Developing theDeveloping theResearch FrameworkResearch FrameworkA Report for Psy 220 byA Report for Psy 220 byEden T. Gall...
What is aWhat is a FRAMEWORKFRAMEWORK??StructureStructureScaffoldScaffoldSkeletonSkeletonSupportSupportConstructionCo...
What isWhat is RESEARCHRESEARCH??InvestigationInvestigationInquiryInquiryExaminationExaminationStudyStudyExplorationE...
 Review/Definition of TermsReview/Definition of Terms Theoretical and ConceptualTheoretical and ConceptualFrameworkFrame...
TheoryTheory ““a set of inter-related constructs (variables),a set of inter-related constructs (variables),definitions, a...
TheoryTheoryDevelops when researchers test a prediction manyDevelops when researchers test a prediction manytimestimes co...
TheoryTheoryVary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,Vary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,2000):2000): Micro-le...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories as inter-connected hypothesesas inter-connected hypotheses as statements that explain...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theoriesas inter-connectedas inter-connectedhypotheseshypothesesExample:Example:Hopkins (1964) t...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theoriesas explanatoryas explanatorystatementsstatementsExample:Example:Homans (1950) theoryHoma...
Forms of TheoriesForms of Theoriesas a visual modelas a visual model-- so that the reader can visualize the interconnectio...
Visual ModelsVisual ModelsExample: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposalExample: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposal...
Visual Model of Faculty Scholarly PerformanceVisual Model of Faculty Scholarly Performance(Jungnickel, 1990)(Jungnickel, 1...
Deductive Approach TypicallyDeductive Approach TypicallyUsed in Quantitative ResearchUsed in Quantitative ResearchResearch...
Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyPlacementPlacement Adv...
Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyPlacementPlacement Adv...
A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section(An Example)(An Example)Crutchfield (1986) in a doctoral dissert...
A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section(An Example)(An Example) theory placed in a separate section in...
Theory Use inTheory Use inQualitative ResearchesQualitative Researches As a broad explanationAs a broad explanation(like ...
Inductive Logic of ResearchInductive Logic of Researchin a Qualitative Studyin a Qualitative StudyResearcher analyzes data...
TheTheTheoreticalTheoreticalFrameworkFrameworkand theand theConceptualConceptualFrameworkFramework
Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework presents the theory from which thepresents the theory from which theresearch p...
Conceptual FrameworkConceptual Framework presents the relationship between thepresents the relationship between thespecif...
Theory and ConceptualTheory and ConceptualFrameworkFramework““Theory building relies on a few general constructs that subs...
Theoretical/ConceptualTheoretical/ConceptualFrameworkFrameworkLevelLevel IndependentIndependentVariableVariableIntervening...
Review ofReview ofResearchesResearches
Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-Concept. (College of Education, PhD)Co...
AbstractAbstract Importance of self-concept, recognized the need forImportance of self-concept, recognized the need forfu...
Theoretical PerspectiveTheoretical PerspectiveCited theories on the following:Cited theories on the following: Effects of...
Research ParadigmResearch Paradigm What are the subjects’ definition of their self-concept and itsWhat are the subjects’ ...
Mgadimensionsng self-concept ngFilipinoyoung adultKonstrakng self-concept ngFilipinoyoung adultPagkaka-unawa ngFilipino sa...
MethodMethod Secondary data gathering, one-on-oneSecondary data gathering, one-on-oneinterview, FGDinterview, FGD Purpos...
Results/DiscussionResults/Discussion Demographics; including practices (e.g. disco,Demographics; including practices (e.g...
Pagkaka-unawa ngFilipino sa self-conceptKatutubongkatawagan ngFilipino para sasalitang self-conceptDayagram ng Konstrak ng...
Domingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model ofDomingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model ofOrganizational Commitment:...
AbstractAbstract 3 component model of organizational3 component model of organizationalcommitment (affective, continuance...
AbstractAbstract correlation of the 3 component model withcorrelation of the 3 component model withemployees’ personal an...
Review of LiteratureReview of Literature commitmentcommitment organizational commitmentorganizational commitment three ...
ConceptualConceptualFrameworkFrameworkPersonal and demographiccharacteristics: Tenure,current salary rate, no. of children...
Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical FrameworkDefinitions of commitment citedDefinitions of commitment cited Affective commit...
HypothesesHypotheses personal and demographic perception ofpersonal and demographic perception ofmanagement factors will ...
MethodMethod Development of instruments; use ofDevelopment of instruments; use ofexisting ones; explanationexisting ones;...
MethodMethod After data gathering, found that the 3After data gathering, found that the 3deleted variables could be consi...
Results and DiscussionResults and Discussion Discussion of statisticalDiscussion of statisticalfindings/interpretationfin...
ConclusionsConclusions DiagramsDiagrams Agreement with theories; mentioned howAgreement with theories; mentioned howthe ...
SomeSomeIssuesIssuesininDevelopingDevelopingthetheResearchResearchFrameworkFramework
Some Issues (Punch, 2000)Some Issues (Punch, 2000) The perspective behind the researchThe perspective behind the research...
The PerspectiveThe PerspectiveBehind the ResearchBehind the Research Issue: whether there is a particularIssue: whether t...
The Role of TheoryThe Role of Theory ““substantive theory”; sometimes considered moresubstantive theory”; sometimes consi...
Simplified Model of ResearchSimplified Model of Research(with hypotheses)(with hypotheses)EmpiricalstageWhat data are requ...
