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Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
Attitudes etg2006
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Attitudes etg2006

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  • 1. AttitudesAttitudes Facilitator: Eden T. Gallardo
  • 2. …The field of social psychology was once defined as the study of attitudes (Thomas and Znaniecki, 1918).
  • 3. OutlineOutline 1. Definition 2. Measuring Attitudes 3. Forming Attitudes 4. Do attitudes predict actions? 5. Can actions determine attitudes? 6. What makes actions affect attitudes?
  • 4. DefinitionDefinition • An attitude is an internal disposition that affects us in a variety of situations. More precisely, an attitude is an evaluative reaction toward someone or something that we reveal in our thoughts, feelings, or intended actions toward that person or thing (Eagly, 1992). • ABCs of attitude: Affect (feelings/emotions), Behavior (behavioral intention), Cognition (thoughts/belief)
  • 5. DefinitionDefinition The Tripartite or three-component model (Katz and Stotland, 1959) – the attitude as an unobservable psychological construct which can manifest itself in relevant beliefs, feelings and behavioral components (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993) Assumptions:   1. All three components must be present for an evaluative tendency to exist 2. The three classes of evaluative responding must be consistent with each other, given their common dependency on an underlying construct 3. Attitude-behavior consistency
  • 6. DefinitionDefinition Other formulations of the attitude construct • Attitudes simply as categorizations of an object or issue along an evaluative dimension; attitudes can be based on any combination of the three components (Zanna and Rempel, 1988) • Attitudes as associations in memory between attitude objects and their evaluation (Fazio, 1990)
  • 7. DefinitionDefinition • Qualities of Attitudes 1. Attitude accessibility 2. Ambivalence 3. Evaluative-cognitive consistency
  • 8. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Self ReportsSelf Reports Thurstone Scale – devised by L.L. Thurstone in 1928; attitude scale that contains statements reflecting an even distribution of different positions toward an attitude object. Subjects indicate whether they agree or disagree with each statement
  • 9. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Thurstone Scale e.g. measuring attitudes toward the church Scale Value Item 0.2 I believe the church is the greatest institution in America today. 1.2 I believe the church is a powerful agency for promoting both individual and social righteousness. 2.2 I like to go to church for I get something to think about and it keeps my mind filled with right thoughts.
  • 10. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Self Reports • Likert Scales – devised by Rensis Likert in 1932; attitude scale on which subjects indicate their degree of agreement (or disagreement) with each statement
  • 11. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Likert Scale e.g. measuring attitude toward religion Saving my prayers helps me a lot…………………….AS A NC D DS The church is very important to me…………………...AS A NC D DS I think the Bible is out of date………………………….AS A NC D DS I believe that Jesus still helps people……………….. AS A NC D DS I find it hard to believe in God…………………………AS A NC D DS
  • 12. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Self Reports • Semantic Differential – proposed by Charles Osgood and his associates as an alternative approach that is general enough to be applied to any topic; method of measuring attitudes in which subjects indicate their responses on a series of dimensions with opposite adjectives at each end
  • 13. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Semantic Differential e.g. measuring attitude toward religion RELIGION   Fair………………………………..Unfair Large……………………………...Small Clean……………………………...Dirty Bad………………………………...Good Beautiful………………………….Ugly Valuable…………………………..Worthless Weak……………………………...Strong Active……………………………...Passive Cold……………………………….Hot Fast………………………………..Slow
  • 14. Self Reports:Self Reports: Main LimitationsMain Limitations • assume that people have a knowledge of and access to their true attitudes and that people report honestly and accurately on these attitudes • cultures are different and cultural standards influence self-reporting, just as these standards influence other behavior
  • 15. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: The Bogus PipelineThe Bogus Pipeline • the subject is made to believe an equipment is powerful enough to measure attitude, but in reality is controlled by the experimenter
  • 16. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Physiological MeasuresPhysiological Measures • measuring changes in perspiration, heart rate, and pupil dilation; EEG, EMG
