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Edenmore Community Safety Assessment Shopping Centre Pdf
 

Edenmore Community Safety Assessment Shopping Centre Pdf

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The Edenmore Shopping Centre Community Safety Assessment was compiled by the Edenmore Community Development Project. This Assessment provides a comprehensive presentation of the problems facing the ...

The Edenmore Shopping Centre Community Safety Assessment was compiled by the Edenmore Community Development Project. This Assessment provides a comprehensive presentation of the problems facing the Shopping Centre, it's businesses and Private Tenants. It takes a standard framework for analysing these issues and makes reccomendations based on Good Practice from professionals engaged in Secured by Design Principles and Community Development Principles.

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    Edenmore Community Safety Assessment Shopping Centre Pdf Edenmore Community Safety Assessment Shopping Centre Pdf Document Transcript

    • Edenmore Community Development Project Community Safety Assessment Edenmore Shopping Centre
    • Background The Edenmore Community Development Project is a local initiative funded by the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs (DCRGA) as part of its nationwide strategy of using a Community Development Model for improving the Social, Economic and Environmental conditions of marginalised communities experiencing high levels of deprivation. This Program provides financial assistance to fund community development projects in disadvantaged areas. It also provides support for self-help work in specific target groups that experience disadvantage - disadvantaged women and men, lone parents, Travellers, etc. - in order to help them articulate their point of view and participate in a process of personal and community development. The Program is included in the National Development Plan as a sub-measure in the social inclusion measures in the Regional Operational Programs.1 Edenmore CDP is involved in a range of initiatives that seek to ensure the policy and strategy objectives of the Department are met, in conjunction with their own local area plan. Two such initiatives are the local Community Safety Group and the Edenmore Business Association. As part of our commitment to supporting these groups Edenmore CDP offered to carry out an extensive Community Safety2 Assessment of the Edenmore Shopping Area. The purpose of the Assessment is to provide a comprehensive outline of those areas which are impacted by crime, anti- social behavior and disorder. It informs us of the concerns that people are voicing and the experiences they have had. It enables clearer patterns of behavior to emerge and identifies those areas that should be of highest concern to those tasked with tackling these issues. The Assessment also provides recommendations on how these issues may be addressed, drawing upon established Good Practice, academic research and 1 http://www.pobail.ie/en/CommunityLocalDevelopmentProgrammes/ 2 quot;The term 'community safety' is seen as having both situational and social aspects, as well as being concerned with people, communities and organisations, including families, victims, and risk groups as well as attempting to reduce particular types of crime and the fear of crime. Community Safety should be seen as the legitimate concern of all in the local community.” Source: Safer Communities, Home Office 1991. 2
    • the experiences of those agencies involved in Crime Prevention and Crime Reduction. The Assessment process itself involves several key elements: A. Repeat Victimisation Assessment3 Past victimisation predicts future victimisation and is, therefore, preventable. A growing body of evidence shows that certain people and places suffer repeated incidents of crime. This element of the assessment identifies repeat patterns. B. Residents Survey Gathering information about the experiences of people living in areas experiencing crime, anti-social behaviour and disorder is vital to understanding the situation and any potential solutions. Residents Surveys are tailored to the circumstances under assessment but are underpinned by several key elements. C. Built Design Assessment The practice of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), or the more commonly used Secured by Design principles, emerged in the 1960s with Jane Jacob’s The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and Elizabeth Woods Social Aspects of Housing in Urban Development (1967). Jacob’s book was the first work to suggest that the ‘street-life’ of a community and its design could reduce the opportunities for crime. Drawing on established approaches to looking at the built environment under assessment, it will be 3 http://www.crimereduction.homeoffice.gov.uk/toolkits/rv00.htm 3
    • possible to identify areas of concern and make recommendations. In particular the work of C. Ray Jeffrey’s4 Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (1971) and Oscar Newman’s Defensible Space (1972) stand out. D. Use of Official Statistics Gathering information that has been collated by those officially responsible is of significant use to those looking at crime and anti- social behaviour issues. While the caution that accompanies the use of official statistics has long been identified5 their obvious benefit and use is more readily identifiable. For the purposes of this assessment, the information we will be drawing upon will be that collected by the Central Statistics Office and Garda Síochána , where relevant. E. Walk-through Checklist Assessing some of the key locations around the Shopping Centre area will be done using a Walk-through Checklist. This tool identifies some of the immediate responses that people have to their surroundings and concentrates on the visual and built environments contributions to feelings of safety. The Walk-through was carried out be several volunteers at different times and in various locations. The tool also enables us to quickly identify areas that may need to be prioritised when looking at Community Safety within a specific area. 4 http://www.cpted.net/ 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics#Misuse 4
    • Business Repeat Victimisation Survey Within the Edenmore Shopping Centre area there were 26 premises that were potential respondents to this section of the survey. 2 of these were office based premises without commercial interest while the remainder were commercial premises offering a range of goods and services. The Survey Questions asked of each premise can be found in the Appendix. Surveys were carried out by CDP staff and volunteers or were left with the business to complete and return. Of the 26 premises 19 were surveyed, representing a 73% response rate. A list of all those who responded is located in the Appendix. Summary of key findings from the RVA are outlined below: • Drug dealing, Graffiti and Substance abuse are seen as the three main problems affecting the Edenmore Shopping Centre area. • Weekends are the most problematic times for businesses. • Festive periods and school holidays see more instances of crime and anti-social behaviour. • Most business owners agree that criminal offences are being committed. • Overall businesses are unaware of community organisations or residents associations that may be able to help tackle issues of crime or ASB, while little collective action has been taken by local business to tackle these issues. 5
    • A more detailed presentation of the findings is as follows: 1. What are the main crime and ASB problems that have been identified / experienced by your commercial business? Summary of main types of crime and ASB being experienced in the area: 1. Graffiti & Drug Dealing 85% 2. Substance Abuse 63% 3. Harassment of Customers/Passers By, Underage Drinking 57% 4. Vandalism to Property or Goods 52% 5. Threatening Behaviour 42% 6. Joyriding, Theft, Vehicle Crime 37% 7. Noise Nuisance 2% 8. Abandoned Vehicles 6% 9. Racial Abuse 0% 10. Homophobic Abuse 5% 2. How long have these issues been presenting themselves? The majority of respondents (80%) feel that these problems have been presenting themselves for years. This also reflects the fact that the majority of respondents have been operating in the shopping area for more than 10 years (63%). 3. In what locations are these problems occurring? These problems occur throughout the entire location, with respondents referring to areas such as the main thoroughfare through the centre, outside the public houses, the area close to the school and the areas directly visible to shop owners outside of their own premises. 4. On what days are these problems occurring? 6