Pre-specified versus Unfolding:Pre-specified versus Unfolding:The Timing of StructureThe Timing of StructureQualitativeres...
The Relevant LiteratureThe Relevant LiteratureCommon criticisms:Common criticisms: Not thematicNot thematic Not properly...
Quantitative, Qualitative or BothQuantitative, Qualitative or Both Fundamental issue of approach andFundamental issue of ...
ExperiencesExperiencesininThesisThesisWritingWriting
Music as a Metaphor for Thesis WritingMusic as a Metaphor for Thesis Writingby Gertina J van Schalkwykby Gertina J van Sch...
A five part polyrhythmic structurefor thesis writing
Phenomenology as Research MethodPhenomenology as Research Methodby Beverley Campbellby Beverley Campbell…“I needed a metho...
ReferencesReferencesBell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learning from research: Getting More fromBell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). L...
-- end of slidesend of slides --
IssuesIssues Choosing the paradigm/perspectiveChoosing the paradigm/perspective Finding a structure for presenting the v...
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  • Face work – explains how people engage in rituals during face-to-face interactions Theory of stratification – explains how the amount of surplus a society produces increases with the development of the society
  • Figure 1- 3 independent variables influencing a single dependent variable mediated by 2 intervening variables Figure 2- 2 groups given different treatments on X1 are compared in terms of Y1 controlling for X2
  • Placed towards the beginning of the plan for a study Objective is to test a theory rather than develop it The theory becomes the framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypothesis and for the data collection procedure On step 2:the hypotheses or questions contain variables (or constructs) that the researcher needs to define. Alternatively, an acceptable definition might be found in the literature. From here, the investigator locates an instrument to use in measuring or observing attitudes or behaviors of participants in a study Then the investigator collects the scores on these instruments to confirm or disconfirm the theory.
  • Librero – in review of related literature Creswell – preference for separate section; for clear identification from other components of the research process; provides complete explication of the theory section, its use and how it relates to the study being proposed
  • Librero – in review of related literature Creswell – preference for separate section; for clear identification from other components of the research process; provides complete explication of the theory section, its use and how it relates to the study being proposed
  • See page 128, Creswell
  • See page 128, Creswell
  • As a broad explanation (like in quantitative research); provides an explanation for behavior and attitudes; may be complete with variables , constructs, and hypotheses Use of a theoretical lens or perspective – to guide researchers as to what issues are important to examine and the people that need to be studied; also indicate how the researcher positions himself or herself in the qualitative study and how the final written accounts should be written As the end point for a study – it is an inductive process from the data to broad themes to a generalized model or theory assertion as a propositional generalization – the researcher’s summary of interpretations and claims to which is added the researcher’s own personal experiences, called “naturalistic generalizations” grounded theory – inquirers hope to discover a theory that is grounded in information from participants pattern theories – an explanation that develops during naturalistic or qualitative research These pattern theories or generalizations represent interconnected thoughts or parts linked to a whole PATTERN THEORY – does not emphasize logical deductive reasoning; like causal theory, contains an interconnected set of concepts and relationships but does not require causal statements; uses metaphor or analogies so that relationship “makes sense”; system of ideas that inform; concepts and relationships within them form a mutually reinforcing, closed system; specify a sequence of phases or link parts to a whole Some do not employ any explicit theory – no qualitative study begins from pure observation and that prior conceptual structure composed of theory and method provides the starting point for all observations Phenomenology – inquirers attempt to build the essence of experience from participants; the inquirer constructs a rich, detailed description of a central phenomenon
  • The perspective behind the research - concerns the overall direction and orientation of the research The role of theory - concerns the overall direction and orientation of the research Pre-structured vs. Unfolding - mostly concerns design and methods The relevant literature - concerned with the context of the research and with the way its research questions and strategy are developed Quantitative, qualitative or both - mostly concerns design and methods
  • Paradigm – a way of looking at the world; a view of how science should be done; e.g., positivism, post-positivism, critical theory and constructivism Metatheory - ideas about conceptions of science; thoughts about what is scientifically possible and what is not; e.g., logical empiricism, critical rationalism, phenomenology, etc. Perspectives – broader, more general (and less formidable) term to describe the idea that there might be a particular paradigm or metatheory or philosophical position behind the research; e.g., feminism, post-modernism, symbolic interactionism, discourse analysis The issue applies unevenly across different social science areas, its role and importance may be interpreted differently in different areas; applied differently at different levels of higher degree work; some areas are more subject to paradigm disputes and debates than others
  • Explanatory knowledge is more powerful than descriptive knowledge – when we know why (or how) something happens, we know more than just what happens, and we can use the explanation for prediction Some areas of research, such as ethnography and anthropology (and in some applied social research areas) full ethnographic description may be the goal of the research