  • 17. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Behavioral MeasuresBehavioral Measures • “actions can reflect attitudes” • lost letter procedure - developed by Stanley Milgram and his colleagues in 1965; also used by Mary Allen and Beth Rienzl (1992) to measure attitudes toward Americans in eight European countries (200 letters in public places in the European countries, 70 letters in similar locations in California)
  • 18. Measuring Attitudes:Measuring Attitudes: Behavioral MeasuresBehavioral Measures • behavioroid measure – measure of attitude based on expressed intention and commitment to perform a particular behavior that reflects their attitudes, (e.g. having their picture taken with a person of another race and allowing the picture
  • 19. Forming Attitudes:Forming Attitudes: Genetic InfluencesGenetic Influences • Abraham Tesser (1993) – “we may develop certain attitudes because we were born biologically predisposed to experience and respond to the world in certain ways” (e.g. genetic differences in sensory structures, body chemistry, intelligence, general activity level, conditionability); cited attitude research comparing heritability estimates
  • 20. Forming Attitudes:Forming Attitudes: Cognitive RoutesCognitive Routes • Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1975) expectancy-value model • Cognitive-response model (Greenwald, 1981)
  • 21. Forming Attitudes:Forming Attitudes: Affective RoutesAffective Routes Three basic kinds of learning that might be involved in acquiring and shaping our attitudes: • Classical conditioning (Pavlov,1927)   • Operant conditioning (Skinner, 1938)   • Imitation/“Vicarious reinforcement” or “modeling” (Bandura, 1977) • “The Great American Values Test” by Ball-Rokeach, Rokeach, and Grube (1979) – experiment that investigated the impact of the media on the attitudes and subsequent behavior of television viewers
  • 22. Forming Attitudes:Forming Attitudes: Behavioral RoutesBehavioral Routes • Self-Perception – past behavior can be used to infer an attitude toward an object
  • 23. Do AttitudesDo Attitudes Predict Actions?Predict Actions? • “Attitudes vs. Actions” by Richard LaPiere (1934)   • Gordon Allport (1935) • Allan Wicker (1969) – concluded that “it is considerable likely that attitudes will be unrelated or only slightly related to overt behaviors and that attitudes will be closely related to actions” • Robert Abelson (1972)
  • 24. Do AttitudesDo Attitudes Predict Actions?Predict Actions? Specific attitudes predict specific behaviors (e.g. environment clean-up vs. waste disposal, health fitness vs. jogging)   • Combined Attitudes: Acculturation (by cross-cultural psychologist John Berry and Uichol Kim (1988); people respond in several different ways when they enter a new culture
  • 25. Combined Attitudes:Combined Attitudes: AcculturationAcculturation “Is it important for me to identify with and maintain the unique characteristics of my ethnic group?” “Is it important for me to establish good relationships with other ethnic groups and the larger society?” Attitude to dominant culture Attitude to original culture Integration Assimilation Separation Marginalization YES NO YES NO
  • 26. Do AttitudesDo Attitudes Predict Actions?Predict Actions? • Specific vs. General – Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen (1974) found that religious attitude/religious behavior connection was much more stronger when they looked at a composite measure of 70 different religious behaviors
  • 27. Do AttitudesDo Attitudes Predict Actions?Predict Actions? Very often, specific attitudes interact to produce unique effects on behavior. On the other hand, general attitudes are better used to predict a broad range of related behaviors.
  • 28. Do AttitudesDo Attitudes Predict Actions?Predict Actions? • Strong attitudes predict behavior better than weak attitudes (Acting in accordance with firm convictions) • The importance of attitude accessibility: available cognitions are more influential; attitudes and behavior correspond more closely when subjects are questioned about their attitudes repeatedly • attitudes acquired directly vs. attitudes acquired through second-hand information – strong attitudes develop from experience, vested interest, and knowledge
  • 29. Models of Attitude-ActionModels of Attitude-Action RelationshipRelationship • Naïve ideal model ATTITUDE S ACTIONS
  • 30. Models of Attitude-ActionModels of Attitude-Action RelationshipRelationship • The “Intention Connection” ATTITUDES ACTIONSINTENTION S
  • 31. Models of Attitude-ActionModels of Attitude-Action RelationshipRelationship • Adding the concept of “subjective norms” - Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein 1980) ATTITUDES ACTIONSINTENTIONS SUBJECTIVE NORMS
  • 32. Models of Attitude-ActionModels of Attitude-Action RelationshipRelationship • Including the amount of control an individual believes he or she has over the relevant behavior (similar to Bandura’s “self-efficacy”) – Theory of Planned Behavior (Icek Ajzen, 1991) ATTITUDES ACTIONSINTENTIONSSUBJECTIV E NORMS PERCEIVED BAHAVIORA L CONTROL
  • 33. Models of Attitude-ActionModels of Attitude-Action RelationshipRelationship • Attitudes certainly predict actions, but the precise conditions under which this relationship holds are unclear.