    • Incidents of crime or ASB in the main occur at weekends and during the night, although incidents are not confined to these times with many respondents commenting that incidents can occur at any time of the day or week. 5. Do the same problems present all year round or do noticeable changes occur at different times, i.e. school holidays, Halloween, etc? For respondents the problems appear to persist all year round although they also report that things do get noticeably worse around festive periods such as Halloween and Christmas, while school holidays were also identified as being problematic. Respondents commented that during holiday times more ‘rowdy behaviour’, ‘more arson’ and ‘public drinking’ could be observed during these times. 6. How many people are involved in this behaviour/issue? & 7. What are the ages involved? Taken together incidents seem to occur involving small groups of people which can range widely in age from 10 to 40 and they can be seen congregating around the business area regularly. 8. Are there offences being committed? 80% of respondents feel that there are criminal offences being committed, and yet the same percentage of people answered ‘no’ to question 9. 9. Do you know if anyone has ever been charged with an offence as a result of behaviour directed at your premises/staff? 7
    • 80% of respondents either don’t know or believe that people generally are not charged for criminal offences. Only three shop owners were aware of any legal proceedings/prosecutions being carried out for offences. 10. Have young people/offenders ever been approached by Residents/Community about their behaviour? What was the outcome if they were? & 11. Have the parents/guardians of any young people been approached about their behaviour? If they were what was the outcome? In the main business owners have not approached young people/offenders and they don’t know or are not aware of community or resident associations approaching young people/offenders. In general parents/guardians have not been approached over young people’s behaviour. In the few instances that they were, shop owners were met with either indifference or a lack of support from parents/guardians. In some cases there was even abuse directed at some of the owners. 12. Do you know of any specific measures that have been used to address some of the issues you are experiencing? There were a range of responses to this question. Three business owners reported taking individual action against offenders which included the barring of certain troublesome individuals from their premises, speaking directly to those involved and talking to the Gardai. Other shop owners commented on a collective approach including business association meetings and Community Safety Group meetings. 57% reported that they did not know of any specific measures being taken. 13. What specific actions have been taken by the police in addressing some of these issues you are experiencing? 8
    • 42% of businesses have noticed an increased Garda presence through Community Policing Team patrols in the area over recent months. This has been welcomed by those who have noticed this, although some expressed concerns about the timings of these patrols. 14. Do you know of any Residents/Community Groups in the area that may be able to help in addressing some of these issues? Three respondents (15%) were aware of community/resident groups that may be able to help with these issues. In general local businesses are unaware of any groups that may be able to help to tackle this situation. 15. What is the overall effect of these issues on your business and the community/area? It is having a direct impact on businesses in the area through losses in revenue and sales and in the case of one respondent the extra expense of hiring security for their premises. Many respondents have described the shopping centre as turning into a slum or ghetto and that at night it has become a no-go area. Fear and intimidation are the main causes of this and it has had a detrimental effect on business. All in all this does not create a favourable atmosphere for business nor is it thought to be especially conducive to creating a community spirit, particularly for new businesses that have opened or for people who are newly resident in Edenmore. Length of time that businesses have been in operation in the area. • Less than 6 months: 0 • 6-12 Months: 1 • 1-3 Years: 5 • 5-10 Years: 1 • 10+ Years 12 9
    • List of owners and renters: Owners: 5 Renting: 13 Other Comments from respondents: “The area needs a much more robust approach to dealing with these issues and a more concrete management effort from all concerned”. “I have noticed a greater Garda presence lately”. “McHugh’s Group do not care about the place as the biggest landlord”. “Drug dealing is the biggest problem. Things have gone quiet in recent times as a result of intimidation and fear of coming into the area. McHugh Group does very little”. “Access in and out of the shopping centre provides opportunities for people to avoid the Gardai. Local security guard, local person? Space is built in a way that attracts problems”. “The names of the people in the shopping centre should be given to the police. It is the same people all the time”. 10
    • Residents Survey Edenmore Shopping Centre is located within the heart of a residential housing area and covers 1.4 hectares. The Shopping Centre itself is essentially a two storey complex. The environs of the Shopping Centre area are generally of a low visual quality. This housing area is a mix of traditional Social Housing provided by Dublin City Council and Privately Owned/Rented. There has been a recent increase in speculative development on the former sites of some Dublin City Council properties that have large corner gardens. These developments have been apartment style housing within the Private Owned/Rented sector. The Shopping Centre itself is also comprised of 26 flats above the main commercial premises. The Assessment carried out a sample survey of those residents living within the Shopping Centre complex. The purpose of this element was to identify the crime and anti-social behaviour concerns and experiences of those living directly within this area. The Survey was completed by 8 respondents and the findings are outlined below. 1. How long have you lived in the Shopping Centre complex? 2 of the respondents had lived there for 6 months or less, 2 had lived there for between 1-2 years and 4 had lived there for 3 years or more. In 2 of those cases they have lived there for more than 5 years. 2. Do you live alone? All of the respondents answered No. 11
    • 3. (and 4) Do you have any children/dependents below the age of 16 living with you? 88% of the respondents had children/dependents below the age of 16 and 75% of those have children below the age of 5. 5. How satisfied would you say you are living in the Edenmore Shopping Complex? 2 of the respondents were Very Satisfied, 2 were Satisfied, 2 were Fairly Dissatisfied and 2 were Very Dissatisfied. 6. What do you like most about living with the Edenmore Shopping Complex? A range of answers were provided to this question and include: “The neighbours” “Good neighbours, good space for kids” “Closeness to the shops and my mother” “Closeness to shops and facilities – good neighbours” “Good neighbours” “Close to services” “Close to everything- what my daughter and myself need” “I have separate entrance from most other flats which gives me a sense of security” 7. What do you dislike most about living in the Edenmore Shopping Complex? A range of answers were provided to this question and include: “From an anti-social behaviour point of view a lot of activity occurs; you need to make a conscious decision to ignore/avoid it. It’s occurring on a daily basis” 12
    • “Gangs congregate on stairwells – though maybe not as bad a gang as it used to be” “Gangs on stairwells at night time and at weekends” “People hanging about on the stairwells and drinking” “Noise from the Young People hanging about – I don’t feel safe” “The entrances – its a poor environment for the kids; people are always hanging about on the stairwells” “Gangs hanging around on the stairwells and at the shops. Mizzonis (Pizza Shop) is open very late at the weekends” “Gangs hanging about” 8. What activities or facilities would you like to see provided for people specifically living within the Edenmore Shopping Complex? The focus of the respondents to this question was around their children and what facilities there could be made available for them. Responses included: “Something for the kids – like a play area” “A door to be put back on the stairs – at the top and the bottom” “A new Gate downstairs and a lift for people with prams” “Better facilities for children” “More activities for the kids – a space for the kids” “Something for the kids is needed” 11. Over the last 18 months, have you or any people living with you experienced any of the following situations which have caused you excessive worry or stress? Many of the respondents chose not to answer this and felt it was information they were not uncomfortable providing. It was important for them to understand that the significance of the question was in relation to any crime and anti-social behaviour that was occurring within their living area and the impacts that this may be having on 13