  • Hypotheses can give structure to the design, data collection and data analysis aspects of the study, and can expose other concepts in the researcher’s thinking Useful; but remember that research questions can do these functions as well Use hypotheses not for the sake of having hypotheses but use them if appropriate and don’t if not appropriate
  • Developing the Research Framework_etg2005

    1. 1. Developing theDeveloping theResearch FrameworkResearch FrameworkA Report for Psy 220 byA Report for Psy 220 byEden T. GallardoEden T. Gallardo
    2. 2. What is aWhat is a FRAMEWORKFRAMEWORK??StructureStructureScaffoldScaffoldSkeletonSkeletonSupportSupportConstructionConstructionOutlineAgendaAgendaBasisBasisContextContext
    3. 3. What isWhat is RESEARCHRESEARCH??InvestigationInvestigationInquiryInquiryExaminationExaminationStudyStudyExplorationExploration
    4. 4.  Review/Definition of TermsReview/Definition of Terms Theoretical and ConceptualTheoretical and ConceptualFrameworkFramework Review of ResearchesReview of Researches Some IssuesSome Issues Experiences in Thesis WritingExperiences in Thesis Writing
    5. 5. TheoryTheory ““a set of inter-related constructs (variables),a set of inter-related constructs (variables),definitions, and propositions that presents adefinitions, and propositions that presents asystematic view of phenomena by specifyingsystematic view of phenomena by specifyingrelations among variables, with the purpose ofrelations among variables, with the purpose ofexplaining natural phenomena” (Kerlinger,explaining natural phenomena” (Kerlinger,1979,p.64)1979,p.64)
    6. 6. TheoryTheoryDevelops when researchers test a prediction manyDevelops when researchers test a prediction manytimestimes combining independent, mediating and dependentcombining independent, mediating and dependentvariables based on different forms of measures intovariables based on different forms of measures intohypotheses of research questionshypotheses of research questions hypotheses or questions provide information abouthypotheses or questions provide information aboutthe type of relationship (positive, negative orthe type of relationship (positive, negative orunknown) and its magnitude (e.g., high or low)unknown) and its magnitude (e.g., high or low) Example: hypothesis- The greater the centralizationExample: hypothesis- The greater the centralizationof power in leaders, the greater theof power in leaders, the greater thedisenfranchisement of the followersdisenfranchisement of the followers
    7. 7. TheoryTheoryVary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,Vary in their breadth; three levels (Neuman,2000):2000): Micro-levelMicro-level – explanations limited to small– explanations limited to smallslices of time, space or numbers of peopleslices of time, space or numbers of people(e.g., Goffman’s theory of “face work”)(e.g., Goffman’s theory of “face work”) Meso-levelMeso-level – link micro and macro levels;– link micro and macro levels;theories of organizations, social movement, ortheories of organizations, social movement, orcommunities (e.g., Collins’ theory of control incommunities (e.g., Collins’ theory of control inorganizations)organizations) Macro-levelMacro-level – explain larger aggregates,– explain larger aggregates,such as social institutions, cultural systems,such as social institutions, cultural systems,and whole societies (e.g. Lenski’s macro-leveland whole societies (e.g. Lenski’s macro-leveltheory of social stratification)theory of social stratification)
    8. 8. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theories as inter-connected hypothesesas inter-connected hypotheses as statements that explains why oneas statements that explains why onewould expect the independent variable towould expect the independent variable toinfluence or cause the dependentinfluence or cause the dependentvariablesvariables as a visual model that translates variablesas a visual model that translates variablesinto a visual pictureinto a visual picture
    9. 9. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theoriesas inter-connectedas inter-connectedhypotheseshypothesesExample:Example:Hopkins (1964) theoryHopkins (1964) theoryof influenceof influenceprocessesprocesses The higher her rank, the greater herThe higher her rank, the greater hercentrality.centrality. The greater his centrality, theThe greater his centrality, thegreater his observability.greater his observability. The higher her rank, the greater herThe higher her rank, the greater herobservability.observability. The greater his centrality, theThe greater his centrality, thegreater his conformity.greater his conformity. The higher her rank, the greater herThe higher her rank, the greater herconformity.conformity. The greater his observability, theThe greater his observability, thegreater his conformity.greater his conformity. The greater her conformity, theThe greater her conformity, thegreater her observabiity.greater her observabiity.
    10. 10. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theoriesas explanatoryas explanatorystatementsstatementsExample:Example:Homans (1950) theoryHomans (1950) theoryof interactionof interactionIf the frequency of interaction betweenIf the frequency of interaction betweentwo or more persons increases, thetwo or more persons increases, thedegree of their liking for onedegree of their liking for oneanother will increase, and viceanother will increase, and viceversa… persons who feelversa… persons who feelsentiments of liking for oncesentiments of liking for onceanother will express theseanother will express thesesentiments in activities over andsentiments in activities over andabove the activities of the externalabove the activities of the externalsystem, and these activities maysystem, and these activities mayfurther strengthen the sentiments offurther strengthen the sentiments ofliking. The more frequently personsliking. The more frequently personsinteract with one another, the moreinteract with one another, the morealike in some respects both theiralike in some respects both theiractivities and their sentiments tendactivities and their sentiments tendto become (pp.112,118,120)to become (pp.112,118,120)
    11. 11. Forms of TheoriesForms of Theoriesas a visual modelas a visual model-- so that the reader can visualize the interconnections of variablesso that the reader can visualize the interconnections of variablesX1X2X3+++++-Y1Y2ZIndependentVariablesInterveningVariablesDependentVariablesX1XaXb+Y1ExperimentalGroup (+)ControlGroup (-)X2