  • 34. Can actionsCan actions determine attitudes?determine attitudes? • Case of Patty Hearst (1974) – wealthy student kidnapped by guerrillas became a gun-toting revolutionary then went back to former privileged life • Janis and King (1954) – required subjects to deliver a speech with which they disagreed • Tory Higgins and William Rholes (1978) – students read a personality description of one person and then summarize it for someone else who supposedly either liked or disliked the person described
  • 35. Can actionsCan actions determine attitudes?determine attitudes? • “How to Become a Cult Leader” by Anthony Pratkanis and Elliot Aronson (1992) – saying is believing; performing simple cult-related activities induces rationalization and self- justification • Chinese communists’ method in the brainwashing of American POWs in the 1950s
  • 36. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? - Cognitive Dissonance Theory- Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Insufficient justification - Festinger and J. Merill Carlsmith (1959) experiment on “the boring task” • The greatest insufficient justification effect is experienced when the following four conditions apply: • - you freely chose to engage in the dissonance- • producing behavior; • - you feel committed to this behavior; • - your behavior leads to unwanted consequences; • - you feel personally responsible for those • consequences
  • 37. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? - Cognitive Dissonance Theory- Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Dissonance after decisions – Jack Brehm (1956) experiment on University of Minnesota women rating eight products (deciding-becomes-believing effect) • “Cognitive Dissonance and Energy Conservation” (Kantola, Syme and Campbell) – study on actual and self-reported changes in electricity consumption due to feedback on energy usage
  • 38. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? - Self-Perception Theory- Self-Perception Theory • Perceiving our emotions – “we run not because we are afraid, rather, we are afraid because we run” (William James and Karl Lange); – facial movements influence emotions (Darwin, 1872); – movement of the facial muscles affects cooling of the blood flowing to different parts of the brain which in turn affects the production of different neurotransmitters in those parts of the brain- thus influencing emotions (Robert Zajonc, 1985); – people find cartoons funnier when they hold a pen between their teeth than when they hold it with their lips (Fritz Strack and associates, 1988); – gestures influence our attitudes (Gary Wells and Richard Petty, 1980)
  • 39. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? - Self-Perception Theory- Self-Perception Theory • The overjustification effect Enjoyabl e Activities Self Perception: “I do this because I like It” Self Perception: “I do this because I’m paid to” No external reward External reward (e.g. $) INTRINSIC MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
  • 40. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? - Self-Perception Theory- Self-Perception Theory Russell Fazio and his associates (1977): • When our behavior is very different from our attitudes, we feel strong motivation to change our attitudes  cognitive dissonance. • When our behavior is only slightly different from our attitudes, or when we are unclear about our attitudes, we infer our attitudes by reflecting on our behavior  self perception.
  • 41. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? Self-Perception TheorySelf-Perception Theory Dissonance theory seems to explain attitude change whereas self- perception theory seems to explain attitude formation
  • 42. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? - Self-Presentation- Self-Presentation • We want to appear consistent so we embrace attitudes we think others expect of us; • when we behave contrary to our attitudes, we may change our expressed attitudes in order to appear consistent to other people; • using the bogus pipeline to assess attitude change reveals true attitudes (Mark Riess and colleagues, 1981)
  • 43. What makes actions affect attitudes?What makes actions affect attitudes? Steps in expressing an attitude different from one’s original position COGNITIVE DISSONANCE SELF-PRESENTATION SELF-PERCEPTION (1) Original attitude (2) Expressed attitude (3) Final attitude “It was boring” + ($1.00) “It was interesting” “It was interesting” “It was boring, but I said it was interesting; hmm, I guess it really was kind of interesting” “I said it was interesting so I’d better be consistent and continue to say so (although I know it was boring)” “I said it was interesting, so I guess it must have been”
  • 44. ReferencesReferences • Coats, E.J. and Feldman, R.S. (eds.) (1998). Classic and contemporary readings in social psychology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. • Hogg, M.A. & Cooper, J. (eds.) (2003). The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage Publications. • • Lesko, Wayne A. (1990). Readings in social psychology.: general, classics, and contemporary selection. Mass: Allyn and Bacon. • • Philipchalk, Ronald P. (1995). An invitation to social psychology. Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  • 45. End of slidesEnd of slides

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