ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education: Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs

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  • 1. Insung Jung International Christian University, Tokyo, Japan
    • ICT and quality assurance to support ubiquitous access to distance education:
    • Promises, realities, and recent breakthroughs
    A keynote speech Fifth EDEN Research Workshop Organized by EDEN in collaboration with CNED & UNESCO 20-22 OCTOBER, 2008 Paris, France
  • 2. I nternational C hristian U niversity Tokyo, Japan Liberal Arts College About 3,000 students from 40 countries 158 full-time faculty Accredited by MOE (Japan) and the American Academy for Liberal Education (AALE, USA) Blended learning
  • 3. My experiences
    • Korea National Open University
    • Ewha Woman’s University, Multimedia Education Institution
    • Distance Education/E-learning field/ICT use – UNESCO, WB, APEC consultant
    • Research –policy, quality assurance, evaluation, instructional design, Asian distance education
    • Teaching – instructional design, distance education, e-learning research, media literacy
    • http:// epiaget.com (homepage)
  • 4.
    • Latchem, C. & Jung, I.S. (2009). Distance and blended learning: Opening up Asian education and training. New York & London: Routledge (Distance Education Series).
  • 5. Today’s Presentation
    • ICT integration in Distance Education
      • Background changes
      • Promises
      • Realities
    • Recent breakthroughs
    • Conclusion
  • 6.
    • 1. Technology development
    • Psychological changes
    • Social, behavioral changes
    • Changes in learning paradigm
    Why ICT integration in DE? ICT Integration E-learning
  • 7. 1. Technology development Why ICT integration in DE? Source - http://www.weboma.com/internetic-world-in-the-year-2015/
  • 8. 1. Technology development Why ICT integration in DE? Source - http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
  • 9. 1. Technology development
      • Internet users (Least developed countries)
    Why ICT integration in DE? Countries Internet Users    Dec/2000 Angola    30,000 100,000 233% Benin    16,000 150,000 900% Afghanistan 1,000 580,000 57,900% Cambodia   6,000 70,000 1,066% Internet Users Latest Data Internet Users Latest Data Source - http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
  • 10. 1. Technology development Why ICT integration in DE? Source - http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/index.html
  • 11. 2. Psychological changes Why ICT integration in DE?
    • Computers aren’t new technology anymore.
    • The Internet is better than TV
    • Reality is no longer real - more than one identity
    • Multitasking, a way of life
    • Typing is preferred to handwriting
    • Web, indispensable
    • Zero tolerance for delays
    • Consumer and creator are blurring
    • Network-enabled mobile phones become necessity
    • Sources - Oblinger, 2002; Jung, 2003
  • 12. 3. Social, behavioral changes Why ICT integration in DE?
    • Teens
    • - Over 90% Use the Internet for new information
    • - Over 70% use instant messaging to keep in touch
    • - Over 50% contact strangers on the net
    • - Over 40% post own information online to be contacted
    • - Over 30% experienced cyberbullying
    • Overall
    • - 25% of retail stock trades on the Internet
    • - Over 90% Internet users, online shopping
    • (Korea, UK, Germany, Japan, US)
    • - 87% of print journalists connected to the Internet
    • Sources - Lenhart, Simon & Graziano, 2001; Jung, 2003; 2007 Pew/Internet research; 2008 Nielsen
  • 13. 4. Changes in learning paradigm Why ICT integration in DE? Formal Schooling Lifelong Learning Society Fact/Information/ Answers Knowledge/Wisdom/ Solutions Teacher-centered Learner-centered ICT adoption ; E-learning development Singapore: Thinking School, Learning Nation Korea: Edutopia Germany: Lifelong education for everyone
  • 14. 3) Ubiquitous access 2) Quality improvement 1) Pedagogical innovation 4) High market value Promises
  • 15. 1) Pedagogical innovation From teacher-centered to learner-centered “ A truly learner-centered approach to education will be realized.” “The teacher will facilitate learning. ” Social constructivistic learning environment “ Learning would be engaged in authentic tasks or real world problem solving situations.” “New knowledge will be constructed collaboratively.” Global learning community building “ Learning communities will be formed to create knowledge.” Full of multimedia resources (Bates, 1995; 2005; Harasim, 1993; Khan, 1997; Zemsky & Massy, 2004)
  • 16. Improved teaching quality “ Application of learner-centered instructional design; best teaching practices” “ Better adaptation to individual needs.” “ Better management of learning processes.” Improved learning effectiveness “ Communication will be improved.” “ Students will be more actively engaged in learning.” “ Higher level skills will be acquired.” Improved support “ 24/7, individualized support.” “ Added values - ICT skill improvement, collaboration, efficiency….” 2) Quality improvement
  • 17. Ubiquitous access “ People would be able to learn anywhere, any time.” Expanded learning opportunities “ There will be a boom in adult education.” “ Lifelong society will be realized.” Bridging the Gap “ Quality education will be delivered to remote areas, underdeveloped regions” “ ICT can lessen the gender gap in education.” “ E-learning will bring about educational equity.” 3) Ubiquitous access
  • 18. Improved cost-efficiency “ It is a cost-efficient approach to education.” “ Economies of scale will be achieved.” Revenue-generating; profit-making potentials “ E-learning market opportunity will grow drastically.” “ It would generate revenue for an organization.” “ There is a global market for e-learning.” 4) High market value
  • 19.
