Open Educational Resources and Practices at the Knowledge Cloud Demetrios G. Sampson Department of Digital Systems, University of Piraeus & Informatics and Telematics Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial License . To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd-nc/1.0 or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. /35
Open Educational Resources (OERs) are defined by UNESCO as the: “ technology-enabled, open provision of educational resources for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes ”
/35 UNESCO, Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries-Final Report, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001285/128515e.pdf . 2002
They can be used and/or reused in teaching and learning (usually with attribution to the creator).
They can be repurposed, that is, modified/adapted for a educational different context of use.
They can improve teaching by building on other people’s work.
Their development is a global movement and as a result educational communities across boarders can be created around them.
/35 T. Caswell, S. Henson, M. Jensen and D. Wiley, “Open Educational Resources: Enabling universal education”, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, vol. 9, no. 1, 2008.
Open Educational Resources (OERs) Organization, Classification and Storage
They are represented in the form of Learning Objects (LOs) and include: “ video and audio lectures (podcasts), references and readings, workbooks and textbooks, multimedia animations, simulations, experiments and demonstrations, as well as teachers’ guides and lesson plans ”
They are classified and stored along with their associated metadata in web-based repositories which are called Learning Object Repositories (LORs)
/35 R. McGreal, “A typology of learning object repositories”. In H.H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlovski and D. Sampson, eds., International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, pp. 5-18, 2008.
Title: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Description: This Learning Object explains Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and how that turns into AIDS. It stresses risk factors, screening, and prevention. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. Material Type: Audio Lecture Source : OER Commons ( http:// www.oercommons.org / ) Learning Objects Examples (1/4) /35
Title: DNA from the Beginning Description: DNA from the Beginning is an animated tutorial on DNA, genes and heredity. The science behind each concept is explained using animations related to DNA topics, an image gallery, video interviews, problems, biographies, and links related to DNA. Material Type: Simulation Source : MERLOT ( http:// www.merlot.org / ) Learning Objects Examples (2/4) /35
Title: The Ear Description: An overview of the ear. Do you manage to put the names right? Material Type: Drill and Practice Source : Learning Resource Exchange (LRE) ( http:// lreforschools.eun.org / ) Learning Objects Examples (3/4) /35
Title: Hot potatoes quiz - Flash Description: Hot Potatoes quiz: multi-choice quiz covering the basics of Flash. Material Type: Quiz Source : JORUM ( http:// resources.jorum.ac.uk / ) Learning Objects Examples (4/4) /35
LORs are defined as systems that: “ enable users to locate, evaluate and manage learning objects through the use of “metadata”, namely descriptors or tags that systematically describe many aspects of a given learning object, from its technical to its pedagogical characteristics ”.
/35 R. McGreal, “Online Education Using Learning Objects”, Washington, D.C.: Falmer Press, 2004.
Learning Object Repositories (LORs) Existing LORs /35 OER Commons, USA Learning Resource Exchange, EU Le@rning Federation, Australia Jorum, UK e-yliko, Greece MERLOT, USA
/35 Less than 10.000 (Small LOR) National (UK) Cross-Disciplinary Higher Education JORUM ( http:// resources.jorum.ac.uk / ) More than 50.000 (Large LOR) International Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors MERLOT ( http:// www.merlot.org / ) More than 50.000 (Large LOR) Regional (Europe) Cross-Disciplinary Primary and Secondary Education LRE ( http:// lreforschools.eun.org / ) Between 10.000 to 50.000 (Medium LOR) National (Australia) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors Le@rning Federation ( http:// econtent.thelearningfederation.edu.au / ) Between 10.000 to 50.000 (Medium LOR) International Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors OER Commons ( http:// www.oercommons.org / ) Less than 10.000 (Small LOR) National (Greece) Cross-Disciplinary Primary and Secondary Education e-yliko ( http://www.e-yliko.gr ) No of LOs Region Coverage Subject Domain Educational Sector LOR Name
Typically, although it appears that people visit regularly and download heavily LOs from those LORs, still, there is limited offer of LOs from those people and there is limited feedback on the actual use eventually made by them.
