Insung Jung International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan
ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education:
Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs
A keynote speech Fifth EDEN Research Workshop Organized by EDEN in collaboration with CNED & UNESCO 20-22 OCTOBER, 2008 Paris, France
I nternational C hristian U niversity Tokyo, Japan Liberal Arts College About 3,000 students from 40 countries 158 full-time faculty Accredited by MOE (Japan) and the American Academy for Liberal Education (AALE, USA) Blended learning
4. Changes in learning paradigm Why ICT integration in DE? Formal Schooling Lifelong Learning Society Fact/Information/ Answers Knowledge/Wisdom/ Solutions Teacher-centered Learner-centered ICT adoption ; E-learning development Singapore: Thinking School, Learning Nation Korea: Edutopia Germany: Lifelong education for everyone
3) Ubiquitous access 2) Quality improvement 1) Pedagogical innovation 4) High market value Promises
1) Pedagogical innovation From teacher-centered to learner-centered “ A truly learner-centered approach to education will be realized.” “The teacher will facilitate learning. ” Social constructivistic learning environment “ Learning would be engaged in authentic tasks or real world problem solving situations.” “New knowledge will be constructed collaboratively.” Global learning community building “ Learning communities will be formed to create knowledge.” Full of multimedia resources (Bates, 1995; 2005; Harasim, 1993; Khan, 1997; Zemsky & Massy, 2004)
Improved teaching quality “ Application of learner-centered instructional design; best teaching practices” “ Better adaptation to individual needs.” “ Better management of learning processes.” Improved learning effectiveness “ Communication will be improved.” “ Students will be more actively engaged in learning.” “ Higher level skills will be acquired.” Improved support “ 24/7, individualized support.” “ Added values - ICT skill improvement, collaboration, efficiency….” 2) Quality improvement
Ubiquitous access “ People would be able to learn anywhere, any time.” Expanded learning opportunities “ There will be a boom in adult education.” “ Lifelong society will be realized.” Bridging the Gap “ Quality education will be delivered to remote areas, underdeveloped regions” “ ICT can lessen the gender gap in education.” “ E-learning will bring about educational equity.” 3) Ubiquitous access
Improved cost-efficiency “ It is a cost-efficient approach to education.” “ Economies of scale will be achieved.” Revenue-generating; profit-making potentials “ E-learning market opportunity will grow drastically.” “ It would generate revenue for an organization.” “ There is a global market for e-learning.” 4) High market value
Some politicians and media complain of ‘declining educational standards’ and attribute these to the new ideologies and methods.
In an era of globalization and competition for strategic gains and resources, even the longest-established and most successful institutions must safeguard their positions through continuous improvement.
DE providers and advocates of ICT integration need to sell the story of their successes.
Realities – High market value Success stories 1) University of Pheonix Online Campus 2) University of Maryland University College 3) Canada’s Athabasca Univ. Online MBA 4) Online testing services (SAT; TOEFL) 5) Online cram schools (Megastudy, Korea) 6) Some MBA programs --- Owe more to past market success/brand image than to ICT integration Zemsky & Massy, 2004; Latchem & Jung, 2009
Realities – High market value Underperformed/failed 1) Fathom and NYU online gone 2) UK e-University failed 3) Not enough students in most programs --- Some generating revenue; but not making profit Garrett, 2004; Zemsky & Massy, 2004
Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research – cultural, contextual considerations) Commonwealth of Learning http:// col.org Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia http:// www.cemca.org EuroPACE http:// www.europace.org UNESCO Bangkok ICT in Education http:// www.unescobkk.org UNESCO Asia Pacific Knowledge Base on ODL http://asiapacific-odl.oum.edu.my
e-ASEM Network for ICT and lifelong learning http:// asem.knou.ac.kr
Starting small and strategically ICT/e-Learning as a strategic and reform tool - “Authentic learning” Student Olympic Magazine (Schools in UK, Hong Kong & China) http:// clc.esf.edu.hk/GroupHomepage.asp?GroupID =37650 Start with one department/program - Kumamoto Univ. Japan – Graduate Program Instructional Systems Need-based programs only – MBA; Education; Health-related; ICT
Diversifying partnerships Singapore Institute of Management (SIM) and UKOU Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration and Public Administration --- AIOU, BOU, INGOU, OUSL and Wawasan Open University in Malaysia Saudi Arabia ’s National Centre for E-Learning and Distance Education -- Open University of Malaysia Arab Open University (AOU) and UKOU Schools in Nepal & New Zealand: LearnZ --- strategic; one-to-one; one-to-few; regional partnerships
Blended approaches Blending online and F2F education - Indira Gandhi National Open University Virtual Campus - Open University of Malaysia MEd program - Anadolu Univ. English Language Teaching Program - Blended Tutoring Blending old and new technologies - Print & Broadcast programs and M-learning - Conventional DE programs and synchronous technologies (Skype, e.g.) or Web 2.0 technologies (Blogs, wikis)
M-learning Asia - one billion of the world’s 2.7 billion mobile users Cambodia - the first country to have more mobile phone than fixed line subscribers ; has the world’s highest ratio of telephone users using wireless University of the Philippines Open University Shanghai Jiaotong University , China Kanebo Cosmetics , Japan City University of Hong Kong --- Bypassing online learning
Quality assurance and accreditation Cast study and Surveys – QA in DE/E-learning institutions in the AP region (2004 - 2007) 2009 – quality from learner perspective Discussions / Research evolving From Quality vs Access to Access through Quality Quality culture spread QA system development – early stage - QA/accreditation guidelines for DE/ICT use - QA approaches emerging
The emphasis shifts to input, implementation, output and back to input.
- UT, OUUK
5. QA as Compliance with international standards and requirements
give students greater confidence in the courses and awards and enable their studies to be recognized
Athabasca and USQ from USA
Three guiding stars for integrating ICT and QA system in ODEL to supporting ubiquitous access Conclusions
#1. QA as an essential tool QA as an essential tool for educational development and ubiquitous access to ODEL There should be no distinction between QA in ODEL and conventional education , but there should be specific guidelines, criteria and methods for judging the various modes of delivery. The national level QA for ODEL/ICT use should be as strong as (not softer than) that of higher education. There should be a ‘culture of quality’ that is shared willingly by all managers and staff, links internal and external accountability, builds capacities in QA and involves open, transparent management and communication.
#2. Promoting research Research is essential for improving understanding and practice, assuring and improving quality, informing and influencing policy-making and ensuring that ODEL is recognized as scholarly activity in its own right.
#3. Changes in practice ODEL environments need to be conceived such that the technology does not simply provide an information repository but serves as a platform for student-centered, teacher-facilitated and collaborative knowledge building . The instructional design (ID) needs to fully exploit the potential of ICT. There is also need for ID models for constructivistic learning environment design.