    • the categories listed below. Those that chose to respond indicated the following: Tick if yes Unemployment Housing Problems Financial Problems Problems caused by neighbours Not feeling safe w here you live Problems w ithin your ow n family Harassment from others Excessive noise w here you live Problems w ith your children Loneliness and/or isolation Work-related Problems Yours or some-one else’s Health Problems We can see that the areas impacted upon most significantly are: Excessive Noise Housing Problems Financial Problems, Not Feeling Safe and Health Related Problems 10. How safe do you feel walking alone in this area after dark? 4 of the respondents feel Fairly Safe, 3 felt Fairly Unsafe and one felt Very Unsafe. 11. How satisfied are you with the way the area is policed? 1 respondent was Very Satisfied, 1 was Fairly Satisfied, 2 were Satisfied and 4 were Fairly Dissatisfied and Very Dissatisfied. 14
    • 12. How satisfied are you with the way the area is managed by the owners? 2 respondents were Very Satisfied, 1 was Fairly Satisfied, 2 were Satisfied, 2 were Fairly Dissatisfied and 1 was Very Dissatisfied. 13. What changes could be made to make policing and managing the Edenmore Shopping area safer for people who live here? There were a range of responses which included: “Have there presence seen more at certain times” “Looking at access to the area – meetings were previously held but nothing happened – this needs to be addressed” “Stop the gangs hanging around” “Improve the access on the stairwells” “Teenagers should be removed from the area – stop them hanging around and drinking. There should be more for them to do in the area” “Security – particularly at night. Entrances and stairwells need to be addressed” “Stop the gangs hanging around, drinking and kicking footballs” “There’s nothing you can do except complain to the police – more CCTV linked directly to the Emergency Services” “Bring in people from outside Edenmore to deal with the issue” 15
    • 14. Have you experienced any of the following as a result of living within the Edenmore Shopping Complex area? Arson Prostitution Burglary Drug dealing Substance abuse/misuse Litter and rubbish not collected Serious Problem Litter and rubbish dumping Afraid to come in/out of home Fairly Serious Drunk people causing problems Not Serious People hanging about in groups Doesn’t Occur Theft of/from cars Damage to cars Damage to entries Graffiti and vandalism to buildings Noisy neighbours/parties 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% We can see that the most serious experiences are: Graffiti & Vandalism to Buildings, Damage to the entries, People Hanging about in Groups, Drunk People causing Problems, Afraid to come in/out of Home, Drug Dealing and Arson. 16
    • 15. Are you worried about any of the following happening to you, your family, neighbours or visitors? 100% 90% 80% Not Worried 70% 60% 50% Fairly Worried 40% 30% 20% Very Worried 10% 0% damaged/vandalised Property Burgled harassed/intimidated Being assaulted in mugged/robbed People trying to sell by people hanging Property behind Being the area around drugs Being From this we can see that significant numbers of people are either Fairly Worried or Very Worried about Being Assaulted in the Area, Being Harassed/Intimidated by People Hanging Around, Being Mugged/Robbed, Property Being Damaged/Vandalised and People trying to Sell Drugs. 17
    • When asked which of the following the respondents felt were most important to them in improving the Shopping Centre area in ascending order of importance, with 1 being most important and 10 being least important, the following emerged: Improved Security (CCTV/Monitoring) Better Lighting Improved Security Access Cleaning and Maintaining the area More businesses staying open later More Business closing earlier Better Transport Facilities More Police Patrols Neighbourhood Watch Scheme Improved Communal Areas for residents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 From this we can see that the most important improvements and/or actions that the residents think should be taken are: Improved Security (CCTV Monitoring) Improved Security Access More Police Patrols 16. Are you a member of any Community Groups, Residents Associations or Clubs? 100% of all the respondents were not members of any Community Groups, Residents Associations or Clubs. When asked if they would like to be (Q.16) 65% said they would be interested, if they had the time and knew more about them. 18
    • 19. When asked if they would like to see anything else done in the area, the following responses were given: “More CCTV monitoring in the area and more Police/Private Security” “Knock down the flats and rebuild them with locks and doors and gates” “Needs to be painted up, cleaner environment, hanging baskets – stairwells are disgusting” “Access for people with buggies – there are lots of parents with children” “Conditions could be improved – I don’t ask management to do much as it can take too long for them too respond” “I’d like to receive my mail directly” “Police patrols at evenings and weekends” 19
    • Built Design Assessment Newman6 identified 3 specific areas that affected the relationship between crime and the design of an area. These are territoriality, natural surveillance and image. While the assessment being carried out was not related to an anticipated design/development the principles can still be applied when we examine an existing site. These 3 principles will underpin the built design assessment, with some contemporary analysis in support. The method for carrying out this element of the assessment was by practically surveying the environment, recording what was observed via photography and note-taking. An extensive archive of images was subsequently created, some of which have been included here, primarily to provide visual evidence. All the images archived can be made available upon request. Territoriality Newman’s theory in Defensible Space assumes that people need to mark out and defend their territory. Good design will encourage this process, making it clear to people which space belongs to whom. Some will be completely private, some shared with permissions and some public. Two simple steps should be followed: firstly clear signage around and on property, informing people of its status (ownership), how you want people to behave and where you want them to go while on/around the property. Secondly, ensure the property is well maintained and demonstrate that you the owner cares for and manages the property effectively and that you are observing those that don’t. Territoriality includes: Defensible Space Access Maintenance 6 Defensible Space, 1972. 20
    • Natural Surveillance It is important for people to be able to casually observe their environments, whether they are where they live, work or relax. Doing so enables people to challenge those who either do not belong in the area or who are not using the area for legitimate reasons. It is important to note that people only feel that they are able to challenge others when they have identified with a particular place that they have a territorial instinct to protect. Natural surveillance includes: Lighting & Cameras Image and Environment Places often experience increased levels of crime and anti-social behaviour because they have an associated negative image. This may be something inherited as part of an historical legacy or it may be rooted in certain realities. Areas with high levels of crime and anti-social behaviour will attract people who will commit further offences because they have identified it as an area where the likelihood of being challenged has been significantly reduced. This contributes to both residents and businesses sense of a place having a ‘bad’ image. The affect of this is that it encourages a sense that nothing can be done to address these problems because they appear complex and entrenched. Various characteristics can contribute to this. Image and environment includes: Graffiti Criminal Damage and Vandalism Defined Space Views Improvements/Positives 21
    • Territoriality 1. Defensible Space Pictures 1, 2 & 3: Side railings demonstrate good defensible space measures, preventing people from putting graffiti on the side of the building. Advertising boards should be discouraged as it may provide cover for someone to hide behind. Picture 2: Demonstrates measures that reduce the ability of someone accessing a private area. It tells someone you are not allowed in here. Picture 3: Excessive use of defensible space measures. Although use as a former bank explains this, its current use as a General Practice Surgery should not require such measures. The message is ‘stay away’. Picture 4 & 5: Obvious defensible space measures are indicated by this perimeter wall and railings. This features in several areas around the Shopping Centre. However, never closing the gates leads to their use as a defensible space measure makes them redundant. They are intended to prevent access at certain times but are never used in that way. In Picture 5 the vertical poles demonstrate good use of defensible space measures in preventing vehicular access to the rear of the Shopping Centre. It does not prevent pedestrian access however, and gates on the other side of the Shopping Centre that never close means they are essentially obsolete. 22
