E-learning and Employability Shift Focus on Learning (Again) - Blazenka Divjak

  • 873 views
Uploaded on

Blazenka Divjak is the Vice Rector for Students and Studies at the University of Zagreb, Croatia …

Blazenka Divjak is the Vice Rector for Students and Studies at the University of Zagreb, Croatia
This Keynote Presentation was delivered at the EDEN 2014 Annual Conference in June 2014.

http://www.eden-online.org

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
873
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Thank you
    Dear ladies and gentlemen, dear participants of EDEN, it would be wonderful if we can immediately recognize pathways towards employability through higher education ensuring also equal opportunities, but unfortunately it is not the case. There are good practices but also big challenges.
  • In February this year I was in airplane traveling back from Dublin thinking about keynote speech I’m going to give on EDEN (this one) and at the same time I browsed through Harvard Business Review. Suddenly I realized that every article I put eyes on can be connected with the topic of this year conference: From Education to Employment and Meaningful  Work with ICTs - E-learning at work and the workplace (You can see some of the titles on the slide.)
    Three questions and one dilemma immediately formed in my mind:
    Is talking about learning truly mainstream?
    Do we know at least some answers?
    What can we learn from business/industry?
    Dilemma: Are we (educators, HEI) aware of power we have?

  • Let me first address the question of our responsibility because of the power we have, with the famous sentence that was written 100 years ago by John Dewey American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. He said: “If we teach today’s students as we taught yesterday’s, we rob them of tomorrow.” This sentence is particularly relevant today when we talk about use of ICT in education and try to connect it with emerging demands of employability.

    In order to give you some food for further discussion I’m going to start with three references that give us expert view of future jobs, society and very important question of equity in HE. Further I’m going to consider what learning should encounter today as well as identify domains that influence learning.
    Of course, I hope that all these will inspire discussion.
  • Transfer of knowledge, skills and experiences is the biggest invention of mankind.

    With the gradual rise of more complex civilizations, knowledge became too complicated to transmit directly from person to person and from generation to generation. This led to setting up education systems. Even it has been widely recognized the value of education and learning, among research disciplines, research on teaching and learning was not prominent one. Thoughts on learning are not new and did not emerge a mere 100 years ago. Naimly, thousands of years of philosophical, sociall and religious perspectives on learning preceded the development of learning theories. (Harasim, 2012)

    New revolution and revitalization provoked by ttechnology enhanced teaching and learning (e-learning) and pressure from society to ensure employability of graduates put learning process and learning theories back into focus.

    Therefore it is critical to study the intersection of learning theory and technology and not just integrate technology into traditional ways of teaching. For educators, learning and learning of new ways of learning are the nature of our profession (Harasim, 2012).


  • Let us go back to HBR. Salmon Kahn from Kahn Academy that offers more than 5,000 free, web-based lessons to millions of students across the globe says: “In the traditional academic model, you’re passive.”
    Therefore the greatest mistake is to try to integrate e-learning into passive educational model. First we have to do is to rethink current educational environment and decide what kind of learning experience we wish to design. As Garrison write in his book E-learning for 21st Century, E in e-learning stands not just for electronic but also for extending and enhancing learning experience. Let us quickly scan the history of universities.
    The original medieval universities had purposes that included training professionals, scientific investigation, improving society, and teaching critical thinking and research. External influences added human rights and international law to the university curricula.
    Humboldt in 19th century envisioned the university education as a student-centered activity of research:
    The university teacher is thus no longer a teacher and the student is no longer a pupil. Instead the student conducts research on his own behalf and the professor supervises his research and supports him in it”

    Further, in the essay “Universities and their Function”(1929), A. N. Whitehead well known British mathematician and philosopher of education, explained the function of universities in the following way: “The university (...) unites students and professors in the imaginative consideration of learning. The university imparts information, but it imparts it imaginatively. ...A university which fails in this respect has no reason for existence. This atmosphere of excitement, arising from imaginative consideration, transforms knowledge... Thus the proper function of a university is the imaginative acquisition of knowledge.”
  • In theory, as well as in practice, we distinguish between three basic approaches to teaching (Ramsden, 2003; Entwistle, 2000). The first one, often called traditional, is the one in which the teacher is in the centre of the teaching process. In the second one, the teacher can also appear as the one who organizes activities directed to learning. The third approach puts the student in the centre of the teaching and learning process. Research, but also experience of relevant higher education, reveal that it is important to implement the third approach.

