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Mobile Innovations and Evolutions in Education Ecosystem
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Mobile Innovations and Evolutions in Education Ecosystem


Paul Kim …

Paul Kim
EDEN Annual Conference 2011, Dublin

Published in Education , Technology
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  • Let’s turn our attention to another region in the world.This is a heavily armed military checkpoint in Qalqylya, Palestine.In order to go to school, each child must go through this check point everyday2 hours of electricity a day2 hours of water a dayNo computer no Internet No LibraryExtremely underserved school because of political reasonsHard to receive external aids
  • Children develop
  • With PSILAN, the coordinator can set up either complete anonymous or privately-tracked competition sessions for outcome analyses.Although all potential barriers and issues have not been fully addressed, a competition game based public health education program is expected to generate enough buzz in rural villages and get the people to talk about and share correct answers on the way to the competition games. Such idea is to counter the misconceptions around HIV/AIDS (e.g., HIV as evil spirit) and learn to prevent it at all costs.
  • Basically, the idea here is to convert quality HIV/AIDS learning content into competition game based assessment in Kinyarwanda and Swahili for rural villagers in Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, and Burundi. This project is to help increase participation rates while offering incentives for participants. Considering the cost of running current instructor-led or printed media-based HIV/AIDS education programs and low participant rates, PSILAN is to turn lecture-based education content into a competition game solution involving graphics and audios (i.e., for the illiterate). Once completed, the program will be announced as a competition to earn US $1 in remote rural villages and participant can play the competition to earn US $1 by answering an acceptable number of quizzes on HIV/AIDS.
  • Greenberg et al. also reported that monetary incentives played a key role in motivating eligible women to complete their HIV intervention study. In terms of contextualization for increased sustainability, PSILAN for HIV/AIDS education project is basically adding competition game component coupled with incentive structure to already existing mobile education projects such as the work of Ofotokun et al. who found non-interactive, yet culturally adapted mobile education devices to be still cost-effective in raising HIV awareness among rural villagers in Nigeria. Overall, the findings from PSILAN for HIV/AIDS project are to be reported in the upcoming reports.
  • We are in the process of developing programs for private sector to participate in our projects. Some of the initial discussions are being held with partnering organizations with local cellular operators. For example, in Rwanda, initial talks have identified potential ways to engage MTN to purchase and distribute commercial models of PSILAN incorporating existing nation-wide wi-fi model for content delivery. Also, through partnering NGOs in Latin America, mobile companies have helped us identify potential strategies of embedding commercial contents in the education materials to seek brand recognition in villages and pay for the cost of the mobile learning models in various countries. This type of partnership prototype models will be implemented in the next 24 months to investigate opportunities and challenges in the areas of scalability and sustainability.
  • What we are looking for in the future is not “one ipad per child.”It’s got to be “one inspirational moment“one smiley face“one dream“one hope“and one child at a time.”Together we, we make one world.Thank you.
  • PSILAN architecture can be highly decentralized to work with available local network services (e.g., GSM, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, etc.) and grow to address local needs at various levels (e.g., femtocell, picocell, community, or village network, etc.).
  • For example, if a village has no network of any kind, a simple Wi-fi access point or picocell access point could be turned on to serve as a micro backbone for a small learning network. With a simple access point with default network settings, one can instantly start servicing PSILAN and learners in the coverage area can join PSILAN with available mobile devices that can support the given network.
  • Since the core component of the PSILAN application that needs to be installed on mobile devices is light-weight, the mobile application installs quickly over the network and consumes minimal resources of the mobile devices. Because of the simplicity of PSILAN, it could be deployed within hours and easily taken to rural villages or hard-to-reach regions. It is designed so that non-technical people can easily author contents. Therefore, the potential use of PSILAN in under-developed region is quite noteworthy.
  • With cellular network coupling (i.e., in order to link with mobile Internet service provided by a cellular network carrier), PSILAN could enable ad-hoc interactive learning network (e.g., educational games), village-wide mobile survey network (e.g., public health survey), micro-economy development(e.g., village advertisement or marketing survey), social entrepreneurship support network (e.g., village woman empowerment programs), etc. Overall, Pocketschool Interactive Learning AdHoc Network solutions can be used as learning and assessment management solutions for various learning scenarios and programs especially in the underserved regions around the world.
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikezuk/1792030001/


  • 1. Mobile Innovations and
    Evolution in the Education Ecosystem
    Paul Kim
    Chief Technology Officer
    Assistant Dean
    Stanford University
    School of Education
  • 2. All living things evolve...
    So do thoughts, values, practices, organizations, etc. Therefore, evolution is everywhere around us.
    Let’s study some basic terms first.
  • 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alfredoliverani-stamps/4174269905/sizes/z/in/photostream/
    Darwin (1859) proposed the idea that organisms adapt and evolve through natural selection, creating particular ecological niches and eventually resulting in the emergence of new species.