    • Defensible Space Identified Problems Recommendations 1. The main perimeter wall and 1. Use the perimeter fence and railings, with gated access gates as a way of controlling points do not serve as access in and out of the defensible space measures. Shopping Centre area. The gates should be opened and locked at specific times that will facilitate all legitimate users of the space. A new system of access control in to the main area for residents needs to be urgently sought, with their input and agreement. Businesses that open late (fast food, etc) should be specifically located outside of the main Shopping centre thoroughfare. 2. Access and movement between 2. Control access between buildings is not prohibited by buildings with improved or new consistent and integrated defensible space measures, defensible space measures. such as high railings or walls. Ensure access control measures do not prevent access for emergency services. 3. The Health Centre demonstrates 3. Remove the railings and create excessive use of the softer defensible space defensible space principle measures, such as shrubbery or with the current railings. change of space indicators such as different paving. If removal of the railings is not possible, soften them by using as climbing frame for plants, shrubbery, etc. Signage for the Health Centre should be clearly visible, sited on the outside of the railings. 4. The areas around the Shopping 4. Implement new and improved Centre are not clearly location of signage for the defined. There is a clear lack Shopping Centre. At all access of ownership and visual points into the main Shopping indicators that inform people Centre area there should be of where they should and clear signage telling people shouldn’t be. where they are and what is in the area. There should be clear signs informing people of who owns the space, that it is being observed and that certain activities will not be permitted. Where CCTV 23
    • monitoring is being carried out this should be made clear to people using the area. Signage that does not have authorisation or is inappropriate should be removed. Ensure that the locating of signage is relevant to its purpose. Implement colour schemes for different areas of the Shopping Centre that distinguish private areas from public areas. These measures encourage legitimate users to use the space by raising their confidence in good management of the area. 2. Access Picture 1, 2, 3 & 4: Resident access points to their homes are unsecured and of extremely poor visual quality. There are no means of preventing anyone from gaining access to these spaces. There is no visual indicator to tell people that this space is for residents and legitimate service providers. This provides considerable explanation for the extent of the vandalism, criminal damage and poor maintenance of the area. There are significant accessibility problems for the residents living here. 24
    • Picture 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10: There are widespread access points to and around the Shopping Centre area. The area has some measures in place to restrict some types of access and at certain points. However, these do not integrate across the whole site, which effectively means that while some points are inaccessible for certain types of access (vehicular and pedestrian) they can effectively be accessed at other points. In picture 5 & 9 we see measures to prevent vehicular access, but picture 6 demonstrates access at another point which leads to the same area. Picture 10 demonstrates defensible space measures to prevent access, but the same area is accessible at Picture 9, making it obsolete. They also provide shortcuts for pedestrians encourage non-legitimate users and lead into areas that are difficult to be naturally surveyed. In short, virtually any area within the Shopping Centre and where residents live can be accessed, either by foot or in a vehicle, at anytime of the day or night. The area is never secured to prevent access. Picture 11 & 12: Demonstrates how some areas provide access to potential criminals and vandals. Picture 12 shows how the Health Centre roof is accessible using service boxes wrongly located and without defensible space measures. 25
    • Access Identified Problems Recommendations 1. There is complete and 1. The access points for the unrestricted access to residents need to be urgently resident’s space and homes, addressed. Controlling and irrespective of the time of restricting access to the day or night. residents’ communal and private areas is essential to reducing vandalism, criminal damage, alcohol/drug misuse in stairwells and improving the living environment for the residents. Shared entrances should have locked doors, buzzers, intercoms or entry-phones made of strong, vandal-proof materials. They should also be easy enough for small children or people with disabilities to use. CCTV in shared entrances and stairwells should be installed. Hidden areas and blind corners should have mirrors and covered by effective lighting. Areas around the main entrances need to be distinguishable from public areas, so that people know they are entering an area controlled by residents. Time- lights/passives should be located in areas that encourage residents to feel safer. In problem areas such as the stairwells, these should be permanently lit, with white light in protected lighting units and controlled from units located away from the light. Ensure all residents’ porches/doors are adequately lit and that they inform management of when lights go out or become damaged / vandalised. Link all new initiatives and improvements to tenancy agreements, provide information to tenants about 26
    • the role of the improved security measures and the overall improvements you expect them to make to residents’ environments and ensure that residents know how to use any new measures. 2. There is complete and 2. Access points around the unrestricted access to commercial premises of the commercial premises, Shopping Centre need to be irrespective of the time of urgently addressed. day or night. This is Controlling and restricting particularly evident in the access to the commercial central shopping aisle and at premises is essential to the rear of commercial reducing vandalism, criminal premises. damage and alcohol/drug misuse. Access into these areas should be restricted with effective Access Control and defensible space measures. Use the perimeter fence and gates as a way of controlling access in and out of the Shopping Centre area, particularly at night. The gates should be opened and locked at specific times that will facilitate all legitimate users of the space. Businesses that open late (fast food, etc) should be intentionally located outside of the main Shopping centre thoroughfare. Improve existing defensible space measures. Control access between buildings with improved or new defensible space measures, such as high railings or walls. Ensure access control measures do not prevent access for emergency services. Businesses should be encouraged to install separate CCTV and defensible space measures for themselves, where possible. Providing advice and guidance on current recommendations should be offered to businesses in partnership 27
    • with local Crime Prevention Officers. 28
    • 3. Maintenance Picture 1: Poorly maintained Shopping Centre area with evidence of vandalism not cleaned up. In Picture 2 there is evidence of vacant commercial premises and boarded flats above. This provides a potential target for vandals and squatters. Picture 2, 3 & 4: Poorly maintained access to residents’ homes, with graffiti not being cleaned up and a generally poor environment. The space also provides potential access and vandalism to residents’ electricity meters. These should be located away from general access and/or hidden away from view. 29
    • Picture 5, 6, 7 & 8: Poorly maintained access to residents’ homes, with evidence of graffiti not being cleaned up and a generally poor environment. No door on access stairwell, providing un-prohibited access and a potential Health & Safety risk to small children playing in this area. The service provision for drying clothes is insufficient and is at risk from vandalism and/or theft; evidence of loose wiring, posing a serious Health & Safety risk. The communal/shared space is not well provisioned and there is little to distinguish one home from another. The area is visually poor. Pictures 9, 10 & 11: Evidence of commercial premises not maintaining some of the areas to the rear. They also provide opportunities for vandalism and even arson, as evidenced in picture 11. Pictures 12 and 13 demonstrate just how badly the areas can become at times. These pictures were taken by a local resident after a particularly difficult night. As entrances shared for access to homes, in an area where 75% of children are under 5 this is unacceptable. 30
