• Save
Coping with stereotype threat denial as an impression management strategy etg2007
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Coping with stereotype threat denial as an impression management strategy etg2007

Uploaded on


More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Correlational/ExperimentalResearch Design:An Example Von Hippel, W., Von Hippel, C, Conway, L. et Coping with al. (2005). Stereotype Threat: Denial as an Impression Management Strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 89, no. 1, 22-35.
  • 2. Main Hypothesis People who are concerned with impression management cope with stereotype threat through denial
  • 3. Findings Temporary employees threatened by a stereotype of incompetence (Study 1) and hostel-dwelling older adults (Study 2) were more likely to deny incompetence if they were high in impression management. African Americans (Study 3) showed a similar pattern of denying cognitive incompetence, which emerged primarily when they were interviewed by a White experimenter and had attended a predominantly Black high school. In Study 4, White students who expected to take an IQ test and were threatened by a stereotype of being less intelligent than Asians were more likely to deny that intelligence is important if they were high in impression management
  • 4. STUDY 1Manipulated stereotype threat and examined the impact of this manipulation on the magnitude of the relationship between impression management and denial of incompetenceHypothesis: People respond to stereotype threat with denial in a manner that is directly proportional to their chronic IM concernsParticipants: 114 temporary employees (63,women, 51 men)
  • 5. STUDY 1Methodology: threat and no threat conditions – descriptions of temporary employees by different managers agreement or disagreement in 5-pt scale – “I have doubts that I am competent in my job” demographic information BIDR-IM
  • 6. STUDY 1Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding – Impression Management Subscale (BIDR-IM) 9/20 items from the original scale Original 7-pt scale was simplified to a 3-pt scale (not true, somewhat true, very true)
  • 7. STUDY 1ANOVA: stereotype threat manipulation had no discernable effect on responses to the IM scaleReliability Analysis of BIDR-IM: IM scale suffered from low inter-item consistency
  • 8. STUDY 1Correlations: denial of doubt and the BIDR-IM, duration as a temporary employee (covariate) BIDR-IM partially correlated with denial of doubt only in the threat condition, with significant difference
  • 9. STUDY 1Results: Some people cope with stereotype threat via denial – employees who are particularly concerned with IM were more likely to deny having doubts about their ability Inducing stereotype threat leads people who are high in impression management concerns to deny doubts about their competence
  • 10. STUDY 2Examined the relationship between impression management and denial of incompetence among institutionalized older adultsHypothesis: Older adults living in hostels should be more threatened by the stereotype of cognitive decline; stronger relationship between IM and denial of cognitive failuresParticipants: 40 residents of elder hostels (65-95 yo) and 39 community-dwelling older adults (64-95 yo)
  • 11. STUDY 2Methodology: demographic information measurement of denial Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (21/25 items), measure of memory span (in 5-pt scale) BIDR-IM - modified to 12 items, original 7-pt scale simplified to true or false measurement of cognitive ability memory span measure measure of vocabulary
  • 12. STUDY 2Reliability Analyses: acceptable inter-item consistency for CFQ poor inter-item consistency for the abbrev BIDR-IM CFQ uncorrelated with age, BIDR-IM correlated with ageAnalysis of Covariance: (age) participants living in hostels answered fewer items correctly in memory span and vocabulary measurements
  • 13. STUDY 2Partial Correlations: (BIDR-IM and CFQ, controlling for age) BIDR-IM correlated with CFQ among participants living in hostels only, with significant difference
  • 14. STUDY 2Results: People high in IM concerns rely on denial as a coping strategy when confronted with threat of negative stereotypes – relationship of IM and denial of cognitive failures stronger in older adults living in elderly hostels Possibility of cognitive decline is particularly threatening for older adults who live in elder hostels
  • 15. STUDY 3Examined the relationship between impression management and denial of incompetence among African Americans; exploring denial for self- presentational purposesParticipants: 132 African Americans (88 women, 44 men) and 207 non- Hispanic Whites (83 women, 124 men)
  • 16. STUDY 3Methodology: random assignment for interview (to Black or White experimenter of their same gender) how intelligent, athletic they are compared with other students; 7-pt scale (from much less to much more) BIDR-IM full version estimate of % of their HS and neighborhood that was of same race as themselves
  • 17. STUDY 3Reliability Analysis: IM scale suffered showed acceptable inter-item consistencyANOVA: no difference in IM scores or claimed intelligence between Blacks and Whites Whites claimed greater athleticism than did Blacks
  • 18. STUDY 3Correlations: BIDR-IM was correlated with self- reported intelligence among African Americans only, with significant difference BIDR-IM was uncorrelated with self- reported athleticism among both African Americans and Whites
  • 19. STUDY 3Correlations: (separate computations for race of experimenter and race of their HS and neighborhood) correlation between self-reported intelligence and IM was significant among African American participants when the experimenter was White, but not when the experimenter was Black, with non-significant difference correlations between self-reported intelligence and BIDR-IM were not significant when their neighborhood was predominantly Black or not
  • 20. STUDY 3Correlations: correlations between self-reported intelligence and academic performance among African Americans whose IM scores were below the median, but not for those above the median, with marginal difference Whites showed a significant relationship between self-reported intelligence and academic performance whether they are below, at or above the median in IM
  • 21. STUDY 3Results: Stereotype denial is a coping strategy; additionally, the relationship between IM and denial of competence is audience specific and sensitive to contextual familiarity with the audience The relationship between IM and denial of incompetence reflects exaggeration or compensation among people high in IM rather than excessive modesty among people low in IM – self-report was distorted among Blacks high rather than low in IM
  • 22. STUDY 3Results: When people feel threatened by a stereotype, those who are concerned with IM cope with the threat by denying incompetence in the threatened domain
  • 23. STUDY 4Explored how people cope with stereotype when they know that their denial may come back to haunt them (their competence tested)Participants: 56 Whites (50 women, 6 men)
  • 24. STUDY 4Methodology: random assignments to threat and no threat conditions questionnaires on various interests, talent, intelligence; in comparison to others, and importance of intelligence original 20-item version of BIDR-IM 16-item high-difficulty items of Raven’s Matrices
  • 25. STUDY 4Reliability Analyses: BIDR-IM showed modest iter-item consistencyANOVA: no difference in IM scores, importance of being intelligent, or self-reported intelligence between threat and no-threat conditions
  • 26. STUDY 4Correlations: BIDR-IM correlated with importance of being intelligent in the threat condition only, with significant difference BIDR-IM uncorrelated with self-reported intelligence in both threat and non-threat conditions Neither mean score nor the number of problems attempted in the Raven’s Matrices correlated with IM, self-reported intelligence, or self- reported importance of being intelligent
  • 27. STUDY 4Results: Those most concerned with IM were most likely to rely on denial to cope with the threat of stereotype Rather than denying incompetence and thereby risking having their nose rubbed in a poor performance immediately afterward, pax concerned with IM instead chose to deny that the domain itself is important (in advance of a possible failure rather than in response to a previous failure- proactive coping).
  • 28. STUDY 4Results: Prediction that when people believe they will not be tested in a threatened domain they should deny incompetence in the domain, whereas when people believe they will be tested in a threatened domain they should deny importance of the domain
  • 29. -End of Slides- etg 05feb07