    Being inspired primarily by (Ramsden, 2003), but also taking into consideration other references as well as own teaching and research experience, I give the most important principles and corresponding instruments in the Table you can see on the slide. There are the following principles:
    Clear goals and intellectual challenge
    Interest, understanding and deep learning
    Concern and respect for students and student learning
    Then:



  • Appropriate assessment and prompt feedback
    Development of subject specific as well as generic skills
    Learning from students.

    Each principle is connected to set of instruments that include also those that are strongly supported by technology.

    Those of you interested in knowing more about framework I can provide with complete article and you can find the reference at the end of this presentation.
  • Ramsden (1988) argues that there are 3 domains that influence perception and approaches to learning: assessment, curriculum and teaching.
    But to understand education is to understand interplay between personal interest and experience, and societal values, norms, and knowledge. This interplay is manifested in the transaction between teacher and students.
  • Therefore I add inner structure and surrounding environment for the Ramsen thee domains.
    Instead of Teaching, I personalize it by naming it: Teachers and students.

    Further, there is also inner structure of organized learning that influence learning and learning experience. For university it include strategic goals, support for teachers and students as well as leadership and quality assurance process.

    In my presenation I’m going to slightly describe each domain.
  • First let us refere to societal demands.

    Societal demands that are posed today in front of HEIs are multifolded. They includes employability of our students, demand for inclusivity of underrepresented groups. Employability is considered here as ability to gain initial employment, to maintain employment, and to be able to move around within the labor market.

    Then industry and business is starving for talents and a lot of them, open innovation mind set, creativity as well as concrete research on learning to provide proofs what is working in learning organizations and how to build learning organization.

    At the same time HE have to take care about universal values as equity then certain academic values and more recently open access.
  • Curriculum we deliver today should enable employability in next 10-20 years. What kind of curriculum we need today?
    There are some answer we can find in recent research. On of them, that have been immediately recognized as important was delivered by Frey and Osborne last year dealing with THE FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT. It examines expected impacts of future computerisation on labor market outcomes. According to their estimates, about 47 percent of total US employment is at risk within two decades. They also accept that some jobs will survive—especially those currently associated with high levels of education and high wages. Jobs that are not easily automated may still be transformed. The jobs that will survive are those that require the high degree of creative and social intelligence, but also fundamental knowledge.

    This kind of request is not quite new. Naimly, a hundred years ago, John Dewey- noted that teachers at the time struggled to find a balance between mass education and teaching pupils individually. He also wrote the famouse sentence:
    “Education is a social process; education is growth; education is not preparation for life but is life itself.”