    12. 12. Visual ModelsVisual ModelsExample: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposalExample: Jungnickel (1990) dissertation proposalabout research productivity among faculty inabout research productivity among faculty inpharmacy schoolspharmacy schools1.1. Asked what factors influence a member’s scholarly researchAsked what factors influence a member’s scholarly researchproposalproposal2.2. Identified these factors in the literatureIdentified these factors in the literature3.3. Adapted a theoretical framework found in nursing researchAdapted a theoretical framework found in nursing research4.4. Developed a visual model portraying the relationship amongDeveloped a visual model portraying the relationship amongthese factors; + and – valences to indicate the hypothesizedthese factors; + and – valences to indicate the hypothesizeddirectiondirection
    13. 13. Visual Model of Faculty Scholarly PerformanceVisual Model of Faculty Scholarly Performance(Jungnickel, 1990)(Jungnickel, 1990)Institutional TenureStandardsTenure-TrackAppointmentCollege in HealthSciences CenterSelf-Perception asResearcherPrior ResearchTrainingDemographic VariablesType of Appointment(Chair vs. Faculty)Workload (non-research)Pressure to conductresearchCollaborationResourcesSupport fromColleaguesSupport from Dept.ChairExogenous EndogenousIndependent DependentScholarly Performance•Presentations (non-research)•Presentations (research)•Journal articles (non-referred)•Referred articles (research)•Referred articles (non-research)•Book chapters•Books•Federal grants (approved)•Federal grants (funded)•Non-federal grants•Contacts++++++++++++++++ -+ ---
    14. 14. Deductive Approach TypicallyDeductive Approach TypicallyUsed in Quantitative ResearchUsed in Quantitative ResearchResearcher tests or verifies a theoryResearcher tests hypotheses orresearch questions from the theoryResearcher defines andoperationalizes variablesderived from the theoryResearcher measures or observes variablesusing an instrument to obtain scores
    15. 15. Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyPlacementPlacement AdvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesDisadvantagesIn theIn theintroductionintroductionAn approach oftenAn approach oftenfound in journal articles,found in journal articles,it will be familiar toit will be familiar toreadersreadersIt conveys a deductiveIt conveys a deductiveapproachapproachIt is difficult for aIt is difficult for areader to isolatereader to isolateand separate theoryand separate theorybase from otherbase from othercomponents of thecomponents of theresearch processresearch processIn the literatureIn the literaturereviewreviewTheories are found inTheories are found inthe literature, and theirthe literature, and theirinclusion in a literatureinclusion in a literaturereview is a logicalreview is a logicalextension or part of theextension or part of theliteratureliteratureIt is difficult for aIt is difficult for areader to see thereader to see thetheory in isolationtheory in isolationfrom the scholarlyfrom the scholarlyreview of thereview of theliteratureliterature
    16. 16. Options for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyOptions for Placing Theory in a Quantitative StudyPlacementPlacement AdvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesDisadvantagesAfter hypothesesAfter hypothesesor researchor researchquestionsquestionsThe theory discussion is aThe theory discussion is alogical extension oflogical extension ofhypotheses or researchhypotheses or researchquestions because itquestions because itexplains how and whyexplains how and whyvariables are relatedvariables are relatedA writer may include aA writer may include atheoretical rationaletheoretical rationaleafter hypotheses andafter hypotheses andquestion, and leave outquestion, and leave outan extended discussionan extended discussionabout the origin andabout the origin anduse of the theoryuse of the theoryIn a separateIn a separatesectionsectionThis approach clearlyThis approach clearlyseparates the theory fromseparates the theory fromother components of theother components of theresearch process, and itresearch process, and itenables a reader to betterenables a reader to betteridentify and to understandidentify and to understandthe theory base for thethe theory base for thestudystudyThe theory discussionThe theory discussionstands in isolation fromstands in isolation fromother components ofother components ofthe research processthe research processand, as such, a readerand, as such, a readermay not easily connectmay not easily connectit with otherit with othercomponents of thecomponents of theresearch processresearch process
    17. 17. A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section(An Example)(An Example)Crutchfield (1986) in a doctoral dissertationCrutchfield (1986) in a doctoral dissertationtitled Locus of Control, Interpersonaltitled Locus of Control, InterpersonalTrust, and Scholarly ProductivityTrust, and Scholarly Productivity survey of nursing educatorssurvey of nursing educators to determine if locus of control andto determine if locus of control andinterpersonal trust affected the levels ofinterpersonal trust affected the levels ofpublications of the facultypublications of the faculty
    18. 18. A Quantitative Theory SectionA Quantitative Theory Section(An Example)(An Example) theory placed in a separate section in thetheory placed in a separate section in theintroductory chapter titledintroductory chapter titled “Theoretical“TheoreticalPerspective”Perspective” Included the following points:Included the following points:1.1. the theory she planned to usethe theory she planned to use2.2. the central hypotheses of the theorythe central hypotheses of the theory3.3. information about who has used the theoryinformation about who has used the theoryand its applicabilityand its applicability4.4. an adaptation of the theory to variables in heran adaptation of the theory to variables in herstudy using the “if…then” logicstudy using the “if…then” logic
    19. 19. Theory Use inTheory Use inQualitative ResearchesQualitative Researches As a broad explanationAs a broad explanation(like in quantitative research)(like in quantitative research)aa theoretical lenstheoretical lens oror perspectiveperspective (opening passages of the(opening passages of thestudy)study) As theAs the end pointend point for a studyfor a studynaturalistic generalizationsnaturalistic generalizationsgrounded theorygrounded theorypattern theoriespattern theories SomeSome do not employ any explicit theorydo not employ any explicit theorye.g., phenomenologye.g., phenomenology