  • 4. Natural Selection
    New change is introduced to the ecosystem.
    Predator is part of the ecosystem and it is certainly part of the environment the species interact with.
    No change means extinction. Better species = More competitive service, product, delivery, etc.
  • 5. Artificial Selection Interactions and Influences
    Natural selection => Responsive or reactive
    Artificial selection processes within
    organizations, models, etc. = Initiative or proactive
    Try out and see what works better or becomes better;
    Identify best practices and eliminate
    bad features or procedures; keep what work best;
    and scale up your model.
    You cannot expect a change if you just think
    about it and never try.
  • 6. A business or industry, as a living organism, often must evolve (i.e., to overcome or even leverage changes) in order to seek higher efficiencies and ensure itslong-term sustainability (Kim, 2010).
  • 7. Let’s look at some evolution examples from the industries.
  • 8. Evolving at a slower clock speed
    Boeing 747-100
    Take off…
    The same way
    No faster
    Boeing 747-200
    Boeing 747-400
    Value priority
    Ticket Price
    Operation Cost
    Profitable Routes
    Boeing 777-300
  • 9. 1981
    Text message
    Take photo
    Edit video
    Do whatever
    Value priority
    Expansion and Quality
    of User Experience
    When ICT is the main driver of evolution = faster clock speed
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. What can we learn?
    If the external evolution rate exceeds the internal evolution rate, extinction is eminent.
    Adapt to the changing rules of the game. Or die out.
    We know it, but the knowing and doing gap abounds.
    Many organizations are not good at evolving because they are busy putting out daily fires.
    Organizational change requires organizational cohesion through value alignment.
    Everyone is appreciating the same value.)
  • 14. Education Ecosystem
    New species
  • 15. MYSPACE for Grand Canyon University - From “almost closing down status” in 2001. (1949-2003 / 2004-2010)
    Making it the first for-profit Christian college in the United States. IPO NASDAQ in 2008. As of Dec. 2009: 37,000.
    Major genetic mutation occurred in 2003: non-profit to for-profit. Hybrid: on-ground and online. Joined the major league http://finance.yahoo.com/
  • 16. Founded in 1996
    Completely online. Started as non-profit and received accreditation in 2003.
    9000 students. 95% advanced degree seeking students. One 3-story building in the middle of desert in Arizona.
    Going for organic growth.
  • 17. Where are all the traditional university features?
  • 18. Commoncharacteristics of emerging universities
    • Convenient access (FlexNet, ALL-LINE)
    • 19. 21st Century ERP system
    (Tightly measure all performance indicators. CRM - every interaction matters.)
    • Unbundled faculty roles
    • 20. Cloud services (Plug-n-Play) – buildings, online library DB, admission, writing support center, IT support, everything that are not core competencies / Faculty contract by course – highly disintegrated model
    • 21. Dynamically meeting the market needs
  • DIY U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education
    It’s a story about the communities of visionaries who are using new technologies to bring us a revolution in higher learning that is affordable, accessible, and learner-centered.
  • 22. What’s for sure?
    Although the clock speed is still slow, more artificial selections to be made in the education ecosystem.
  • 23. Another interesting phenomenon in the education ecosystem.
  • 24. http://twulibrarynews.blogspot.com/2007_05_01_archive.html /http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-5032663-exam-bubble-sheet-with-pencil.php
  • 25. http://studenthacks.org/category/study-help/
  • 26. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/04/iphonestanford/
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Student Generated Inquiries inMobiSocialLearning Environment
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. Mobile Technology for
    Innovative, Inclusive, Integrative, & International
    Education Ecosystem.
  • 34. POMI 2020Programmable Open Mobile Internet
    The Stanford Clean Slate Programhttp://cleanslate.stanford.edu
  • 35. 33
    Stanford Faculty Team
    Paul Kim
    Scott Klemmer
    Dan Boneh
    John Mitchell
    Monica Lam
    Distributed Systems
    David Mazieres
    Phil Levis
    Mendel Rosenblum
    Christos Kozyrakis
    Ramesh Johari
    Guru Parulkar
    Nick McKeown
    Fouad Tobagi
    Andrea Goldsmith
    Arogyaswami Paulraj
  • 36. Global Partnership
    CETYS Universidad, Mexico
    Last Alliance
    Strike The Mouse
  • 37. Migrant indigenous children from Oaxaca mountain regions
  • 38. PocketSchool for those who have no access to school
    StoryReader coupled with paper stories!
  • 39. Do you believe sesame street was helpful for children to learn?
    How about mobile sesame street? More important matter is that smartphones of today are going to be much better than just mobile sesame street.
    Never owned a book in his life.