    Two months ago new PISA survey entitled Creative Problem Solving was published that emphasized digital and creative divide between countries but also between regions and even schools.
    More than half a million students took part in this latest PISA survey, representing about 28 million 15-year-olds globally. The results from the PISA assessment, which was conducted at a time when many of the 65 participating countries and economies were struggling with the effects of the crisis, reveal wide differences in education outcomes, both within and across countries.
    On the other hand, some education systems have demonstrated that it is possible to secure strong and equitable learning outcomes at the same time as achieving rapid improvements - proving that countries do not have to sacrifice high performance to achieve equity in education opportunities. Unsurprisingly, socio-economic status relates positively to performance in problem solving.
    PISA also finds that the highest-performing school systems are those that allocate educational resources more equitably among advantaged and disadvantaged schools and that grant more autonomy over curricula and assessments to individual schools.
  • To be aware of the big challenges we are facing in our pathways for equity let us just quickly look at another two pretty famous book issued last year.
    Thomas Piketty, Professor at the Paris School of Economics, in his Capital in the 21st Century, predicts a hyper-unequal economic model in which a top 1% of capital-owners and “supermanagers” grab a growing share of national income. According to the book, it will generate a more antagonistic, unstable and potentially dangerous politics.
    Similarly, Joseph Stiglitz, winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics wrote a new book entitled: The Price of Inequality, subtitled: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers our Future, warns us by increase in inequality and lack of opportunity.
    He says that “the current economic mantra stresses the role of the private sector as the engine of economic growth. When we think of innovation we think abot Apple, Facegook, Google etc. But behind the scenes lies the public sector. There are creative entrepreneurs all over the world. What makes a difference – is the government. If the government doesn’t provide roads, education or basic research …the ordinary business cannot flourish. Economics call such investements “public goods” referring to the fact that everyone can enjoy the benefits of, say, basic knowledge.”
    In last decades in many countries, including USA and most of Europe (Croatia specially), there has been underinvestment in infrastructure, basic research and education. Stiglitz says that we now witnessed the end result of an asymmetrical wealth distribution in society. Further, the more divided a society becomes in the terms of wealth, the more reluctant the wealthy are to spend money on common needs.
    Therefore decline in opportunity has gone hand in hand with growing inequality.
    Finally, besides making student employable, another crucial role of the universities is development of critical thinking and development of value system that can grasp global challenges put forward by Piketty and Stiglitz. How to achieve all that?
    We must put forward good practices that link technology, employability and pedagogy in a way to support equal opportunities and development of values.
    Are some of today’s most popular and advanced solution meeting requiraments? We’ll go back to that question later.
  • Let us go back to PISA research once more. There are references that help us to support equity policy and ideas.
    At the same time there are some conclusions that sound very universal but they are actually not.
    For example: It says that: PISA data show that access to a home computer is now nearly universal for students in all countries and economies participating in PISA. Precisely it is written:
    “On average across OECD countries that participated in the problem-solving assessment, 94% of students have at least one computer at home to use for schoolwork. Only in 9 countries is this proportion smaller than 90%.
    The few students who do not use a computer at home tend to come from socio-economically disadvantaged families (note that we are talking about between 6 and 10% of young people in participating 65 countries – around 2 million teenagers!).
    In sum, using a computer at home is strongly related to problem-solving performance in 29 of 33 participating countries and economies.