    20. 20. Inductive Logic of ResearchInductive Logic of Researchin a Qualitative Studyin a Qualitative StudyResearcher analyzes data toform themes or categoriesResearcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations,or theories from themes or categoriesResearcher asks open-ended questions ofparticipants or records field notesResearcher gathers information(e.g., interviews, observations)Generalizations or theories to pastexperiences and literature
    21. 21. TheTheTheoreticalTheoreticalFrameworkFrameworkand theand theConceptualConceptualFrameworkFramework
    22. 22. Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework presents the theory from which thepresents the theory from which theresearch problem was derived (in the caseresearch problem was derived (in the caseof some experimental studies), or to whichof some experimental studies), or to whichit is linked (in the case of some surveyit is linked (in the case of some surveystudies)studies) A discussion of the theory which serves asA discussion of the theory which serves asthe basis for the studythe basis for the study
    23. 23. Conceptual FrameworkConceptual Framework presents the relationship between thepresents the relationship between thespecific concepts that may be studiedspecific concepts that may be studied The concepts used at this level should beThe concepts used at this level should bederived from the concepts used in thederived from the concepts used in thetheoretical framework.theoretical framework. should be more concreteshould be more concrete
    24. 24. Theory and ConceptualTheory and ConceptualFrameworkFramework““Theory building relies on a few general constructs that subsumeTheory building relies on a few general constructs that subsumea mountain of particulars. Terms such as ‘stress’ or ‘rolea mountain of particulars. Terms such as ‘stress’ or ‘roleconflict’ are typically labels we put on our bins containing a lotconflict’ are typically labels we put on our bins containing a lotof discrete events and behaviors. When we assign a label to aof discrete events and behaviors. When we assign a label to abin, we may or may not know how all the contents of the bin fitbin, we may or may not know how all the contents of the bin fittogether, or how this bin relates to another. But any researcher,together, or how this bin relates to another. But any researcher,no matter how inductive in approach, knows which bin to startno matter how inductive in approach, knows which bin to startwith and what their general contents are likely to be.with and what their general contents are likely to be. BinsBinscome from theory and experience and (often) fromcome from theory and experience and (often) fromthe general objectives of the study envisioned.the general objectives of the study envisioned.Laying out those bins, giving each a descriptive orLaying out those bins, giving each a descriptive orinferential name, and getting some clarity aboutinferential name, and getting some clarity abouttheir interrelationships is what a conceptualtheir interrelationships is what a conceptualframework is all about.”framework is all about.”(Miles and Huberman 1994:18)(Miles and Huberman 1994:18)
    25. 25. Theoretical/ConceptualTheoretical/ConceptualFrameworkFrameworkLevelLevel IndependentIndependentVariableVariableInterveningInterveningVariableVariableDependentDependentVariableVariableTheoreticalTheoretical StimulusStimulus ResponseResponseConceptualConceptual 16mm film16mm film Knowledge GainKnowledge GainMental set:Mental set:MotivationMotivation
    26. 26. Review ofReview ofResearchesResearches
    27. 27. Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-Dy, EV. (2001). Konstrak ng Filipino Self-Concept. (College of Education, PhD)Concept. (College of Education, PhD) Qualitative research; inductive approachQualitative research; inductive approach Research framework was subsumed inResearch framework was subsumed inthe review of literature (development ofthe review of literature (development oftheories on self-concept, dimensions oftheories on self-concept, dimensions ofself-concept)self-concept)
    28. 28. AbstractAbstract Importance of self-concept, recognized the need forImportance of self-concept, recognized the need forfurther theoretical studies regarding Filipino self-conceptfurther theoretical studies regarding Filipino self-concept Selected participants: purposive sampling of 72 FilipinoSelected participants: purposive sampling of 72 Filipinoyoung adult from 20-30 yrs old (understanding of self-young adult from 20-30 yrs old (understanding of self-concept, local term, other dimensions) from 5 places- 3concept, local term, other dimensions) from 5 places- 3Luzon, 1 Visayas and 1 MindanaoLuzon, 1 Visayas and 1 Mindanao Individual interviews for each pax, 1 FGD for all usingIndividual interviews for each pax, 1 FGD for all usingFilipino language (with interpreter when needed)Filipino language (with interpreter when needed) Nakisalamuha, nakipag-ugnayan, at nakipagtalastasanNakisalamuha, nakipag-ugnayan, at nakipagtalastasansa kalahoksa kalahok Findings: Self-concept is important; major influence ofFindings: Self-concept is important; major influence ofmother and religion; positive self-concept; highmother and religion; positive self-concept; highimportance given to kindness and maturity; each withimportance given to kindness and maturity; each withown local terminologiesown local terminologies Defined dimensions of self-conceptDefined dimensions of self-concept
    29. 29. Theoretical PerspectiveTheoretical PerspectiveCited theories on the following:Cited theories on the following: Effects of age in self-conceptEffects of age in self-concept Models of self-concept constructModels of self-concept construct Universal terminology for self-conceptUniversal terminology for self-concept(communication/language)(communication/language) Personality theory of Rogers about the selfPersonality theory of Rogers about the self Sources of learning about the self by Taylor et alSources of learning about the self by Taylor et al(sosyalisasyon, nasisinag na taya o reflected(sosyalisasyon, nasisinag na taya o reflectedappraisal, sariling pandama, namumukod-appraisal, sariling pandama, namumukod-tanging pagkakakilanlan, and kasarilinangtanging pagkakakilanlan, and kasarilinangsosyal)sosyal)