As a result, we have limited evidences on LORs’ impact towards supporting teachers and/or educational practitioners in enhancing their teaching practices.
It might be argued that this is due to the fact that existing LORs are lacking systematic mechanisms for relating their educational resources to their learning and educational context of use .
Teachers and/or educational practitioners could benefit from having access to best teaching practices , sharing their teaching practices with other teachers and/or educational practitioners and reflecting on each others’ teaching practices.
This also bares the potential to provide learning and educational contextual knowledge to educational resources available in LORs.
An Open Learning Design (Open LD) is defined as: “ the description of the teaching-learning process, which follows a specific pedagogical model or practice that takes place in a unit of learning (e.g., a course, a learning activity or any other designed learning event) towards addressing specific learning objectives, for a specific target group in a specific context or subject domain ”
/35 R. Koper and B. Olivier, “Representing the Learning Design of Units of Learning”. Educational Technology & Society, vol. 7 no. 3, 2004, pp. 97-111
Title: Developing Research-Based Thinking Description: In this Open LD you will be reflecting upon the value of research based learning and teaching, and designing a research study of your own. Pedagogical Model: Research-based learning Source : LAMS LD Repository ( http:// lamscommunity.org/lamscentral / ) Open Learning Designs Examples (1/3) /35
Title: Proteins Description: In this unit we explore how proteins are the 'doers' of the cell. They are huge in number and variety and diverse in structure and function, serving both the structural building blocks and the functional machinery of the cell. Just about every process in every cell requires specific proteins. The basic principles of protein structure and function which are reviewed in this unit are crucial to understanding how proteins perform their various roles. Pedagogical Model: Guided Research Source : iCOPER LD Repository ( http:// www.icoper.org /repository/learning-design ) Open Learning Designs Examples (2/3) /35
Title: Cosmic Collisions Description: An examination of the cosmic battles being waged between celestial bodies Pedagogical Model: Inquiry-based Teaching Source : COSMOS LD Repository ( http:// www.cosmosportal.eu / ) Open Learning Designs Examples (3/3) /35
Open Learning Designs (Open LDs) Organization, Classification and Storage
Open LDs along with their associated metadata can be organized, classified and stored in web-based repositories which are referred to as Learning Design Repositories (LDRs).
LDRs are built so as to support storage, discovery, retrieval, use, re-use and sharing of Open LDs and Open LD templates (that is, Open LDs without specific educational content) among educational communities.
Title: Explore, Describe, Apply Description: The strategy used in this learning design is problem-based and has been applied to a subject in a graduate certificate of online learning although the strategy could be used in many undergraduate and postgraduate subjects. Pedagogical Model: Problem-based Learning Source : Learning Designs Repository ( http:// www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au / ) Open LD Templates Examples (1/2) /35
Title: Inquiry-based Teaching Description: This strategy is often contrasted with more traditional expository methods and reflects the constructivist model of learning, often referred to as active learning, so strongly held among science educators today. Pedagogical Model: Inquiry-based Teaching Source : COSMOS LD Repository ( http:// www.cosmosportal.eu / ) Open LD Templates Examples (2/2) /35
Learning Design Repositories (LDRs) Existing LDRs /35 LAMS Repository, Australia The Canadian LD Repository, Canada The Learning Designs Repository, Australia iCOPER LD Repository, EU
/35 Overview of Existing LDRs N/A N/A 7.163 N/A No of Users 875 International Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors LAMS Repository ( http:// lamscommunity.org/lamscentral / ) 32 National (Australia) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors The Learning Designs Repository ( http:// www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au / ) 520 Regional (Europe) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors iCOPER LD Repository ( http:// www.icoper.org /repository/learning-design ) N/A National (Canada) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors The Canadian LD Repository ( http://www.idld.org ) – Not Currently in Operation No of Open LDs Region Coverage Subject Domain Educational Sector LDR Name
Authoring Tools that can represent the pedagogical design adopted in the educational scenarios (that is, a structured flow of learning activities populated with resources and facilitated by certain tools and devices, where teachers and students participate assuming certain roles).