  • Let us stress that higher education is not very effective in taking benefit of the human resources. In many higher education systems there are high failure and drop out rates, especially in the early years and universities in many cases don’t face it systematicaly. When we consider e-learning and its benefits we have to follow indicator on complition rate very closly.
    Further there are still low access and low success rates of students from disadvantaged backgrounds such as Low socio-economic status students, Low educational capita and Ethnic minority students and very rarly this discussion take place when we consider benefits of e-learning.
  • Let us go back to original Ramsden domain: curriculum.
    Regarding curriculum development we’ve already mentioned that must have in all curricula in HE are:
    Creative and social skills (Yes, Creativity can be learned and practiced.)
    Fundamentals
    Values
    Further, we have to ask for deeper understanding, search for quality learning outcomes.
    We have to be able to answer when students ask: Why we are learning this? Where we are going to use it?
    Big challenge for teacher is also to pick content from vast ocean of knowledge and consider students workload. In that sometimes holds: “less is more”

    E-learning can be a useful tool in creating an environment congruent with deep and meaningful approaches to learning. It can support collaboration with employers and other stakeholders. Finally, it is also hight time to develop e-tools and approches for problem-based and active learning that are inclusive.


  • Assessment is the second Ramsden domain. Assessment has a subtle but pervasive influence in shaping intentions and how students approach an educational experience and e-learning is not exempt. How students are assessed sends very strong signal as to what is important and how they should approach learning.
    It is understandable that main preoccupation for the majority of students is to pass. Therefore it is ultimate goal that assessment is correlated with intended learning outcomes.
    Unfortunately, there is still more emphasizing information acquisition and limited opportunities for critical discourse and higher-order knowledge construction. In that context students can benefit from e-learning environment where more reading and writing is required.
    In order to benefit the most of e-learning environment assessment of collaborative learning must be put forward. Blended learning approach have potential to add assessment of individual achievements in f2f classes and combination of that two can be the most beneficial.
    Collaborative learning and assessment enhance deeper understanding and metacognitive awareness and it also require formative assessment and feed back.
    As a helpful tool for both students and teacher I recommend use of collaborative and discussion rubrics and specially e-portfolio for students storage of artefacts and reflection on their own work and progress within a course. E-portfolio is also transferable and can be use as an employment tool for students to show their competences and prove them.
  • The third original domain is teaching. The teacher has the greatest influence in shaping learning environment and learning outcomes. At universities teachers define goals, content and assessment. But most important they create conditions to encourage or discourage a deep approach to learning that includes critical and creative thinking.
    What about a role of a teacher in blended learning and fully online learning?
    Many researches show that teacher presence is crucial for students completion a course and student’s satisfaction with a course.
    Teaching presence can (Garrison, 2011.) can be there in form of design, facilitation and direct instructions. In fully online enviroment first and very important task is to establish social presence to prevent feeling of student isolation and instead a student can feel as a part of a community of learners. Teachers are also entitled to conflict resolution and trust creating within group as well as sustaining initial motivation for learning.
    I strongly believe that instructors in e-learning must be teaching scholars not to loose connection with contemporary research and ability to provide intellectual and pedagogic leadership. It also means that teachers must equiped themselves with skills and knowledge in area of pedagogical approaches necessary for teaching and learning in e-learning environment. All of these can increase scholar’s workload considerably. On the other hand, by understanding learning theoriy, educators can reflect on their practice, improve upon, reshape and refine thier work and contribute to advancing the discipline. (Harasim, 2012.)

