelappropriate at the doctoral level than at the masters level Descriptive – for a totally new research area (e.g., howDescriptive – for a totally new research area (e.g., how teachers use the internet in classrooms); value might beteachers use the internet in classrooms); value might be questioned in some quartersquestioned in some quarters Explanatory – for a well-worked research area (e.g., theExplanatory – for a well-worked research area (e.g., the relationship between social class and scholasticrelationship between social class and scholastic achievement)achievement)  Explanatory knowledge is more powerful than descriptiveExplanatory knowledge is more powerful than descriptive knowledgeknowledge Theory verification – to test propositions (hypotheses)Theory verification – to test propositions (hypotheses) Theory generation – to generate or develop a theory toTheory generation – to generate or develop a theory to explain empirical phenomena or findingsexplain empirical phenomena or findings
    50. 50. Simplified Model of ResearchSimplified Model of Research (with hypotheses)(with hypotheses) Empirical stage What data are required to test hypotheses? Problem Literature Context Research questions Hypotheses Theory Design Data Collection Data analysis Test hypotheses Research area Pre-empirical stage
    51. 51. Pre-specified versus Unfolding:Pre-specified versus Unfolding: The Timing of StructureThe Timing of Structure Qualitative research Quantitative research General open-ended questions Loose design Data not pre-structured Pre-specified research questions Tightly structured design Pre-structured data Has clear and specific research questions, a clear conceptual framework, a pre-planned design and pre-coded data (e.g., quantitative researches)
    52. 52. The Relevant LiteratureThe Relevant Literature Common criticisms:Common criticisms:  Not thematicNot thematic  Not properly integrated with the studyNot properly integrated with the study Can be addressed by:Can be addressed by:  Developing an organizing framework thatDeveloping an organizing framework that will often be developed as the basis for thewill often be developed as the basis for the study’sstudy’s conceptual frameworkconceptual framework
    53. 53. Quantitative, Qualitative or BothQuantitative, Qualitative or Both  Fundamental issue of approach andFundamental issue of approach and methodmethod  Methods should match researchMethods should match research questions, and arguments should bequestions, and arguments should be internally consistentinternally consistent
    54. 54. ExperiencesExperiences inin ThesisThesis WritingWriting
    55. 55. Music as a Metaphor for Thesis WritingMusic as a Metaphor for Thesis Writing by Gertina J van Schalkwykby Gertina J van Schalkwyk AbstractAbstract In the final throws of writing a doctoral thesis the struggle was to find a structure for presenting the vast amounts of literature that had to be integrated and synthesized to form a coherent whole and linking psychology and music, the basis for my thesis. As a systems theorist and adherent to social constructionist views, the metaphor plays an important role in constructing realities, and the framework that came to mind for structuring and presenting my thesis was that of the concerto from the Western classical music genre. In this paper I will explain how this metaphor was used for organizing and structuring my research and presenting a systems paradigm as a coherent whole.
    56. 56. A five part polyrhythmic structure for thesis writing
    57. 57. Phenomenology as Research MethodPhenomenology as Research Method by Beverley Campbellby Beverley Campbell …“I needed a method of data collection and an approach which would allow me to research the question. A re-constructed narrative based on three interviews provided the data for analysis, and at the same time, after reading Giorgi (1989) and van Manen (1984, 1990) I decided to carry out a phenomenological study. My reading of Reasons (1988) Human Inquiry in Action added a further dimension to the framework I was developing; the need for the investigation to be guided by principles of cooperative inquiry and for the study to be mutually benefitting to all participants. The study used a combination of Giorgis interpretation of meaningful transformation units and van Manens immersion in the data. As well I developed an understanding of metaphor ( Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. 1980) and applied it in three ways in the thesis; the first provided a theoretical framework for the literature review which resulted in the identification of seven metaphors predominant in the literature. Other literature in adult literacy studies (Sanguinetti 1994, Lee & Wickert 1994, Luke 1992, Gee 1990) identifies the dominant discourses currently in play which are shaping policy and practice in literacy education; these are analogous to the concept of metaphor. The naming of these seven metaphors in turn provided a lens through which to interpret the frameworks or metaphors for literacy which were predominant in the thinking of Bill, as the student and Nancy, as the tutor. Another way I used metaphor was to frame the whole thesis in terms of the dominant metaphor life as narrative. There is a body of literature which works from and extends this metaphor (Epston & White 1989, Salmon 1985). Finally metaphor was used as an analytical tool in the interpretive process to help identify seven metaphors and several other major themes arising from Bills narrative and the interview texts which were analyzed at length.”
    58. 58. ReferencesReferences Bell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learning from research: Getting MoreBell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learning from research: Getting More from Your Data. Buckingham, Great Britain: Open University Press.from Your Data. Buckingham, Great Britain: Open University Press. Campbell, Beverley. Phenomenology as Research Method. (Campbell, Beverley. Phenomenology as Research Method. ( www.staff.vu.edu.au/syed/alrnnv/papers/bev.htmlwww.staff.vu.edu.au/syed/alrnnv/papers/bev.html)) Cresswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative,Cresswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2and Mixed Methods Approaches (2ndnd ed). London, United Kingdom:ed). London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.Sage Publications. Librero, F. (1996). How to Write a Thesis Proposal: Some PracticalLibrero, F. (1996). How to Write a Thesis Proposal: Some Practical Guidelines (3Guidelines (3rdrd ed). UPLB: College of Agriculture Publicationsed). UPLB: College of Agriculture Publications Program.Program. Punch, K.F. (2000). Developing Effective Research Proposals. London,Punch, K.F. (2000). Developing Effective Research Proposals. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.United Kingdom: Sage Publications. Van Schalkwyk, Gertina J. (2002). Music as a Metaphor for ThesisVan Schalkwyk, Gertina J. (2002). Music as a Metaphor for Thesis Writing. The Qualitative Report, Volume 7, Number 2 June 2002. (Writing. The Qualitative Report, Volume 7, Number 2 June 2002. ( http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR7-2/schalkwyk.htmlhttp://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR7-2/schalkwyk.html))
    59. 59. -- end of slidesend of slides --
    60. 60. IssuesIssues  Choosing the paradigm/perspectiveChoosing the paradigm/perspective  Finding a structure for presenting the vastFinding a structure for presenting the vast amounts of literature in a coherent manneramounts of literature in a coherent manner – e.g. sequence, location in the thesis– e.g. sequence, location in the thesis
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