    • Maintenance Identified Problems Recommendations 1. The Shopping Centre area is 1. The Shopping Centre space can very poorly maintained as a only be effectively managed space aimed at legitimate when user responsibilities Businesses, Residents and the have been identified and Public. The overall management agreed. The primary business of the area is not effectively operator in McHugh Group needs addressing the concerns facing to adopt a more robust and businesses, the residents and inclusive management strategy the physical space/building for the area. This strategy itself. Poor management is needs to incorporate the 3 likely to be contributing to significant stakeholders; the some of the key issues facing Businesses, the Residents and the area. The appearance in the service users many areas is poor (in some (community/public). The cases, such as stairwells to strategy needs to outline who residents’ homes, it can only is responsible for what and be described as shocking) and ensure those responsibilities communicates a bad image of are met. McHugh Groups the place. There are poorly employment of one general defined areas of Manager is severely inadequate responsibility and ownership in addressing these problems. which encourages non- Significantly improved human legitimate users into the resourcing is recommended. area. This leads to graffiti Improve the overall vandalism, criminal damage, maintenance of the area, with appropriation of public and a particular emphasis on the private space for Residents stairwells and illegal/anti-social communal living space, the activities, creates no-go central shopping area areas and a poor image of the thoroughfare and individual place. business frontages/shutters. 2. Address the Health & Safety issues surrounding the exposed wiring on one of the main residents’ stairwells, as a matter of urgency. The general appearance of the stairwells and residents entrances needs to be improved. The smell of urine in one particular stairwell needs urgent attention. 3. Evaluate individual businesses maintenance of their immediate areas, both front and back. Ensure businesses are aware of their responsibilities for cleaning and maintaining their immediate areas, including shop frontage/shutters. More 31
    • bins need to be provided throughout the Shopping Centre area to tackle the issue of litter. The current DCC bins are of a poor design, minimising the ease with which shoppers/public are able to use the bins. 4. Ensure the Management Group is connected to wider structures that can assist in addressing some of the issues, such as the Edenmore Community Safety Group, Community Policing Team and the Community Development Project. Meeting and liaising with external structures will assist in the types of response and the resources available to deal with the issues. 32
    • Natural Surveillance 1. Security - Lighting & Cameras Picture 1: Good evidence of surveillance systems around the Shopping Centre area, with protective cages to prevent vandalism. All lights should also be encased in a protective cage and anything that may potentially obstruct the light/views should be removed immediately. Pictures 2: Good use of lighting, sited high to reduce vandalism. All lights should be encased in a protective casing. Lights should not be sited to close to adjoining walls as this reduces their spread/coverage. Picture 3: Unprotected lighting in the residents areas, which puts then at risk of vandalism. Lights should also provide significant illumination around the area they are being used in. These lights do not provide sufficient illumination in this area. Picture 4: Good use of surveillance around the Shopping Centre area, sited high and enclosed in a protective casing to prevent vandalism. Picture 5 demonstrates good use of lighting around the Shopping Centre area, raised high to prevent vandalism and providing good coverage both inside and outside of the perimeter area. Security: Lighting and CCTV Identified Problems Recommendations 1. Not all cameras and lights are 1. Ensure all cameras and lights enclosed in a protective are raised high enough to shell. avoid damage/vandalism. Ensure all lights and cameras are enclosed in protective casings and anti-vandal dome fittings. 33
    • 2. The current CCTV coverage is 2. Consider dedicated monitoring not monitored by someone on a of the CCTV. This may be done permanent basis. This lets at particular times (such as people know that their evenings) if 24 hr monitoring movements are not viewed at is not feasible. Securing the all times. The CCTV coverage Shopping Centre area at night is only trained on areas would lead to reduced within the Shopping Centre. monitoring throughout the There is no CCTV coverage in night. CCTV coverage at the and around the residential residents access points, areas. stairwells and in the immediate areas surrounding their front doors should be installed. Install always-on lighting in the entrances/stairwells to residents’ homes. 3. While there is good general 3. Ensure all lights within the lighting coverage of the area are of a consistent type Shopping Centre area, there is and cover areas particularly some inconsistency in type. vulnerable to non-legitimate use. Lights should be sited away from potential vandalism, should be of a high pressure sodium type, which compliments CCTV systems by increasing contrast and making identification of people easier. 4. In utilising enhanced security 4. Monitor and evaluate proper measures such as lighting and use of CCTV and lighting and CCTV it is also important that take expert guidance on the area is not visually current advice/regulations affected by looking like a (Garda advice). fortress and leaking light into surrounding areas where it becomes a nuisance. 34
    • Image and Environment 1. Graffiti The occurrence of graffiti around the shopping centre area is without doubt the most pressing visual concern. It has the most significant visual impact of anything else. Surveying the area demonstrated the extent of the problem. It is not restricted to certain areas or surfaces. It can be found almost anywhere within the Shopping Centre and at access points into the residents’ homes (particularly stairwells). It can also be found in the immediate areas where the residents live. Every available surface gets used, as these images show. 35
    • A significant distinction is also evidenced by these pictures. The problem is not graffiti artists doing large scale ‘pieces’ of art work. The area is simply being tagged or ‘bombed’, with people simply putting their name (tag) anywhere they can get it. This is a practice largely discouraged by genuine graffiti artists and considered to be graffiti vandalism, rather than graffiti art. The images are only a very small selection of the ones recorded during the survey. Graffiti Identified Problems Recommendations 1. Widespread graffiti across all 1. There are 3 suggested areas of the Shopping Centre. approaches to tackling this persistent problem. The first is a rapid response approach. This involves cleaning the graffiti as soon as it appears. This approach has been employed in some areas around the Shopping Centre 36
    • recently, but with little overall impact. Also, the graffiti covers so many areas and surfaces that it would be an almost impossible task to tackle under a rapid response approach. Ensuring that each individual business cleans graffiti from their area is particularly important. Bins, lamp-posts and service boxes should be cleaned by the respective owners e.g. Dublin City Council, Eircom, etc and an effective system for reporting this needs to established. Recent funding to tackle graffiti, made available through Dublin City Council should be explored. A second approach would be to select specific areas of the Shopping Centre and give them over to graffiti artists to use for dedicated art pieces. This may also provide an opportunity for working with some of the local young people carrying out the tagging/bombing. A potential benefit in this approach is that it gives ownership to those involved and also identifies what is acceptable graffiti and what is unacceptable graffiti. A further approach is to prevent access to areas/surfaces that can be tagged/bombed. In many areas this may be possible if a focus on preventing access was adopted. This would be particularly relevant in areas that generally should not be accessible, such as stairwells, roofs, resident’s space, etc. Preventing access to the Shopping Centre at night would also reduce the opportunities to tag/bomb certain areas. 37
    • 2. Criminal Damage and Vandalism Picture 1: Evidence of criminal damage/vandalism to commercial premises in the Shopping Centre area. Signs like these are particularly vulnerable to vandalism. In Picture 2 the rear yards of commercial premises have been subjected to vandalism and criminal damage. In this instance, we see evidence of forced entry. Un-prohibited access to the rear area enables people to reach this area. From Picture 3 there is evidence of criminal damage and vandalism to commercial premises around the Shopping Centre area. Criminal Damage and Vandalism Identified Problems Recommendations 1. Vandalism and criminal damage 1. Prevent access to areas that are carried out on commercial are subjected to criminal premises and residents areas. damage and vandalism, reducing the vandals’ opportunities. Where criminal damage and/or vandalism occur ensure that it is fixed/replaced rapidly. Commercial premises should be encouraged to rectify where/when this occurs. Not addressing these issues results in repeat vandalism and an increased likelihood that more will vandalism will occur. Preventing access to the residents’ space is particularly important in preventing damage/vandalism. The recommendations made in other sections, such as Maintenance and Access will also impact greatly upon the incidences of criminal damage and vandalism. 38