  • The additional domain I called simply support.
    Naimly, call for change in higher education has to be recognized. There are traditions and values in HE that should be protected but there are more than justified demands for change outdated approaches to teaching, engage students in learning as well as taking into account future needs for employability. Therefore, leadership must to have a vision and willingness and commitment for change. Many university are making substantial but fragmented investments in e-learning, but because of lack of strategic coherent goals and commitment that include recourses there is no actual functional change.
    University of Zagreb adopted the first overarching university E-learning strategy in 2007. Strategy promoted that technology should be used to improve the quality of teaching and learning, to ensure the achievement of learning outcomes, with pedagogical needs always kept in mind rather than the imperativeness of the application of modern technologies. The University opts for blended learning approach.
    In 2013 there were more than 8.500 e-learning courses at the University, but only 5% at the highest level 3. Central role promotion and training as well ensuring infrastructure is given to the Centre for e-learning at SRCE. There are also Centres at a few faculties. Annual awards for the best e-courses have been provided.
    In new strategy adopted just a month ago, E-learning is incorporated in the Strategy of studying and even main orientation is the same as before new elements concerning quality of e-courses promotion of usage of e-portfolio and open online courses as well as limited numbers of online study programmes apear.
    Research (Downes, 2012. ) suggest young people use technology inside and outside of education differently. Technology plays a different role in students’ life and education. Therefore learner support for students as well as professional development for teachers is necessary.
    The most important indicator of course evaluation is assessment of student learning outcomes. Besides that there is rather long list of elements that can be taken into consideration when evaluation. Finally, benchmarking and research is necessary to remain current and stay on track.
  • What HE can learn from business and community?
    Talent search and develop strategy
  • Let us emphesys that blended learning works.
    Blended learning is full integration of face-to-face and online activities, but this integration must be thoughtfully selected. Here it is key to integrate face-to-face oral and online written communication in such a way that educational purpose is fully meet. A the same time introduction of blended learning is an opportunity for rethinking of educational approach.
    The most common reason, even not the only one, for introducing blended learning is to work with large number of students as a result of masification of higher education and there are a lot of evidence that first year undergraduate students benefit significantly from it. Giving students material, tutorials and a sort of collaboration online safe time and face-to-face classes can be used for discussions, teamwork, case study, labs etc.
    Further, there is the difference in nature between spoken and written communication and in blended learning approach both ways are encouraged. Contrary for wide spread suspicious towards online activities among traditional teachers, let us mention that writing has some advantages over speech when critical discourse and reflection are in question. It can be said that text-base communication is enhancing research skills and would have potential to support constructivist approaches to learning.
    At the same time face-to-face can be used more productively to give students for time for collaboration and oral communication skills development.
    Findings strongly support advantage of blended learning over not just face to face but also d online learning and it doesn’t surprised many teachers and students who experienced all three options. Vast meta-analyisis was perforemd by Means et al. in 2009. It contain a systematic search of the research literature from 1996 and 2008 identified more than a thousand empirical studies of online learning. Tyey concluded: “The difference between student outcomes for online and face-to-face was larger in those studies contrasting conditions that blended elements of online and face-to-face instruction with conditions taught entirely face-to-face. Analysts noted that these blended conditions often included additional learning time and instructional elements not received by students in control conditions. This finding suggests that the positive effects associated with blended learning should not be attributed to the media, per se.”
    It is also interesting finding that Elements such as video or online quizzes do not appear to influence the amount that students learn in online classes. In many of the studies showing an advantage for blended learning, the
    online and classroom conditions differed in terms of time spent, curriculum and pedagogy. It was the combination of elements in the treatment conditions (which was likely to have included additional learning time and materials as well as additional opportunities for collaboration) that produced the observed learning advantages. At the same time, one should note that online learning is much more conducive to the expansion of learning time than is face-to-face instruction.
    Further, blended learning has potential to enable adjustment to fully online learning which is crucial for further and especially lifelong learning and as a consequence enhance lifelong employability.
    Finally, there are evidence that on long run blended learning reduce costs, increasing completion rates, student satisfaction and improve learning outcomes. (Twigg, 2003). All these findings advocate the strategic decision that blended learning becomes dominant approach to teaching and learning in higher education and solution of different and serious problems in learning in higher education. But we have to be aware that it is not just technology that matter but first of all it learning and teaching approach has to be considered.
  • On the other hand we have, massive open content with wonderful examples and I know that professor Jeff Haywood that will talk immediately after me, will ensure you how splendid work University of Edinburgh has done in MOOCS. But are all MOOCS so good?
    One argues that technology, specially massive open content and courses can contribute substantially to raising up opportunities for underprivileged.
    There are massive quantity of off the shelf offer of open courses, e-learning material, programs available on the web and therefore some argue that we are witnessed “The most important education technology in the past 200 years that provides free education for all, anywhere in the world with online access.”
    But is it really so rear to find yung people without access? I argued it is not, even in well developed countries.
    Further, available data shows that there are high drop-out rate.
    Besides, differences in infrastructure, there is a question of content, language and culture because it still advocates one-size-fits-all model and therefore it can be viewed as “intellectual neocolonialism“ or, in some cases, marketing tool for elite universities that enroll first and second class students.
    Of course that we have again wonderful practices but not all of them are such and we have open discussion on that as well.