      • Achievements
      • Mega Universities
        • From 10 (1996) to over 20 Mega Universities
      • Cross-border DE
        • Australia, UK, USA, and Canada (Exporting Countries) - China, India, Malaysia and Singapore (Importing Countries in Asia)
        • Indira Gandhi National Open University - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Doha, Kuwait and Sultanate of Oman, Maldives, Mauritius and Seychelles, Vietnam, Myanmar and Singapore
    Realities – Access Daniel, 2003; Jung & Latchem, 2007
  • 20.
      • Rise of Virtual Universities
        • Jones International University , University of Phoenix Online
        • U2 1Global, Cardean University, Global University Alliance
        • Open University of Catalonia
        • Finnish Virtual University
        • Virtual University of Pakistan
        • Syrian Virtual University, Arab Open University
        • Mexico’s ITESM Virtual University by Tecnológico de Monterr ey
          • Master’s degrees and doctorate programs
          • Mexico, other Latin countries, USA and Canada
          • from 29,887 in 1999 to 85,000 in 2008
        • Korea’s 17 Virtual Universities since 2001
          • Undergraduate, totally online
          • from 6,220 in 2001 to 23,550 in 2006
    Realities – Access Studies in the Context of the E-learning Initiative: Virtual Models of European Universities http://www.elearningeuropa.info/extras/pdf/virtual_models.pdf
  • 21.
      • E-learning in Conventional Universities
        • 68 e-colleges in China ;
        • Over 80 % universities in USA
        • Europe (UK, Spain, Finland, France, Germany and more), Asia (Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan…)
      • Consortia
        • Sweden Net University ; Le Campus Numérique
        • Thailand Cyber University
      • For-Profit DE Providers
        • Global - Thomson Learning (U21Global), Apollo International (India & China)
        • Local - Kenichi Omae Graduate School of Business in Japan ; Online cram school industries
    Realities – Access
  • 22.
    • Overall,
    • Most e-education has taken place within national borders.
    • 2) Digital Divide
    • - within country; between countries
    • - Gender gap; Generation gap
    • 3) Lack of Regulatory Mechanism
    • - Quality issues ; Mutual Recognition issues
    Realities – Access
  • 23.
        • Achieved
        • Resource sharing
        • High level of mutual support among students
        • Greater dialogue when shared perspectives
        • Sense of community and lower attrition rates
        • when support interactivity, reflection, and sharing
        • when careful instructional design applied
        • Learning by doing; e-moderating
    Realities - Pedagogy Bakardjieva and Harasim, 1999; Bonk, 2002; Harnishfeger, 2003 ; Jung, 2008; Salomon, 2002; Shank, 2001; many others
  • 24.
        • Examples
        • 1. Innovative teachers
        • - Microsoft Innovative Teachers Network http:// www.innovativeteachers.com /
        • - UNESCO ICT in Education Awards http:// www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id =6359
        • 2. Case-based, project-based, resource-based
        • - Case-based e-learning group Univ of Georgia http:// projects.coe.uga.edu/cbel /
        • 3. Competency-based/story-based e-learning program
        • - Kumamoto University in Japan http://www.gsis.kumamoto-u.ac.jp /
        • 4. Simulations/virtual lab experiments
        • - Virtual Tel-Aviv University http://virtual2002.tau.ac.il/NewLoginFrames.asp?TopLang=1&lang=1
    Realities - Pedagogy Nachmias, Ram, & Mioduser, 2006; Suzuki, 2006
  • 25. Realities - Pedagogy
            • Underperformed/failed
            • Time-honored instructional model prevails
            • Still teacher-centered – Focus on information dissemination
            • Text-based, online versions of lectures, textbooks and notes
            • 70% providing BBS, but not integrated, closed, meaningless..