  • 40. Pocket school: Exploring mobile technology as a sustainable literacy education option for underserved children in Latin America. International Journal of Educational Development. 28(4), pp. 435-445.
    An action research for the development of mobile learning system for the underserved.
    Educational Technology Research & Development. 57(3), pp. 415-435.
  • 41. Socioeconomic Strata, Mobile Technology, & Education: A comparative Analysis.
    Educational Technology Research & Development (DOI: 10.1007/s11423-010-9172-3.
  • 42. Global Partnership
    Universidad Technologia, El Salvador
  • 43. Global Partnership
    Universidad Technologia, El Salvador
    MrsErlindaHándal Vega
    Vice Minister of Science & Technology
  • 44. Global Partnership
    BIRZEIT University, Palestine
  • 45. No computer no Internet No Library
    Extremely underserved school
    2hr/day electricity.
    ardto receive external aids
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. Mrs. Lamis Al-Alami
    Minister of Education
  • 49. Digital storytelling among Israeli and Palestinian Children in the Era of Mobile Innovation. (To appear in Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, Volume 36.)
    Creativity Gap in the Global Era: Using Mobile Devices to Assess and Develop Critical Thinking Skills Among Palestinian Youth. (Forth coming).
  • 50. Global Partnership
    Tumba College of Technology, Rwanda
    Civic engagement, Genocide victims with HIV/AIDS/ Micro-business-based women empowerment / Entrepreneurship & Mobile Storytelling
    Dr. Gatare
    Minister of ICT
  • 51. 49
    Raising HIV Awareness
    Counter the mis-conception
    Competition game based
    Learning HIV/AIDS & Track
    Learning entrepreneurship
  • 52. 50
  • 53. 51
  • 54. Content Management and Tracking System
  • 55. 53
  • 56. PocketSchool
    Do you remember why pocket-size mobile technology is different from desktop or even notebook computers?
  • 57. Portability
    Less electricity consumption
    Ease of implementation
    Ease of maintenance
    Performance tracking
    Individualized intervention
    The list goes on…
  • 58. Contextualized innovation vs. Reverse innovation - Much more energy efficient device. Alternative energy option for developing countries is green ideas for developed countries. Must be game-based/ activity-based in developing countries.
  • 59.
  • 60. Value-centeredEducation Ecosystem
    Service Learning Model
    Relevant and Meaningful Experiences for everyone
    Global Partnership for Global Causes
    Sustainable Education Ecosystem
  • 61. Mobile technology makes a bottom up approach actually possible.
    Easier to implement in a much shorter time.
    Leverage widely available cellular networks.
    Equalize access to educational development opportunities for all.
    Strategic value alignment to cause evolution in the education ecosystem (University students + Faculty + Children + Real world problems )
  • 62. Really?
    For all?
    At least we are trying our best…
  • 63. Alberto in a rural village school in
    Baja California, Mexico
    “I want to study with the
    mobile computer, too!”
    Mobile Exam and Audio Games for
    the blind. (Dominican Republic)
    We always look for partners!
  • 64. From device recognition to problem solving through collaborations.
    Response tracking log
  • 65. 63
  • 66. `
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. ROSE Series – specifically covering scientific phenomena
    linked to climate change, alternative energy, and natural disasters.
  • 70. Last-mile education solution
    on a Plug computer
    Competition games
    Mobile learning assessment
  • 71. 69
    Night time off-peak hours
    Day time peak hours
  • 72. 70
  • 73. 71
  • 74. Remotely Operated Science Experiment - A new approach to supplement real-time collaboration and online learning. (Forth coming).
    Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment (SMILE): using mobile phones to promote student inquires in the elementary classroom. (To appear in the Proceedings of World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Applied Computing. July, 2011)
  • 75. Exploration of a Self-Directed Mobile Learning Model for the Extremely Underserved Communities. (International Journal of Educational Development. 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2011.05.008).
    PocketSchool Interactive Learning Ad-hoc Network and HIV/AIDS Education in the Developing Region. (Forth coming).
  • 76. What have I learned about sustainability?
  • 77. 21st Century Value-Centered Education Ecosystem
    Shared peace & prosperity, mental & physical wellbeing, unity (Afghan refugee, Uganda refugee, Nomadic Indian tribes, HIV/AIDS victims of the genocide, children in Qalqylya, Palestine, students with disabilities, Ashram Ghandi, etc.
    Must continue to evolve
  • 78. The Future is Here; It's Just Not Widely Distributed, Yet.
    - William Gibson
    The Future is Not Widely Distributed. Therefore, It is Not Here, Yet.
    - Paul Kim
  • 79. Evolution never stops. Life is just a dash.
    What will you cause in your life?
  • 80. Let’s remember Dr. Kim Foreman, Professor of Education, San Francisco State University,
    who died on a jungle road while striving to educate and empower future leaders of Rwanda