    30. 30. Research ParadigmResearch Paradigm What are the subjects’ definition of their self-concept and itsWhat are the subjects’ definition of their self-concept and itsformationformation Where located: thoughts, feelings, observation of others, asWhere located: thoughts, feelings, observation of others, asverbalized by others, or combination of theseverbalized by others, or combination of these Who influenced them, what experiences made them learn their self-Who influenced them, what experiences made them learn their self-concept (why, how, and when these happened)concept (why, how, and when these happened) Do they have decisions/wishes to change/alter their self-concept,Do they have decisions/wishes to change/alter their self-concept,why so-why so- test of contentmenttest of contentment How has their self-concept influenced their everyday lifeHow has their self-concept influenced their everyday life What are subjects’ opinions about what is self-construct; seeWhat are subjects’ opinions about what is self-construct; seerelations of all constructs, connections of conceptsrelations of all constructs, connections of concepts recognizing thatrecognizing thatthe Philippines consists of different culturesthe Philippines consists of different cultures Identification of local terminologies for better communicationIdentification of local terminologies for better communicationbetween researcher and subjects; use of interpreter when neededbetween researcher and subjects; use of interpreter when needed Test of positivity of their self-concept, and whyTest of positivity of their self-concept, and why
    31. 31. Mgadimensionsng self-concept ngFilipinoyoung adultKonstrakng self-concept ngFilipinoyoung adultPagkaka-unawa ngFilipino saself-conceptKatutubongkatawaganng Filipinopara sasalitangself-conceptResearchParadigm
    32. 32. MethodMethod Secondary data gathering, one-on-oneSecondary data gathering, one-on-oneinterview, FGDinterview, FGD Purposive samplingPurposive sampling Use of Sikolohiyang PilipinoUse of Sikolohiyang Pilipinomethodologiesmethodologies
    33. 33. Results/DiscussionResults/Discussion Demographics; including practices (e.g. disco,Demographics; including practices (e.g. disco,beerhouse)beerhouse) Used quotes based on interviewsUsed quotes based on interviews Discussion of self-concept of subjects per areaDiscussion of self-concept of subjects per area Analysis of language/word usage per areaAnalysis of language/word usage per area Consolidation by the researcherConsolidation by the researcher-Taylor et al mentioned 6 ways of understanding the self-Taylor et al mentioned 6 ways of understanding the selfwhile the subjects referred to only 1while the subjects referred to only 1- James’ definition of the spiritual self compared with the- James’ definition of the spiritual self compared with theFilipino religious contextFilipino religious context- Lukpetch on adults giving premium to their external- Lukpetch on adults giving premium to their externalappearance vs. research findings (based on contentappearance vs. research findings (based on contentanalysis of interviews and FGDs)analysis of interviews and FGDs)
    34. 34. Pagkaka-unawa ngFilipino sa self-conceptKatutubongkatawagan ngFilipino para sasalitang self-conceptDayagram ng Konstrak ng FilipinoDayagram ng Konstrak ng FilipinoSelf-ConceptSelf-ConceptMgadimensions ngself-conceptng Filipinoyoung adultKonstrak ngself-concept ngFilipino youngadult
    35. 35. Domingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model ofDomingo, A. (2004). The Three Component Model ofOrganizational Commitment: A Study of RetainedOrganizational Commitment: A Study of RetainedEmployees in the Context of Retrenchment. (CSSP, MAEmployees in the Context of Retrenchment. (CSSP, MAPsychology)Psychology) Quantitative research; deductive approachQuantitative research; deductive approach Research Framework subsumed in theResearch Framework subsumed in theReview of Literature; ConceptualReview of Literature; ConceptualFramework, then Theoretical FrameworkFramework, then Theoretical Framework
    36. 36. AbstractAbstract 3 component model of organizational3 component model of organizationalcommitment (affective, continuance andcommitment (affective, continuance andnormative) applied to retained employeesnormative) applied to retained employeesafter the event of retrenchmentafter the event of retrenchment used JP Meyer and NJ Allen measure ofused JP Meyer and NJ Allen measure oforganizational commitmentorganizational commitment employees perception of managementemployees perception of managementfactors and employees attitude towardsfactors and employees attitude towardswork related variables measureswork related variables measures 64 retained technical rank and file64 retained technical rank and fileemployees within a single organizationemployees within a single organization
    37. 37. AbstractAbstract correlation of the 3 component model withcorrelation of the 3 component model withemployees’ personal and demographicemployees’ personal and demographicperceptions of management factors andperceptions of management factors andemployeesemployees identified which among variables contribute toidentified which among variables contribute toretained employees’ commitmentretained employees’ commitment implications of the prevailing commitment ofimplications of the prevailing commitment ofretrenched employees to the organization asretrenched employees to the organization aswell as suggested ways to rebuild thewell as suggested ways to rebuild theorganization’s cohesiveness and employeesorganization’s cohesiveness and employeescommitment during time of crisis discussedcommitment during time of crisis discussed
    38. 38. Review of LiteratureReview of Literature commitmentcommitment organizational commitmentorganizational commitment three components of organizationalthree components of organizationalcommitmentcommitment antecedent and consequent variablesantecedent and consequent variables employees perception of managementemployees perception of managementfactorsfactors retrenchmentretrenchment