    • 3. Space Definition Picture 1 & 2: There are large areas around the Shopping Centre that do not tell people clearly what they are for or are not used for the purposes there were intended. Pictures 1 & 2 demonstrate how large parking areas are not utilised. Picture 2 also demonstrates the lack of definition as a rear entrance used for residents. There is no clearly defined space for resident parking or the general public. Picture 3 & 4: The space in Picture 1 incorporates an access point to residents’ homes, a commercial premise (currently vacant) and a communal shopping area. There is an obvious lack of defining any of these uses. Nothing tells people what is here and what you can and can’t do in the area. With the exception of limited signage the area is very poorly defined and communicates a lack of ownership. An ambiguous space is often an insecure space, at risk from damage, vandalism and criminal activity. Picture 5 & 6: Previous evidence of raised beds for plants/trees are still in place, but no longer used for this purpose. The feature has poor visual impact and evidence of graffiti communicates that it is no longer functioning as it should be. The communal space for residents in Picture 6 demonstrates confusion over what the space is for. There should be 39
    • separate dedicated spaces that can be used in specific ways for residents. Space Definition Identified Problems Recommendations 1. The area lacks clear 1. Identify space hierarchies definition of space and its around the Shopping Centre intended use around the area. These should be marked Shopping Centre area. The area out differently to communicate does not communicate what that they are to be used spaces are Public and what differently. Private, public areas are Private. and semi-public space should be the 3 distinct hierarchies identified. These differences can be marked out visually by changes in texture (paving), colour and facilities. This will require a more detailed analysis of the space and the involvement of all the stakeholders using the space. 2. The area has low visual 2. Soften hard areas with impact. Hard surfaces dominate shrubbery, changes in and there are virtually no texture/colour and attempts to soften the installation of street uninviting perception this furniture, such as communal creates. seating areas, architectural lighting and planters. 3. There is a lack of clear 3. Implement new and improved signage, which defines location of signage for the ownership, informs people of Shopping Centre. At all access the rules and regulations and points into the main Shopping helps people to move around Centre area there should be the area. These spaces lack clear signage telling people verbal cues on how they should where they are and what is in be used, who it is for and who the area. There should be controls it. clear signs informing people of who owns the space, that it is being observed and that certain activities will not be permitted. Where CCTV monitoring is being carried out this should be made clear to people using the area. Signage that does not have authorisation or is inappropriate should be removed. 4. Install street furniture within the main shopping aisle, giving legitimate users the opportunity to remain in 40
    • the area and deter non- legitimate users7. This also contributes to creating a visually attractive area. 4. Views Picture 1 – 7: Depending on the direction people access the Shopping Centre area; this is what people first see. 7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Street_furniture http://www.townscape24.com/ 41
    • Picture 8 & 9: The pictures show the visual impact of the resident’s areas. There is significant communal space but it is not used well. It provides a hard surfaced area for the children who live here to play, but little else. Views Identified Problems Recommendations 1. A central tool in creating 1. Consider the image that people defensible space relates to have of the immediate area and the image that a place what this says about the generates. Whether this is a place. Talk to local housing estate, a shopping businesses and residents about centre or a school, people’s what they think of the area perceptions are significantly and its impacts on the larger informed by the image of a community. Find ways of place. If a place has a improving the perception that negative or bad image it may people have of the area. Also be more likely to experience think about the immediate crime and anti-social visual responses that people behaviour because people have when they enter the area simply think they can get way and the approach from the main with it. In the case of Repeat arterial routes to it. Victimisation, whether applied to a person or a place, once it has occurred it is more likely to occur again. This increases significantly as the incidents continue to occur. 5. Improvements & Positive Features 42
    • Picture 1, 2 & 3: Picture 1 demonstrates good commercial presence with the flower shop. Even at a distance it communicates to people that they are in a business/shopping area and the type of businesses there are. Utilising the street space more positively should be encouraged. Picture 2 and 3 shows how commercial premises can ensure their area is well maintained and reduce the potential for non-legitimate users to gain access to their premises and waste/products. Pictures 4 & 5: Recent evidence of some attempts at improving the immediate Shopping Centre area; however, the scale and appropriateness is misguided. However, it demonstrates that there is a willingness on the part of some to take some action to improve the visual impact of the area. Positive Features Identified Problems Recommendations 1. The scale and appropriateness 1. There is a willingness on the of some of the recent part of the local Business improvement attempts have been Association and the local misguided and ill-informed. authority to address some of the problems. Adopting a more robust implementation plan would provide an opportunity to ensure initiatives are appropriate and well-informed. This will result in better use of resources, encourage involvement from other stakeholders and have greater impacts. Indicators for change should be identified and selected. This will enable any changes to be evidenced. Currently there are no indicators of change set out. 43
    • Use of Official Statistics In compiling this report there were several attempts made at accessing Garda statistics useful to the assessment of the area, through both the Crime Prevention Unit at Santry Station and in writing to the Garda Research Unit, Garda College Templemore, Co. Tipperary. No information in relation to official statistics was forthcoming from either channel. Walk-through Checklist The Walkthrough checklist enables us to gather more information about a specific location within the area under assessment. In large scale assessments such as Edenmore Shopping Centre, there will be areas experiencing greater or lesser problems related to crime and Anti-social behavior. This tool allows us to identify those areas that may be of greatest concern, what characteristics they have that make them different and what we can learn from this. The ease with which the tool can be applied also enables it to be used by people/volunteers not trained in overall Community Safety Assessments. The consequence of this is that it collects information from people based on their immediate assessment of a places ability to make them feel safe or unsafe and takes the recommendations of those most likely to use the area as a starting point. 44
    • Map of locations for Walk-through Checklist, with details outlined below. Location 1: Edenmore Shopping Centre, Central Aisle This location was surveyed on the following times: 06/03/08 at 8.25pm 11/03/08 at 10.25am 25/03/08 at 3.00pm An analysis of the findings informs us of the following: The area falls into the Shopping Area & Other (mixed) categories, encompassing a number of single storey flats above several of the retail units. The surveys found that their responses to the following ranged from: 45