  • To conclude: E-learning is definatly the mainstream in the higher education and obviously E-learning provokes research on learning. Unfortunatly, (E)-learning theories often lack of sense of environment, societal demands and employability issues as well as inclusiveness. Therefore please mind the gap in order to secure equity but also to prevent waste of talents and digital and creative divide.
    Further, before introducing/changing e-learning rethink current learning practice becuause technology itselfe dosn’t make any positiv difference. Take into consideration that learning experience and process of learning is as important as its outcomes.
    Additonally, it is obvious that blended learning is strategic solution to serious teaching and learning challenges.
    Finally, let me finish with the sentence of Ralph Emerson saying that The secret of a successful education is respect towards the students. And reparaphrare it: The secret of a successful education is respect towards the future students.

Transcript

  • 1. E-learning and employability shift focus on learning (again) Prof. Blaženka Divjak Vice-rector University of Zagreb 1B. Divjak, University of Zagreb
  • 2. Icebreaker • HBR Jan/Feb 2014: – To Raise Productivity, Let More Employees Work from Home – The Third Wave of Virtual Work – Redesigning Knowledge Work – A taxonomy of Innovation – The Truth About Aging Population – Talent and Performance – Khan Academy •Three questions : –Is talking about learning truly mainstream? –Do we know at least some answers? –What can we learn from business/industry? • One dilemma: – Are we (educators, HEI) aware of power and responsibilities we have?
  • 3. Content • Future job, future society – 3 references + comments • Teaching and learning in higher education – Creative and digital divide – Equity in HE – Domains that influence learning • Q&A 3B. Divjak, University of Zagreb “If we teach today’s students as we taught yesterday’s, we rob them of tomorrow.” ― John Dewey
  • 4. Learning • Transfer of knowledge, skills and experiences is the biggest invention of mankind • Among research disciplines research on teaching and learning was not prominent one • New revolution and revitalization provoked by – Technology enhanced teaching and learning (e-learning) – Pressure from society to ensure employability of graduates • Critical to study the intersection of learning theory and technology
  • 5. About learning in HE • Mistake: integrate e-learning into passive educational model • Advice: Rethink current educational environment • E in e-learning =electronic + enhancing learning experience + extending (Garrison, 2003, 2011) • HE back to its roots –purpose of university – Unity of research and teaching – Training professionals – Improving society – Critical thinking and research • W. von Humboldt model 19th century - The university teacher is thus no longer a teacher and the student is no longer a pupil. Instead the student conducts research on his own behalf and the professor supervises his research and supports him in it • A. N. Whitehead (1929) - The proper function of a university is the imaginative acquisition of knowledge.”
  • 6. Key principles of teaching in HE Principles Instruments Clear goals and intellectual challenge Learning outcomes and goals setting in line with the demands of modern life and the appropriate use of technology that also communicate high expectations Interest, understanding and deep learning Good teaching and appropriate literature as well as quality online material and various ways of student- student and student-teacher communication including online communication that encourages deep learning Concern and respect for students and student learning Appropriate student’s workload (expressed for example in ECTS), taking into account student’s effort invested in working in Learning management system (LMS) that has to help diverse student population, and emphasizing time on task Source: (Divjak, 2012), inspired primarily by (Ramsden, 2003)
  • 7. Key principles of teaching in HE Principles Instruments Appropriate assessment and prompt feedback Implementation of taxonomy, rubrics, creative ways of problem solving and the use of technology for regular and motivating assessment that respects diverse talents and ways of learning and after each assessment activity prompt feedback on task performed Development of subject specific as well as generic skills Learning outcomes that besides subject specific skills also include generic skills development and assessment methods that stress their importance, as well as the use of social software in order to enhance the development of generic skills Learning from students Quality assurance system and enhancement of teaching and teacher’s personal development that takes into account students evaluation of teaching and learning (online evaluation and reflection) as well as analysis of results of students learning in order to introduce effective changes
  • 8. Domains that influence learning Curriculum Assessment Teaching Source: Ramsden, 1998, 2003
  • 9. Domains that infuence learning - broader scope Curriculum Assessme nt Teachers and students Strategy, Support Leadership QA Society, technological development, values, demands…
  • 10. Societal demands • Demands from HE (not always coherent): – Employability – Starving for talents – Inclusivity – “open innovation” mind set, creativity – Research on learning; proofs what works • HE massages (not always coherent): – Equity, academic values – Open access
  • 11. Future jobs – curriculum of today • Frey, Osborne, The Future of Employment.2013. – 47% of job categories open to automation within two decades – Survive jobs that require high degree of creative and social intelligence, but also fundamental knowledge • John Dewey: “Education is a social process; education is growth; education is not preparation for life but is life itself.” • PISA 2012 results: Creative Problem Solving – “digital and creative divide” – highest-performing school systems - allocate educational resources more equitably + grant more autonomy over curricula and assessments to individual schools. 11B. Divjak, University of Zagreb
  • 12. Future jobs – big challenges of today • T. Piketty, Capital in the 21st Century (2013) – hyper-unequal economic model – generate a more antagonistic, unstable politics • J. Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality (2013) – Increase in inequality and lack of opportunity – High inequality makes for less efficient and productive economy – Position of “public goods” – decline in opportunity growing inequality • Initiatives to enhance use of technology to excel opportunities • Values! 12B. Divjak, University of Zagreb