Strategies for using these tools so as to express the learning designs following consistent and commonly recognized terms among the educational practitioners of a given community
Learning Design Repositories (LDRs) Tools for Populating LDRs /35 Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) ReCourse MOT+ LD Editor ASK Learning Designer Toolkit (ASK-LDT) Open Graphical Learning Modeler (OGLM)
A Model Learning Design Repository The Case of COSMOS LD Repository
The COSMOS LD Repository ( http:// www.cosmosportal.eu / ) was developed in the framework of the COSMOS Project ( http://www.cosmos-project.eu / ) and provides access to Science Education Open LDs (compatible with IMS LD Specification) for school and higher education.
In order to enable the users of the COSMOS LD Repository (namely, Science Education Teachers) to develop their Open LDs in a commonly understandable manner and share them through the COSMOS LD Repository, we defined a strategy that includes:
The expression of typical pedagogical models used in Science Education, in the form of Open LD Templates by using an existing LD authoring tool, namely the ASK Learning Design Toolkit (ASK-LDT)
The customization of the selected authoring tool (the resulted tool was named COSMOS ASK-LDT), so as to incorporate the produced Open LD Templates and facilitate science education teachers to develop their Open LDs (based on these Open Learning Design Templates ) and share them through the COSMOS LD repository.
The COSMOS LD Repository has more than 1.650 registered users from 65 countries and includes more than 350 Open LDs and more than 100.000 OERs
/35 Comparison of COSMOS LD Repository with existing LDRs 520 N/A Regional (Europe) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors iCOPER LD Repository ( http:// www.icoper.org /repository/learning-design ) 1.650 N/A 7.163 N/A No of Users 875 International Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors LAMS Repository ( http:// lamscommunity.org/lamscentral / ) 32 Regional (Australia) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors The Learning Designs Repository ( http:// www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au / ) 350 Regional (Europe) Science Education School and Higher Education COSMOS LD Repository ( http:// www.cosmosportal.eu / ) N/A National (Canada) Cross-Disciplinary All Sectors The Canadian LD Repository ( http://www.idld.org ) – Not Currently in Operation No of Open LDs Region Coverage Subject Domain Educational Sector LDR Name
COSMOS Learning Design Repository Main Features (1/5)
Store Open LDs and/or Open LD Templates along with their educational metadata descriptions conformant with IEEE LOM Standard.
/35 Submit the file of the Open LD produced by COSMOS ASK-LDT Submit the Open LD metadata file conformant with IEEE LOM Standard
COSMOS Learning Design Repository Main Features (2/5)
Search for Open LDs and/or Open LD Templates based on their metadata descriptions
/35 Search Open LDs based on their metadata descriptions Number of searching results Presentation of the searching results
COSMOS Learning Design Repository Main Features (3/5)
Download Open LDs and/or Open LD Templates
Rate/Comment Open LDs and/or Open LD Templates
View Open LDs and/or Open LD Templates Metadata
/35 Provide ratings for the selected Open LD Download the Open LD in IMS LD Format Download the Open LD metadata in IEEE LOM Format Presentation of Open LD Educational Metadata descriptions
COSMOS Learning Design Repository Main Features (4/5)
Browse Open LDs and/or Open LD Templates:
by selecting the top rated Open LDs by the users of the repository
by selecting the Open LDs, which have been viewed by the most users of the repository and
by selecting the Open LDs, which have been recently stored to the repository.
/35 Top rated Open LDs by the users of the repository Most Popular Open LDs Recently added Open LDs
COSMOS Learning Design Repository Main Features (5/5)
View/Play an Open LD
/35 Structure of Open LD Learning Activities Tools/Services needed for the execution of the Open LD Associated LO of the selected Learning Activity Title: Extrasolar Planets Description: An Open LD concerning the study of extrasolar planets Pedagogical Model: Project-Based Learning