    • 1. The area has a good bus service: Strongly Agree, Agree and Disagree 2. Car Parking is easy Around here: Agree, Strongly Agree & Agree 3. It is easy to find you way around here: Disagree, Strongly Agree & Disagree 4. The area is well maintained: Strongly Disagree, Strongly Agree and Strongly Disagree Pedestrian routes around the area are Pavements & Pathways. 2 of the three surveys found that the routes were well maintained/in good working order. How common are the following: Graffiti: Common & Very Common Advertising Billboards: Common Groups of people hanging around: Common & No Evidence during survey. Vandalism: Common & Very Common Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Common How do the following make you feel: Graffiti: Unsafe Advertising Billboards: Safe & No Opinion Groups of people hanging around: Very Unsafe & Unsafe Vandalism: Unsafe Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Unsafe Is the area well lit: Very Well through the main thoroughfare, with Floodlights. The light colour is white, none of them appear to be obstructed and the lighting makes the surveyor feel safer overall. Visibility & Vision through the site is generally good, with people visible at over 20 metres and their faces visible between 11-15 metres, even at night. However, places there are several places where people can hide, such as the recessed stairwells to the flats. Generally a person 46
    • can see well along their route, but it is also highly predictable. Removal of the fencing at either end of the route would also improve a person’s ability to see their route. The following act as potential hiding places, prevent some vision along the route and may contribute to making someone feel unsafe: Alleyways, walkways, recessed doors, Walls & Fences and some Parked Vehicles at the end of the thoroughfares. Predicting a person’s route through the Shopping Centre is Very Easy and a person could disappear into their surroundings Very Easily. The area was considered to be Quiet during all the surveying times and generally contributed to the surveyor feeling Unsafe. Pedestrians, Traffic and People in Buildings were never considered to be more than 16- 20 metres away, and in some cases as close as 5 metres from the surveyor. During the evening the surveyors recorded that the only places that a person could go to if they needed help was the Pizza Shop (Mizzoni) and houses located close by. None of the surveyors knew if there was a working telephone close by. The surveyors noted that there are several CCTV cameras covering the area and one sign informing people of their use. No Security or Police Patrols were seen by the surveyors while it was being carried out. The area is also well lit during the evening, contributing positively to an overall feeling of safety. The surveyors found that the overall appearance of the area was that it was not well maintained and did not invite people in to use the area. Location 2: Corner of Edenmore Park/Edenmore Avenue This location was surveyed on the following times: 47
    • 06/03/08 at 8.10pm 25/03/08 at 2.00pm An analysis of the findings informs us of the following: The area falls into the Shopping Area & Other (mixed) categories, being in close proximity to Housing (Terraced, Flats/Apartments) The surveys found that their responses to the following ranged from: 5. The area has a good bus service: Strongly Disagree & Agree 6. Car Parking is easy Around here: Agree 7. It is easy to find you way around here: Agree 8. The area is well maintained: Disagree Pedestrian routes around the area are Pavements & Pathways. Neither surveys felt they were in Good Condition. How common are the following: Graffiti: Common & Very Common Advertising Billboards: Common Groups of people hanging around: Uncommon Vandalism: Common & Uncommon Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Common How do the following make you feel: Graffiti: Unsafe Advertising Billboards: Safe & No Opinion Groups of people hanging around: Unsafe & No Opinion Vandalism: Unsafe Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Very Unsafe & Unsafe 48
    • Is the area well lit: Poorly lit, resulting in Dark Areas between Lights and Dim, even immediately below some lights. The light colour is Amber/Yellow, none of them appear to be obstructed and the lighting does not make the surveyor feel safer overall. Some of the businesses could improve the lighting on the frontage of their premises. Visibility & Vision through the site is generally good, with people visible at over 20 metres and their faces visible between 11-20 metres, even at night. However, there are several places where people can hide, such as the recessed entrances to flats and shops. Generally a person can see well along their route, but clearer/improved paving would assist a person, as would improved signage for directions around the location. The following act as potential hiding places, prevent some vision along the route and may contribute to making someone feel Very Unsafe or Unsafe: Walls & Fences, Parked Vehicles, Garages/Sheds, Unoccupied/derelict buildings and recessed doorways/porches. Predicting a person’s route through this location could not be done Easily. An attacker can disappear Very Easily into the surrounding area. The close proximity of houses to the site contributes to an overall feeling of Safety. The area was considered to be Busy and Very Busy during the surveying times and generally contributed to the surveyor feeling Very Safe & Unsafe. Pedestrians, Traffic and People in Buildings were never considered to be more than 11-15 metres away, and in some cases as close as 5 metres from the surveyor. During the evening the surveyors recorded that the only places that a person could go to if they needed help were the fast food outlets, a newsagents and houses located close by. None of the surveyors knew if there was a working telephone close by. 49
    • The surveyors noted that there are no visible CCTV cameras covering the area and no signs informing people of their use. No Security or Police Patrols were seen by the surveyors while it was being carried out. Businesses operating late can contribute to an overall feeling of Safety at night, although the business types here (Fast Food outlets) may attract people/activities that contribute to an overall feeling of feeling Unsafe. During the day the area is Very Busy and contributes to an overall feeling of Very Safe. Clearer signage could be erected, providing people with directions around the location. Removal of graffiti and some shop frontages should be improved. Location 3: Corner of Edenmore Park/Concorde Public House This location was surveyed on the following times: 06/03/08 at 8.00pm An analysis of the findings informs us of the following: The area falls into the Shopping Area & Other (mixed) categories, being a Public House in close proximity to a local Girls Primary School (Ste Eithnes), with Apartments located over the Public House. The survey found that their responses to the following ranged from: 1. The area has a good bus service: Don’t Know/No Opinion 2. Car Parking is easy Around here: Agree 3. It is easy to find you way around here: Agree 4. The area is well maintained: Disagree Pedestrian routes around the area are Pavements and they were in Good Condition. How common are the following: 50
    • Graffiti: Uncommon Advertising Billboards: Don’t Know/No Opinion Groups of people hanging around: Common (outside Pub smoking area) Vandalism: Uncommon Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Common How do the following make you feel: Graffiti: Unsafe Advertising Billboards: No Opinion Groups of people hanging around: Unsafe Vandalism: Unsafe Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Unsafe Is the area well lit: Adequately lit, resulting in Dark Areas between Lights. The light colour is White, none of them appear to be obstructed and the lighting makes the surveyor feel safer overall. Visibility & Vision around the location is generally good, with people visible at 16-20 metres and their faces visible between 5-10 metres, even at night. However, there are several places where people can hide, such as the gated area around the school and the alleyway between the Public House and Lidos Takeaway. Lighting in this area would make it easier to see your route. Generally a person can see well along their route but improved signage for directions around the location would help. The following act as potential hiding places, prevent some vision along the route and may contribute to making someone feel Unsafe: Parked Vehicles and Alleyways. Predicting a person’s route through this location could be done Very Easily. An attacker could disappear Very Easily into the surrounding area. 51
    • The area was considered to be Busy during the surveying time and generally contributed to the surveyor feeling Safe. Pedestrians, Traffic and People in Buildings were never considered to be more than 10 metres away, and in some cases as close as 5 metres from the surveyor (pedestrians and people in buildings). During the evening the surveyor recorded that the only places that a person could go to if they needed help were the fast food outlets and Concorde Public House. The surveyor recorded that there was a Public Telephone located in the Concorde Pub and that it was coin operated. The surveyor did not know whether it was in working order. The surveyors noted that there was CCTV cameras monitoring the Concorde entrance. A Police Patrol vehicle passed during the survey. The lighting around the Concorde and the presence of a late-night take- away contributed to an overall feeling of being Safe. The surveyor noted that some lighting in the alleyway between the Concorde and Lidos should contribute to an overall feeling of being Safer. Location 4: Corner of Edenmore Avenue/Edenmore Tool Hire This location was surveyed on the following times: 06/03/08 at 8.30pm An analysis of the findings informs us of the following: The area falls into the Shopping Area & Other (mixed) categories, with Housing being located in close proximity. The surveyor found that the response to the following ranged from: 52