            • Personal learning style, not accommodated
            • Limited interaction due to lack of interaction design skills, faculty overload, cultural/personal factors
    Latchem & Jung, 2009
  • 26.
            • Contrasting findings
            • Favorable responses –
            • “ motivating and interesting”
            • Negative responses –
            • “ impersonal, isolating and frustrating”
            • Improved learning gains –
            • “ full of resources, sharing ideas”
            • Not substantial changes –
            • “ instructional models are same”
    Realities – Quality improvement Latchem & Jung, 2009
  • 27.
    • Some politicians and media complain of ‘declining educational standards’ and attribute these to the new ideologies and methods.
    • In an era of globalization and competition for strategic gains and resources, even the longest-established and most successful institutions must safeguard their positions through continuous improvement.
    • DE providers and advocates of ICT integration need to sell the story of their successes.
    QA Concerns Emerged Realities – Quality improvement Jung & Latchem, 2007
  • 28. Realities – High market value Success stories 1) University of Pheonix Online Campus 2) University of Maryland University College 3) Canada’s Athabasca Univ. Online MBA 4) Online testing services (SAT; TOEFL) 5) Online cram schools (Megastudy, Korea) 6) Some MBA programs --- Owe more to past market success/brand image than to ICT integration Zemsky & Massy, 2004; Latchem & Jung, 2009
  • 29. Realities – High market value Underperformed/failed 1) Fathom and NYU online gone 2) UK e-University failed 3) Not enough students in most programs --- Some generating revenue; but not making profit Garrett, 2004; Zemsky & Massy, 2004
  • 30. Realities – High market value
    • Underperformed/failed
    • Over-estimate the market potential and under-estimate the educational and logistical challenges
    • Ignore the realities of ICT infrastructure, access and costs
    • Over-estimate learner readiness for e-learning
    • Embark on large-scale online learning programs and projects without initial try-outs
    • Be insensitive or slow in responding to customers’ expectations
    • Not obtain accreditation
    • Not meet the quality expectations of learners, particularly in regard to learner support
    • Not provide incentives for continuous private sector involvement in the partnerships
    Latchem & Jung, 2009
  • 31. Over a decade experience - Learned from successes and failures - Now….
  • 32. Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research) Starting small and strategically Diversifying partnerships Blended approaches M-learning Quality assurance and accreditation Recent breakthroughs
  • 33. Recent breakthroughs
    • Cataloguing lessons learned (cases, empirical research – cultural, contextual considerations) Commonwealth of Learning http:// col.org Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia http:// www.cemca.org EuroPACE http:// www.europace.org UNESCO Bangkok ICT in Education http:// www.unescobkk.org UNESCO Asia Pacific Knowledge Base on ODL http://asiapacific-odl.oum.edu.my
    • e-ASEM Network for ICT and lifelong learning http:// asem.knou.ac.kr
  • 34. Recent breakthroughs
    • Cataloguing lessons learned (Online journals)
    • Asian Journal of Distance Education http:// www.asianjde.org /
    • European Journal of OD & E-learning
    • http:// www.eurodl.org
    • Indian Journal of Open Learning http://www.ignou.ac.in/IJOL/Link%201a.htm
    • International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT, http:// ijedict.dec.uwi.edu//index.php
    • The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http:// www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl
    • The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education http:// tojde.anadolu.edu.tr /
  • 35.
    • Starting small and strategically ICT/e-Learning as a strategic and reform tool - “Authentic learning” Student Olympic Magazine (Schools in UK, Hong Kong & China) http:// clc.esf.edu.hk/GroupHomepage.asp?GroupID =37650 Start with one department/program - Kumamoto Univ. Japan – Graduate Program Instructional Systems Need-based programs only – MBA; Education; Health-related; ICT
    Recent breakthroughs
  • 36.
    • Diversifying partnerships Singapore Institute of Management (SIM) and UKOU Commonwealth Executive Master of Business Administration and Public Administration --- AIOU, BOU, INGOU, OUSL and Wawasan Open University in Malaysia Saudi Arabia ’s National Centre for E-Learning and Distance Education -- Open University of Malaysia Arab Open University (AOU) and UKOU Schools in Nepal & New Zealand: LearnZ --- strategic; one-to-one; one-to-few; regional partnerships
    Recent breakthroughs
  • 37.
