ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR:Relationship Between AttitudeTowards Destiny and Practice ofAdult Psychic-Related ActivitiesResearch for Psych 180 by:Lorence AurelioEden Tamayo-GallardoEvangeline Ram
The StudyThe correlation of attitude towards destiny and practice ofpsychic-related activities (I.e. fortune telling, astrology,palmistry, tarot card reading, feng shui) were tested on 30 UPcollege students (15 males, 15 females) through a questionnaireconsisting of 22 items. The respondents Yes or No responseswere validated with their expressed behavior and frequency ofpractices.Using statistical analysis (I.e. Correlation: Bivariate -Pearson’s Product, independent t-test,and frequency counting),it was found that there was: 1) no correlation between attitudeand behavior among subjects; 2) no significant difference inattitude between males and females; and 3) significantdifferences in behavior between males and females. In addition,specific practices that scored highest in the Always and Neverscales were identified.
Problem Statement1. Is there a correlation between attitude andbehavior?2. Is there a significant difference in attitudetowards destiny between males andfemales?3. Is there a significant difference in behaviorwhen it comes to adult psychic-relatedactivities between males and females?
DefinitionsDestiny - the idea that course of events arepredeterminedAdult psychic-related activities - supernaturalactivities that foretell the future; in the contextof this study the definition is specified to theadults
Definitions• Fortune telling - practice of predicting the futurethrough psychic means, such as interpretation ofsigns or communication with supernatural forces• Astrology - study of how events on earth correspondsto the positions and movements of astronomicalbodies, particularly the sun, moon, planets and stars• Horoscope - charts that map the position ofastronomical bodies at certain times, such as when aperson is born
Definitions• Palmistry - art of characterization and foretelling thefuture through the study of the palm; concerned withthe mounts of the palm, the lines on the mounts, andthe lines interlacing the palms• Tarot - fortune telling through interpreting cards withpictures representing subjects such as the sun,death, the devil, and a hanged man, all symbolizingnatural forces and human virtues and vices• Feng shui - ancient Chinese ski of keeping a balanceof forces in the and or surroundings• Prophecy - a phenomenon by which a messagewhich may contain reference to future events is sentby God (or by a god) to human beings through anintermediary or a prophet
Theoretical FrameworkThe Nature of Attitude• a psychological tendency which is expressed byevaluating a particular entity with some degree offavor or disfavor (Eagly and Chaiken,1998)• responses elicited by attitude objects may take threeforms: cognitive, affective, behavioral (Olzon andZanna, 1993 in Myers 2003)• two overriding processes that are basis for theformation of attitudes: acquiring beliefs about theattitude object, and by affective or behavioralprocesses
Theoretical FrameworkMeasures of Attitude• most popular measure is the bipolar evaluativecontinuum; respondents won’t always be able tolocate their attitudes in such a scale• bipolar for controversial social issues (e.g. attitudetowards abortion); unipolar for other topics (e.g.music, sports) (Pratkins, 1989)• bipolar structures finds good use in the SociaJudgement Theory (Sheriffe and Sheriffe, 1965)• in responding to bi-dimensional structural attitudesurveys, those who agree with one end of thecontinuum do not necessarily disagree in theopposite end, at most may just be indifferent(Kerlinger, 1984)
Theoretical FrameworkAttitude as Predictors of Behavior• the relation of attitude to behavior as an importantstructural issue in attitude studies• attitudes exert a direct and dynamic influence uponthe individual’s response• attitude correlates with behavior is a much weakerassumption• distinctions between two types of attitude in relationto the attitude object: 1) attitude leads towardsbehavior itself; and 2) attitude towards the target ofthe behavior
HypothesisAttitudes cause people to behave in a mannerthat is evaluatively consistent with theirattitude -Those who believe in destiny engages inpsychic-related activities.
Method: Variables• attitude towards destiny (independentvariable)• practice of adult psychic-related activities(dependent variable)
Method: Respondents• 30 UP college students• 16 to 23 years old• 15 males, 15 females
Method:The Research InstrumentThe questionnaire consisted of 22 items:• the first two items on attitude; Ss respondedYES or NO;• 20 items that follow on cognitive, affective andbehavioral forms; based on different psychic-related activities; Ss responded to each itemon a Verbal Frequency scale(refer to Sample Questionnaire)
Findings1. No correlation between attitude andbehavior among subjects2. No significant difference in attitudebetween male and female3. Significant differences in behaviorbetween male and female
Findings1. No correlation between attitude andbehavior among subjects(refer to Correlation table)
Findings2. No significant difference in attitudebetween male and female(refer to t-test)
M < FF < MM < FM < FM < FF < MM < FM < F Whenever I get the chance, I talk to my friends andconvince them that astrology works I had my palm read by an expert Tell me your zodiac sign and I can tell if we arecompatible I dislike having a photograph with only two other people I consult a computer-based and/or machine-based palmreader I enjoy watching and/or listening to prophecies aboutpeople and events in general on TV and radio programs I give importance to predictions based on the Chinesecalendar I like to buy/receive/collect crystals and birthstones asgiftsFindings:3. Significant differences in behaviorbetween male and female(frequency count)
Always I know the characteristics of my zodiac sign I dislike having a photograph with only two other people I enjoy watching and/or listening to prophecies aboutpeople and events in general on TV and radio programs I heed the warnings provided by my horoscope I avoid anything with the number 13 I attribute unexpected events in my life to luck12.5%6.3%6.3%3.1%3.1%3.1%Findings: Frequency Count (Behavior)
Never I consult a fortune teller before making importantdecisions in life I consult tarot card readers I consult a computer-based and/or machine-based palmreader Whenever I get the chance, I talk to my friends andconvince them that astrology works I had my palm read by an expert I don’t stay in certain paces or avoid events because ofsome physiological marks (e.g. moles, birthmarks)93.8%84.3%84.3%71.8%71.8%71.8%Findings: Frequency Count (Behavior)
Conclusion• No significant difference in attitude andbehavior of both males and females, nocorrelation between attitude and behavior