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Coping with stereotype threat denial as an impression management strategy etg2007
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Coping with stereotype threat denial as an impression management strategy etg2007

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  • 1. Correlational/ExperimentalResearch Design:An Example Von Hippel, W., Von Hippel, C, Conway, L. et Coping with al. (2005). Stereotype Threat: Denial as an Impression Management Strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 89, no. 1, 22-35.
  • 2. Main Hypothesis People who are concerned with impression management cope with stereotype threat through denial
  • 3. Findings Temporary employees threatened by a stereotype of incompetence (Study 1) and hostel-dwelling older adults (Study 2) were more likely to deny incompetence if they were high in impression management. African Americans (Study 3) showed a similar pattern of denying cognitive incompetence, which emerged primarily when they were interviewed by a White experimenter and had attended a predominantly Black high school. In Study 4, White students who expected to take an IQ test and were threatened by a stereotype of being less intelligent than Asians were more likely to deny that intelligence is important if they were high in impression management
  • 4. STUDY 1Manipulated stereotype threat and examined the impact of this manipulation on the magnitude of the relationship between impression management and denial of incompetenceHypothesis: People respond to stereotype threat with denial in a manner that is directly proportional to their chronic IM concernsParticipants: 114 temporary employees (63,women, 51 men)
  • 5. STUDY 1Methodology: threat and no threat conditions – descriptions of temporary employees by different managers agreement or disagreement in 5-pt scale – “I have doubts that I am competent in my job” demographic information BIDR-IM
  • 6. STUDY 1Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding – Impression Management Subscale (BIDR-IM) 9/20 items from the original scale Original 7-pt scale was simplified to a 3-pt scale (not true, somewhat true, very true)
  • 7. STUDY 1ANOVA: stereotype threat manipulation had no discernable effect on responses to the IM scaleReliability Analysis of BIDR-IM: IM scale suffered from low inter-item consistency
  • 8. STUDY 1Correlations: denial of doubt and the BIDR-IM, duration as a temporary employee (covariate) BIDR-IM partially correlated with denial of doubt only in the threat condition, with significant difference
  • 9. STUDY 1Results: Some people cope with stereotype threat via denial – employees who are particularly concerned with IM were more likely to deny having doubts about their ability Inducing stereotype threat leads people who are high in impression management concerns to deny doubts about their competence
  • 10. STUDY 2Examined the relationship between impression management and denial of incompetence among institutionalized older adultsHypothesis: Older adults living in hostels should be more threatened by the stereotype of cognitive decline; stronger relationship between IM and denial of cognitive failuresParticipants: 40 residents of elder hostels (65-95 yo) and 39 community-dwelling older adults (64-95 yo)
  • 11. STUDY 2Methodology: demographic information measurement of denial Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (21/25 items), measure of memory span (in 5-pt scale) BIDR-IM - modified to 12 items, original 7-pt scale simplified to true or false measurement of cognitive ability memory span measure measure of vocabulary
  • 12. STUDY 2Reliability Analyses: acceptable inter-item consistency for CFQ poor inter-item consistency for the abbrev BIDR-IM CFQ uncorrelated with age, BIDR-IM correlated with ageAnalysis of Covariance: (age) participants living in hostels answered fewer items correctly in memory span and vocabulary measurements
  • 13. STUDY 2Partial Correlations: (BIDR-IM and CFQ, controlling for age) BIDR-IM correlated with CFQ among participants living in hostels only, with significant difference
  • 14. STUDY 2Results: People high in IM concerns rely on denial as a coping strategy when confronted with threat of negative stereotypes – relationship of IM and denial of cognitive failures stronger in older adults living in elderly hostels Possibility of cognitive decline is particularly threatening for older adults who live in elder hostels
  • 15. STUDY 3Examined the relationship between impression management and denial of incompetence among African Americans; exploring denial for self- presentational purposesParticipants: 132 African Americans (88 women, 44 men) and 207 non- Hispanic Whites (83 women, 124 men)
  • 16. STUDY 3Methodology: random assignment for interview (to Black or White experimenter of their same gender) how intelligent, athletic they are compared with other students; 7-pt scale (from much less to much more) BIDR-IM full version estimate of % of their HS and neighborhood that was of same race as themselves
  • 17. STUDY 3Reliability Analysis: IM scale suffered showed acceptable inter-item consistencyANOVA: no difference in IM scores or claimed intelligence between Blacks and Whites Whites claimed greater athleticism than did Blacks
  • 18. STUDY 3Correlations: BIDR-IM was correlated with self- reported intelligence among African Americans only, with significant difference BIDR-IM was uncorrelated with self- reported athleticism among both African Americans and Whites
  • 19. STUDY 3Correlations: (separate computations for race of experimenter and race of their HS and neighborhood) correlation between self-reported intelligence and IM was significant among African American participants when the experimenter was White, but not when the experimenter was Black, with non-significant difference correlations between self-reported intelligence and BIDR-IM were not significant when their neighborhood was predominantly Black or not
  • 20. STUDY 3Correlations: correlations between self-reported intelligence and academic performance among African Americans whose IM scores were below the median, but not for those above the median, with marginal difference Whites showed a significant relationship between self-reported intelligence and academic performance whether they are below, at or above the median in IM
  • 21. STUDY 3Results: Stereotype denial is a coping strategy; additionally, the relationship between IM and denial of competence is audience specific and sensitive to contextual familiarity with the audience The relationship between IM and denial of incompetence reflects exaggeration or compensation among people high in IM rather than excessive modesty among people low in IM – self-report was distorted among Blacks high rather than low in IM
  • 22. STUDY 3Results: When people feel threatened by a stereotype, those who are concerned with IM cope with the threat by denying incompetence in the threatened domain
  • 23. STUDY 4Explored how people cope with stereotype when they know that their denial may come back to haunt them (their competence tested)Participants: 56 Whites (50 women, 6 men)
  • 24. STUDY 4Methodology: random assignments to threat and no threat conditions questionnaires on various interests, talent, intelligence; in comparison to others, and importance of intelligence original 20-item version of BIDR-IM 16-item high-difficulty items of Raven’s Matrices
  • 25. STUDY 4Reliability Analyses: BIDR-IM showed modest iter-item consistencyANOVA: no difference in IM scores, importance of being intelligent, or self-reported intelligence between threat and no-threat conditions
  • 26. STUDY 4Correlations: BIDR-IM correlated with importance of being intelligent in the threat condition only, with significant difference BIDR-IM uncorrelated with self-reported intelligence in both threat and non-threat conditions Neither mean score nor the number of problems attempted in the Raven’s Matrices correlated with IM, self-reported intelligence, or self- reported importance of being intelligent
  • 27. STUDY 4Results: Those most concerned with IM were most likely to rely on denial to cope with the threat of stereotype Rather than denying incompetence and thereby risking having their nose rubbed in a poor performance immediately afterward, pax concerned with IM instead chose to deny that the domain itself is important (in advance of a possible failure rather than in response to a previous failure- proactive coping).
  • 28. STUDY 4Results: Prediction that when people believe they will not be tested in a threatened domain they should deny incompetence in the domain, whereas when people believe they will be tested in a threatened domain they should deny importance of the domain
  • 29. -End of Slides- etg 05feb07