    39. 39. ConceptualConceptualFrameworkFrameworkPersonal and demographiccharacteristics: Tenure,current salary rate, no. of children,highest educational attainment, age,type of school of children andamount of children’s tuition feeEmployees’ perception ofmanagement factors:Respect and consideration, qualityand customer service, jobresponsibility, stimulating job, qualityof information and administrativeeffectivenessAttitude towards work-related variables afterretrenchment: Relationshipwith co-workers, relationship withsupervisor, job security, job clarity,job satisfaction, management’sdecision-making, advancement inthe company, rewardsOrganizationalcommitment:• affective commitment• continuancecommitment• normative commitment
    40. 40. Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical FrameworkDefinitions of commitment citedDefinitions of commitment cited Affective commitment- attachment to theAffective commitment- attachment to theorganization,… enjoying membership…organization,… enjoying membership… Continuance commitment- tendency toContinuance commitment- tendency toengage in consistent lines of activityengage in consistent lines of activity(Becker’s Side-Bet Theory of(Becker’s Side-Bet Theory ofCommitment)Commitment) Normative commitment- commitmentNormative commitment- commitmentbased on moral belief or obligationbased on moral belief or obligation
    41. 41. HypothesesHypotheses personal and demographic perception ofpersonal and demographic perception ofmanagement factors will be positively related tomanagement factors will be positively related toorganizational commitmentorganizational commitment employees’ perception of management factorsemployees’ perception of management factorswill be positively related to organizationalwill be positively related to organizationalcommitmentcommitment employees’ attitude towards work relatedemployees’ attitude towards work relatedvariable measures will be positively related tovariable measures will be positively related toorganizational commitmentorganizational commitment personal demographics perception ofpersonal demographics perception ofmanagement factors will be positively related tomanagement factors will be positively related tocontinuance commitmentcontinuance commitment
    42. 42. MethodMethod Development of instruments; use ofDevelopment of instruments; use ofexisting ones; explanationexisting ones; explanation Pre-testing; 3 variables taken out duePre-testing; 3 variables taken out dueto very low coefficient alphato very low coefficient alpha Questionnaires administered toQuestionnaires administered tosubjects which were selected by thesubjects which were selected by theHRHR
    43. 43. MethodMethod After data gathering, found that the 3After data gathering, found that the 3deleted variables could be considereddeleted variables could be consideredas a single-item measureas a single-item measure Questionnaires administered to singleQuestionnaires administered to singlepersonnel, no data regarding numberpersonnel, no data regarding numberof children, type of school andof children, type of school andamount of tuition fee of childrenamount of tuition fee of children
    44. 44. Results and DiscussionResults and Discussion Discussion of statisticalDiscussion of statisticalfindings/interpretationfindings/interpretation Integration of findings with previousIntegration of findings with previousliterature (e.g. assessment of Meyer’s tri-literature (e.g. assessment of Meyer’s tri-component model, looking into thecomponent model, looking into themodel’s utility on Filipino operatorsmodel’s utility on Filipino operatorsworking in a Japanese company)working in a Japanese company)
    45. 45. ConclusionsConclusions DiagramsDiagrams Agreement with theories; mentioned howAgreement with theories; mentioned howthe study made additional impact to otherthe study made additional impact to otherstudiesstudies
    46. 46. SomeSomeIssuesIssuesininDevelopingDevelopingthetheResearchResearchFrameworkFramework
    47. 47. Some Issues (Punch, 2000)Some Issues (Punch, 2000) The perspective behind the researchThe perspective behind the research The role of theoryThe role of theory Pre-structured vs. UnfoldingPre-structured vs. Unfolding The relevant literatureThe relevant literature Quantitative, qualitative or bothQuantitative, qualitative or both
    48. 48. The PerspectiveThe PerspectiveBehind the ResearchBehind the Research Issue: whether there is a particularIssue: whether there is a particularperspectiveperspective, or philosophical position, or, or philosophical position, orparadigm or metatheory, which lies behindparadigm or metatheory, which lies behindand informs the researchand informs the research Making certain assumptions and adoptingMaking certain assumptions and adoptingcertain systems of meaning, and rejectingcertain systems of meaning, and rejectingothersothers The issue applies unevenly acrossThe issue applies unevenly acrossdifferent social science areas; applieddifferent social science areas; applieddifferently at different levels of higherdifferently at different levels of higherdegree workdegree work
    49. 49. The Role of TheoryThe Role of Theory ““substantive theory”; sometimes considered moresubstantive theory”; sometimes considered moreappropriate at the doctoral level than at the masters levelappropriate at the doctoral level than at the masters levelDescriptive – for a totally new research area (e.g., howDescriptive – for a totally new research area (e.g., howteachers use the internet in classrooms); value might beteachers use the internet in classrooms); value might bequestioned in some quartersquestioned in some quartersExplanatory – for a well-worked research area (e.g., theExplanatory – for a well-worked research area (e.g., therelationship between social class and scholasticrelationship between social class and scholasticachievement)achievement) Explanatory knowledge is more powerful than descriptiveExplanatory knowledge is more powerful than descriptiveknowledgeknowledgeTheory verification – to test propositions (hypotheses)Theory verification – to test propositions (hypotheses)Theory generation – to generate or develop a theory toTheory generation – to generate or develop a theory toexplain empirical phenomena or findingsexplain empirical phenomena or findings
    50. 50. Simplified Model of ResearchSimplified Model of Research(with hypotheses)(with hypotheses)EmpiricalstageWhat data are required totest hypotheses?ProblemLiteratureContextResearchquestionsHypothesesTheoryDesign DataCollectionDataanalysisTesthypothesesResearchareaPre-empiricalstage