    • 5. The area has a good bus service: Disagree 6. Car Parking is easy Around here: Agree 7. It is easy to find you way around here: Agree 8. The area is well maintained: Disagree Pedestrian routes around the area are Pavements and Pathways that are not Well Maintained. How common are the following: Graffiti: Common Advertising Billboards: Common Groups of people hanging around: Common Vandalism: Uncommon Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Common How do the following make you feel: Graffiti: No Opinion Advertising Billboards: Safe Groups of people hanging around: Unsafe Vandalism: Unsafe Unoccupied/derelict buildings: Unsafe Is the area well lit: Poorly lit, resulting in Dark Areas between Lights and Dim even below lights. Businesses are poorly lit. The light colour is White, none of them appear to be obstructed and the lighting does not make the surveyor feel safer overall. Visibility & Vision around the location is generally good, with people visible at over 20 metres and their faces visible between 16-20 metres. However, there are several places where people can hide, such as recessed entrances and hidden corners of the shops. Improved lighting and improved pavement markings, with clearer signage for directions would contribute to feeling Safer. A person can see adequately along their route. 53
    • The following act as potential hiding places, prevent some vision along the route and may contribute to making someone feel Very Unsafe or Unsafe: Parked Vehicles, Unoccupied/derelict buildings and recessed entrances/porches. Predicting a person’s route through this location could be done Very Easily. An attacker could disappear Very Easily into the surrounding area. The area was considered to be Busy during the surveying time and generally contributed to the surveyor feeling Safe. Pedestrians, Traffic and People in Buildings were never considered to be more than 10 metres away. During the evening the surveyor recorded that the only places that a person could go to if they needed help were the fast food outlets, a newsagents and Houses. The surveyor recorded that they didn’t know if a Public Telephone was located nearby. The surveyors noted that there was no CCTV cameras monitoring the location and no Security/Police Patrols passed during the surveying. Some features that can contribute to an overall feeling of Safety are the businesses open late (though the nature of these businesses could create feelings of being Unsafe) and the proximity of the Houses. The surveyor recommended that Improved Lighting, Improved Appearance and Clearer Signage could contribute to make the location feel safer. There are large areas of underused hard surfaces. 54
    • Further Recommendations The recommendations made under the headings above would be those considered most urgent in addressing a range of issues identified in the assessment. However, there are a range of other changes that can be implemented that make a contribution to the overall attempts at reducing crime, tackling anti-social behaviour and creating places that people want to spend time shopping, living and socialising in. These changes are generally based on research, experience and critical evaluations of what does and does not work. It is important to recognise the unique challenges that specific locations and types of space present, but it is also important to recognise that careful consideration and application of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design8 tools are available and ready to be used. Below, are some further general recommendations that can also be employed. Target Hardening: improving building security standards. Obstacles such as locks should be installed to deter potential burglars and vandals. Doors, windows, stairwells and hallways should be made more secure and the quality of exterior doors, door frames, hinges and locks must be high. Exterior lighting, alarm systems and key controls all add to security around a building. Advice should be taken from the Gardai on current recommendations for Target Hardening. Ensure Residents and Commercial businesses leases reflect responsibilities, rights and maintenance for individual and private space. Communal facilities and spaces for residents should communicate to people that they are not for general Public use. Transitional filters: One method of marking out territory is to provide a series of transitional filters for people moving from public to private 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_prevention_through_environmental_design 55
    • spaces. This lets people know that areas they should not be in begin well before they enter an area. Minimise the number of entries into a site, particularly if it is intended for residents use only. Build unique elements into shared residential areas, such as seating, and avoid large paved areas. Ensure residents doors are clearly numbered and have letterboxes if there are not lobby/hallway letterboxes. Install fish-eyes/peep holes on all residents’ entrance doors. Carry out resident and business security awareness raising initiatives. These can be done once or twice a year and provide opportunities for new information about crime and anti-social behaviour to be shared. These should be ideally organised with police involvement. Encourage residents and business to develop self-help approaches to managing their space, increasing a sense ownership and responsibility. Where possible provide resources that assist in this process. Co-ordinate and consult with residents and businesses’ about any new initiatives that are planned that may impact upon them. Also provide specific crime prevention training for facilities managers. Contact police and liaise with them around issues such as patrol times. Residents and businesses will be best placed to let the police know what times are particularly problematic. The Community Policing Team in the Gardai offer the most appropriate contact point. 56
    • Conclusion The relationship between the design of the built environment and criminal/anti-social behaviour is complex. The two main influences on criminal and anti-social behaviour are the nature of the physical environment and the nature of the social environment. Motivators for criminal and anti-social behaviour largely fall into the category of ‘social motivation’ or ‘situational motivation’. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design attempts to counter many of the ‘situational motivators’ by removing opportunities and deterring people. However, this approach also needs to be developed in tandem with initiatives that address wider social conditions influencing crime and anti-social behaviour. Working in partnership with other agencies such as Probation Services, Police and Local Authorities provides opportunities for interventions for tackling more destructive activities at an individual and community level. The formation by the local Community Development Project of a Community Safety Group for the Edenmore area provides an immediate structure to engage with and gather support from other agencies. Community interaction is also a key factor in addressing some of the issues identified in this assessment. The way in which community members interact with each other and the extent to which they exercise control over their environment, related to defensible space and territoriality, and to promoting a sense of ownership by the community all play significant roles. The Edenmore Shopping Centre offers many challenges in relation to tackling the crime and anti-social behaviour taking place. During this assessment surveyors were aware of the open and large scale drug dealing that is taking place at various locations. Combined with drug and alcohol abuse, particularly at weekends, this makes for a particularly problematic combination. Many of the measures and recommendations 57
    • presented here will not address these issues alone and a more strategic plan needs to be developed, that has Community Policing at its centre and ensures that all stakeholders are involved. This assessment is intended as a clear account of some of the most pressing concerns and the most immediate and relevant ways of tackling those concerns. It does not have the answer to all the problems, but it can act as the catalyst to get some problems resolved. The Edenmore Community Development Project welcomed the opportunity to take the lead at this stage by compiling this assessment. Acknowledgments The Edenmore Community Development Project would like to thank the following, for their contribution to carrying out and completing this assessment: David Duggan (Northside Partnership) St Monicas Information Shop Staff All the businesses who responded to our requests for information All the residents who responded to our requests for information Shea Mahaddy (Work experience student) 58