    • Blended approaches Blending online and F2F education - Indira Gandhi National Open University Virtual Campus - Open University of Malaysia MEd program - Anadolu Univ. English Language Teaching Program - Blended Tutoring Blending old and new technologies - Print & Broadcast programs and M-learning - Conventional DE programs and synchronous technologies (Skype, e.g.) or Web 2.0 technologies (Blogs, wikis)
    Recent breakthroughs
  • 38.
    • M-learning Asia - one billion of the world’s 2.7 billion mobile users Cambodia - the first country to have more mobile phone than fixed line subscribers ; has the world’s highest ratio of telephone users using wireless University of the Philippines Open University Shanghai Jiaotong University , China Kanebo Cosmetics , Japan City University of Hong Kong --- Bypassing online learning
    Recent breakthroughs
  • 39.
    • Quality assurance and accreditation Cast study and Surveys – QA in DE/E-learning institutions in the AP region (2004 - 2007) 2009 – quality from learner perspective Discussions / Research evolving From Quality vs Access to Access through Quality Quality culture spread QA system development – early stage - QA/accreditation guidelines for DE/ICT use - QA approaches emerging
    Recent breakthroughs
  • 40.
    • QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE
    • India,
    • Distance Education Council
    • “ Handbook of ODL”
    • US,
    • Commission of Institutions of Higher Education
    • “ Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs”
    • UK,
    • Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education
    • “ Distance Learning Guidelines”
    Quality, QA & Accreditation
  • 41.
    • QA and Accreditation Guidelines for DE
    • European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education “Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area”
    • EADL’s Quality Standards and Code of Conduct
    • UNESCO/Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN)
    • “ O pen and Distance Learning Knowledge Base”
    • “ Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Education”
    • National Association of Distance Education Organizations of South Africa (NADEOSA)
    • “ Quality Criteria for Distance Education in South Africa”
    Quality, QA & Accreditation
  • 42. Five Approaches (not mutually exclusive)
    • conforming to the standards applied to conventional education
    • fitness for purpose
    • meeting customers ’ needs
    • continuous improvement
    • compliance with international standards and requirements
    Quality, QA & Accreditation
  • 43. 1. QA as conforming to the standards applied to c onventional education
    • Same criteria and standards are applied in judging the quality of ODL and conventional institutions’ management, teaching, resources and outcomes
    • China, Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong
  • 44. 2. QA as fitness for purpose
    • Quality is measured by how well institutions, programs or services fulfill their intended purposes.
    • - India, Korea and Turkey
  • 45. 3. QA as Meeting Customers’ Needs
    • The institutional mission statements, policies and procedures focus on the learners ’ characteristics, needs and circumstances.
    • - ISO9001 ( UT , OUM , some Korean Cyber Univ.)
  • 46. 4. QA as continuous improvement
    • The emphasis shifts to input, implementation, output and back to input.
    • - UT, OUUK
  • 47. 5. QA as Compliance with international standards and requirements
    • give students greater confidence in the courses and awards and enable their studies to be recognized
    • Athabasca and USQ from USA
    • UT (ICDE)
    • UNISA (USA)
  • 48. Three guiding stars for integrating ICT and QA system in ODEL to supporting ubiquitous access Conclusions
  • 49. #1. QA as an essential tool QA as an essential tool for educational development and ubiquitous access to ODEL There should be no distinction between QA in ODEL and conventional education , but there should be specific guidelines, criteria and methods for judging the various modes of delivery. The national level QA for ODEL/ICT use should be as strong as (not softer than) that of higher education. There should be a ‘culture of quality’ that is shared willingly by all managers and staff, links internal and external accountability, builds capacities in QA and involves open, transparent management and communication.
  • 50. #2. Promoting research Research is essential for improving understanding and practice, assuring and improving quality, informing and influencing policy-making and ensuring that ODEL is recognized as scholarly activity in its own right.
  • 51. #3. Changes in practice ODEL environments need to be conceived such that the technology does not simply provide an information repository but serves as a platform for student-centered, teacher-facilitated and collaborative knowledge building . The instructional design (ID) needs to fully exploit the potential of ICT. There is also need for ID models for constructivistic learning environment design.
  • 52. Thank you!