    51. 51. Pre-specified versus Unfolding:Pre-specified versus Unfolding:The Timing of StructureThe Timing of StructureQualitativeresearchQuantitativeresearchGeneral open-ended questionsLoose designData not pre-structuredPre-specified research questionsTightly structured designPre-structured dataHas clear and specific researchquestions, a clearconceptual framework, apre-planned design and pre-codeddata (e.g., quantitative researches)
    52. 52. The Relevant LiteratureThe Relevant LiteratureCommon criticisms:Common criticisms: Not thematicNot thematic Not properly integrated with the studyNot properly integrated with the studyCan be addressed by:Can be addressed by: Developing an organizing framework thatDeveloping an organizing framework thatwill often be developed as the basis for thewill often be developed as the basis for thestudy’sstudy’s conceptual frameworkconceptual framework
    53. 53. Quantitative, Qualitative or BothQuantitative, Qualitative or Both Fundamental issue of approach andFundamental issue of approach andmethodmethod Methods should match researchMethods should match researchquestions, and arguments should bequestions, and arguments should beinternally consistentinternally consistent
    54. 54. ExperiencesExperiencesininThesisThesisWritingWriting
    55. 55. Music as a Metaphor for Thesis WritingMusic as a Metaphor for Thesis Writingby Gertina J van Schalkwykby Gertina J van SchalkwykAbstractAbstractIn the final throws of writing a doctoral thesis the struggle wasto find a structure for presenting the vast amounts ofliterature that had to be integrated and synthesized to form acoherent whole and linking psychology and music, the basisfor my thesis. As a systems theorist and adherent to socialconstructionist views, the metaphor plays an important rolein constructing realities, and the framework that cameto mind for structuring and presenting my thesiswas that of the concerto from the Westernclassical music genre. In this paper I will explain howthis metaphor was used for organizing and structuring myresearch and presenting a systems paradigm as a coherentwhole.
    56. 56. A five part polyrhythmic structurefor thesis writing
    57. 57. Phenomenology as Research MethodPhenomenology as Research Methodby Beverley Campbellby Beverley Campbell…“I needed a method of data collection and an approach which would allow me toresearch the question. A re-constructed narrative based on three interviewsprovided the data for analysis, and at the same time, after reading Giorgi (1989)and van Manen (1984, 1990) I decided to carry out a phenomenological study. Myreading of Reasons (1988) Human Inquiry in Action added a further dimension tothe framework I was developing; the need for the investigation to be guided byprinciples of cooperative inquiry and for the study to be mutually benefitting to allparticipants. The study used a combination of Giorgis interpretation ofmeaningful transformation units and van Manens immersion in thedata. As well I developed an understanding of metaphor ( Lakoff, G.and Johnson, M. 1980) and applied it in three ways in the thesis; thefirst provided a theoretical framework for the literature review whichresulted in the identification of seven metaphors predominant in the literature. Otherliterature in adult literacy studies (Sanguinetti 1994, Lee & Wickert 1994, Luke1992, Gee 1990) identifies the dominant discourses currently in play which areshaping policy and practice in literacy education; these are analogous to theconcept of metaphor. The naming of these seven metaphors in turn provided a lensthrough which to interpret the frameworks or metaphors for literacy which werepredominant in the thinking of Bill, as the student and Nancy, as the tutor. Anotherway I used metaphor was to frame the whole thesis in terms of the dominantmetaphor life as narrative. There is a body of literature which works from andextends this metaphor (Epston & White 1989, Salmon 1985). Finally metaphor wasused as an analytical tool in the interpretive process to help identify sevenmetaphors and several other major themes arising from Bills narrative and theinterview texts which were analyzed at length.”
    58. 58. ReferencesReferencesBell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learning from research: Getting More fromBell, J. and Opie, O. (2002). Learning from research: Getting More fromYour Data. Buckingham, Great Britain: Open University Press.Your Data. Buckingham, Great Britain: Open University Press.Campbell, Beverley. Phenomenology as Research Method. (Campbell, Beverley. Phenomenology as Research Method. (www.staff.vu.edu.au/syed/alrnnv/papers/bev.htmlwww.staff.vu.edu.au/syed/alrnnv/papers/bev.html))Cresswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative,Cresswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative,and Mixed Methods Approaches (2and Mixed Methods Approaches (2ndnded). London, United Kingdom:ed). London, United Kingdom:Sage Publications.Sage Publications.Librero, F. (1996). How to Write a Thesis Proposal: Some PracticalLibrero, F. (1996). How to Write a Thesis Proposal: Some PracticalGuidelines (3Guidelines (3rdrded). UPLB: College of Agriculture Publicationsed). UPLB: College of Agriculture PublicationsProgram.Program.Punch, K.F. (2000). Developing Effective Research Proposals. London,Punch, K.F. (2000). Developing Effective Research Proposals. London,United Kingdom: Sage Publications.United Kingdom: Sage Publications.Van Schalkwyk, Gertina J. (2002). Music as a Metaphor for ThesisVan Schalkwyk, Gertina J. (2002). Music as a Metaphor for ThesisWriting. The Qualitative Report, Volume 7, Number 2 June 2002. (Writing. The Qualitative Report, Volume 7, Number 2 June 2002. (http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR7-2/schalkwyk.htmlhttp://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR7-2/schalkwyk.html))
    59. 59. -- end of slidesend of slides --
    60. 60. IssuesIssues Choosing the paradigm/perspectiveChoosing the paradigm/perspective Finding a structure for presenting the vastFinding a structure for presenting the vastamounts of literature in a coherent manneramounts of literature in a coherent manner– e.g. sequence, location in the thesis– e.g. sequence, location in the thesis
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