  • 13. Creative and digital divide • “PISA data show that access to a home computer is now nearly universal for students in all countries and economies participating in PISA.” • OECD countries - 94% of students have at least one computer at home • “The few students who do not use a computer at home tend to come from socio-economically disadvantaged families. But even among disadvantaged students, some level of familiarity with computers is now universal in some countries.” • “In all of the 33 countries and economies that both distributed the optional questionnaire on ICT familiarity and administered the computer-based assessment of problem solving, students who use computers at home perform significantly better (in problem- solving) than students who do not.” B. Divjak, University of Zagreb 13
  • 14. Global wast of talents • Higher education is not very effective in taking benefit of the human resources • High failure and drop out rates, especially in the early years • Low access and low success rates of students from disadvantaged backgrounds – Low SES students – Low educational capital – Ethnic minority students • How to meet these challenges in e-learning?
  • 15. Creative and social intelligence Fundame ntals Values Curriculum • Deeper understanding, quality learning outcomes • Must have: – Creative and social intelligence – Fundamentals – Values • Pick content from vast ocean of knowledge • Consider workload – “less is more” • E-learning – an essential enabling tool – Collaboration with employers and other stakeholders in Community of Inquiry – Tools and approaches for problem-based, active learning – Access, retention for non-traditional students
  • 16. Assessment • Shaping how students approach to learning • assessment correlated with intended learning outcomes • Assessment of collaborative work – online • Assessment of individual achievements – f2f • Collaborative learning - deeper learning and metacognitive awareness • Collaborative and discussion rubrics • E-portfolio – storage, reflection, (self-)assessment – Transferable – employability
  • 17. Teaching • Shaping learning environment and learning outcomes • Define goals, content and assessment • Role of a teacher in bleded learning and fully online learning? – Positive influence of teaching presence – Design, facilitation, direct instruction – Social presence – community of learners – Conflict resolution and creating trust – Motivation of students • Instructors – teaching scholars – Increase workload Goals Learning outcomes Depth Assessment
  • 18. Support • Strategy, leadership • E-learning Strategy of the University of Zagreb – The first E-strategy 2007 – 2013 – Improve quality of teaching and learning – Ensure learning outcomes – Blended learning approach – 8.500 e-courses, only 5% at the level 3 – 2014: E-learning incorporated in the Strategy of teaching and learning – In new strategy: quality of e-courses, e-portfolio, open online courses, limited numbers of online study programmes • Infrastructure available • Career support services for teachers and students • QA: Evaluation of teaching and learning – improvements • Benchmarking and research Leaders Strategy Support Quality Benchmark
  • 19. Blended learning works • Enhance learning & learning outcomes • Rethinking educational approach • For large and medium size classes • Text-based - reflection and research skills • F2f - collaboration & oral communication skills • Findings: advantage of blended learning over f2f and online learning (Means et al., 2009) – Instruction combining online and f2f elements had a larger advantage – Blended learning employ more students working load – Video or online quizzes do not influence students learning • Adjustment to fully online learning - lifelong employability • Reduce costs, increasing completion rates, student satisfaction and improve learning outcomes • Dominant approach to teaching and learning in higher education Blended
  • 20. Dissemination or marketing • Off the shelf offer of open courses, e-learning material, programs • “The most important education technology in the past 200 years.” • Free education for all, anywhere in the world with online access.” • The best is now available for eveybody • Are really everybody connected? • High drop-out rate • - one-size-fits-all model • “intellectual neocolonialism“ • Marketing tool for elite universities • First and second class students B. Divjak, University of Zagreb 21
  • 21. MIND THE GAP Conclusions • E-learning is the mainstream of higher education • E-learning provokes research on learning • (E)-learning theories often lack of sense of environment • Inclusive e-learning – prevent waste of talents • Before introducing/changing e-learning rethink current learning practice • Process of learning is as important as outcomes • Open access but be aware of digital and creative divide • Blended learning is strategic solution to serious teaching and learning challenges • The secret of a successful education is respect towards the (future) students - Ralph Emerson
  • 22. “The most important attitude that can be formed is that of desire to go on learning.” ― John Dewey, Experience and Education Thank you B. Divjak, University of Zagreb 23
  • 23. References • Divjak B., Chapter: Implementation of learning outcomes in mathematics for non- mathematics major by using e-learning in the book: Teaching Mathematics Online: Emergent Technologies and Methodologies; Editor(s): A. A. Juan; M. A. Huertas; S. Trenholm; C. Steegmann; IGI Global. 2012. • Garrison, R.D., E-learning in 21st Century, Ruthledge, 2011 • Ramsden P. Learning to Teach in Higher Education. RoutledgeFalmer Taylor & Frances Group: NY; 2003. • Frey, Osborne, The Future od Employment: How Suspectable Are Jobs to Computerisation, 2013. • T. Piketty, Capital in the 21st Century. Harvard University Press. 2013 • Stiglitz J. The Price of Inequality .How Today’s Divided Society Endangeres our Future. W.W. Northon & Company Ltd., 2013 • L. Harasim: Learning Theory and Online Technologies.Routledge Taylor&Frances Group. NY.2012. • Means et al., Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. 2009. http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf