Msucularsystemfinallec 120125071900-phpapp02

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Msucularsystemfinallec 120125071900-phpapp02

  1. 1. The Muscular SystemThe Muscular System Specialized tissue that enable theSpecialized tissue that enable the body and its parts to move.body and its parts to move.
  2. 2. Anterior ViewAnterior View
  3. 3. Posterior ViewPosterior View
  4. 4. TRIVIA!TRIVIA!  How many muscles are there in the human body?  Answer: 640 Muscles  The muscles make up about 40 % of the body mass.  What is the longest muscle in the body?  Answer: The Sartorius  The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards.  What is the smallest muscle in the body?  Answer: The Stapedius  The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing.  What is the biggest muscle in the body?  Answer: The Gluteus Maximus  The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking and running.
  5. 5. Functions of the MusclesFunctions of the Muscles MovementMovement Maintenance of posture and muscleMaintenance of posture and muscle tonetone Heat productionHeat production Protects the bones and internalProtects the bones and internal organs.organs.
  6. 6. Muscle ClassificationMuscle Classification  FunctionallyFunctionally Voluntarily – can be moved at willVoluntarily – can be moved at will Involuntarily – can’t be movedInvoluntarily – can’t be moved intentionallyintentionally  StructurallyStructurally Striated – have stripes across the fiberStriated – have stripes across the fiber Smooth – no striationsSmooth – no striations
  7. 7. The 3 Types of MusclesThe 3 Types of Muscles S k e le ta l M u s c le S m o o th M u s c le C a rd ia c M u s c le 3 T y p e s o f M u s c le s
  8. 8. Smooth MuscleSmooth Muscle  Fibers are thinFibers are thin and spindleand spindle shaped.shaped.  No striationsNo striations  Single nucleiSingle nuclei  InvoluntaryInvoluntary  Contracts slowlyContracts slowly
  9. 9. Smooth MuscleSmooth Muscle  They fatigue… but very slowlyThey fatigue… but very slowly  Found in the circulatory systemFound in the circulatory system  Lining of the blood vesselsLining of the blood vessels  Helps in the circulation of the bloodHelps in the circulation of the blood  Found in the digestive systemFound in the digestive system  Esophagus, stomach, intestineEsophagus, stomach, intestine  Controls digestionControls digestion  Found in the respiratory systemFound in the respiratory system  Controls breathingControls breathing  Found in the urinary systemFound in the urinary system  Urinary bladderUrinary bladder  Controls urinationControls urination
  10. 10. Cardiac MuscleCardiac Muscle  Cells are branchedCells are branched and appear fusedand appear fused with one anotherwith one another  Has striationsHas striations  Each cell has aEach cell has a central nucleicentral nuclei  InvoluntaryInvoluntary
  11. 11. Cardiac MuscleCardiac Muscle  Found ONLY in the heartFound ONLY in the heart  Contractions of the heart musclesContractions of the heart muscles pump blood throughout the body andpump blood throughout the body and account for the heartbeat.account for the heartbeat.  Healthy cardiac muscle NEVERHealthy cardiac muscle NEVER fatiguesfatigues  or else…or else…
  12. 12. Skeletal MuscleSkeletal Muscle  Fibers are long andFibers are long and cylindricalcylindrical  Has many nucleiHas many nuclei  Has striationsHas striations  Have alternatingHave alternating dark and light bandsdark and light bands  VoluntaryVoluntary
  13. 13. Skeletal MuscleSkeletal Muscle  Attached to skeleton by tendonsAttached to skeleton by tendons  Causes movement of bones at theCauses movement of bones at the joints.joints.  And yes… they do fatigueAnd yes… they do fatigue  Muscle fatigue activityMuscle fatigue activity  whatwhat substance forms causing musclesubstance forms causing muscle fatigue???fatigue???
  14. 14. Functions of Skeletal MuscleFunctions of Skeletal Muscle  Movement – muscle move bones byMovement – muscle move bones by pulling not pushing.pulling not pushing.  SynergistsSynergists – any movement is generally– any movement is generally accomplished by more than one muscle. Allaccomplished by more than one muscle. All of the muscles responsible for the movementof the muscles responsible for the movement are synergists.are synergists.  The one that is most responsible for theThe one that is most responsible for the movement is themovement is the Prime Mover (agonist)Prime Mover (agonist)..
  15. 15. Functions of Skeletal MuscleFunctions of Skeletal Muscle  MovementMovement  AntagonistsAntagonists – muscles and muscle groups– muscles and muscle groups usually work in pairsusually work in pairs –– example the biceps flex your arm and itsexample the biceps flex your arm and its partner the triceps extend your arm. The twopartner the triceps extend your arm. The two muscles aremuscles are antagonistsantagonists, i.e. cause opposite, i.e. cause opposite actions.actions. –– when one contracts the other relaxes.when one contracts the other relaxes.  LevatorsLevators – muscle that raise a body part.– muscle that raise a body part.
  16. 16. All skeletal muscles have fascicles Fascicle arrangement allows different functions of muscles • parallel (fusiform)-- strap• pennate (feather) • convergent—fan, triangle • circular (sphincter)— squeeze Fascicle ArrangementFascicle Arrangement
  17. 17. Determined by fascicularDetermined by fascicular arrangementarrangement Skeletal muscle shortens to 70% of resting length • parallel--shorter, not powerful • pennate--lots of fibers, powerful Power and Range of Motion
  18. 18. Pennate MusclesPennate Muscles  Unipennate::  fibers on 1 side of tendonfibers on 1 side of tendon e.g.,e.g., extensor digitorumextensor digitorum  Bipennate:  fibers on both sides of tendonfibers on both sides of tendon e.g.,e.g., rectus femorisrectus femoris Figure 11–1c, d, e – tendon branches within muscle e.g., deltoid • MultipennateMultipennate:: • Form angle with tendon • Don’t move as far as parallel muscles • Contain more myofibrils than parallel muscles • Develop more tension than parallel muscles
  19. 19. Functions of Skeletal MuscleFunctions of Skeletal Muscle  Maintenance of posture or muscle toneMaintenance of posture or muscle tone  We are able to maintain our body position becauseWe are able to maintain our body position because of tonic contractions in our skeletal muscles. Theseof tonic contractions in our skeletal muscles. These contractions don’t produce movement yet hold ourcontractions don’t produce movement yet hold our muscles in position.muscles in position.  Heat productionHeat production – contraction of muscles– contraction of muscles produces most of the heat required to maintainproduces most of the heat required to maintain body temperature.body temperature.
  20. 20. Structure of Skeletal MuscleStructure of Skeletal Muscle  Composed of striated muscle cells (=muscleComposed of striated muscle cells (=muscle fibers) and connective tissue.fibers) and connective tissue.  Most muscles attach to 2 bones that have aMost muscles attach to 2 bones that have a moveable joint between them.moveable joint between them.  The attachment to the bone that does not move is theThe attachment to the bone that does not move is the originorigin..  The attachment to the bone that moves is theThe attachment to the bone that moves is the insertioninsertion..  TendonsTendons anchor muscle firmly to bones. Tendonsanchor muscle firmly to bones. Tendons are made of dense fibrous connective tissue.are made of dense fibrous connective tissue.  LigamentsLigaments connect bone to bone at a joint.connect bone to bone at a joint.
  21. 21. Structure of Skeletal MuscleStructure of Skeletal Muscle  BursaeBursae – small fluid filled sacs that lie– small fluid filled sacs that lie between some tendons and the bonesbetween some tendons and the bones beneath them. They are made ofbeneath them. They are made of connective tissue and are lined withconnective tissue and are lined with synovial membrane that secretes synovialsynovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid.fluid.
  22. 22. Movement of MusclesMovement of Muscles  Origin:Origin: the attachment ofthe attachment of the muscle to the bonethe muscle to the bone that remains stationarythat remains stationary  Insertion:Insertion: the attachmentthe attachment of the muscle to the boneof the muscle to the bone that movesthat moves  Belly:Belly: the fleshy part ofthe fleshy part of the muscle between thethe muscle between the tendons of origin and/ortendons of origin and/or insertioninsertion origin insertion belly
  23. 23. Movement of skeletal muscleMovement of skeletal muscle  These muscles move when the brainThese muscles move when the brain sends messages to the musclesends messages to the muscle  Always work in pairsAlways work in pairs  2 movements of skeletal muscle2 movements of skeletal muscle Contraction (shorten)Contraction (shorten) Extension (lengthen)Extension (lengthen)
  24. 24. Categories ofCategories of skeletal muscle actionsskeletal muscle actions  CategoriesCategories ActionsActions  ExtensorExtensor Increases the angle at a jointIncreases the angle at a joint  FlexorFlexor Decreases the angle at a jointDecreases the angle at a joint  AbductorAbductor Moves limb away from midline of bodyMoves limb away from midline of body  AdductorAdductor Moves limb toward midline of bodyMoves limb toward midline of body  LevatorLevator Moves insertion upwardMoves insertion upward  DepressorDepressor Moves insertion downwardMoves insertion downward  RotatorRotator Rotates a bone along its axisRotates a bone along its axis  SphincterSphincter Constricts an openingConstricts an opening
  25. 25. Practice these MovementsPractice these Movements 1.1. Bend armBend arm - biceps- biceps  contractcontract - triceps- triceps  extendextend 2.2. Straighten armStraighten arm - biceps- biceps  extendextend - triceps- triceps  contractcontract 3. Bend knee3. Bend knee - quadriceps- quadriceps  extendextend - hamstrings- hamstrings  contractcontract
  26. 26. 4. Straighten knee4. Straighten knee - quadriceps- quadriceps  contractcontract - hamstrings- hamstrings  extendextend 5.5. CrunchesCrunches - abdomen- abdomen  contractcontract - back muscles- back muscles  extendextend 6.6. Point toesPoint toes - calf muscle- calf muscle  contractcontract - shin muscle- shin muscle  extendextend More MovementsMore Movements
  27. 27. Naming Skeletal MusclesNaming Skeletal Muscles  Location of the muscleLocation of the muscle  Shape of the muscleShape of the muscle  Relative Size of the muscleRelative Size of the muscle  Direction/Orientation of the muscleDirection/Orientation of the muscle fibers/cellsfibers/cells  Number of OriginsNumber of Origins  Location of the AttachmentsLocation of the Attachments  Action of the muscleAction of the muscle
  28. 28. Muscles Named by LocationMuscles Named by Location  EpicraniusEpicranius (around cranium)(around cranium)  Tibialis anteriorTibialis anterior (front of tibia)(front of tibia) tibialis anterior
  29. 29. Naming Skeletal MusclesNaming Skeletal Muscles  Shape:Shape:  deltoid (triangle)deltoid (triangle)  trapezius (trapezoid, 2trapezius (trapezoid, 2 parallel sides)parallel sides)  serratus (saw-serratus (saw- toothed)toothed)  rhomboideusrhomboideus (rhomboid, 4 parallel(rhomboid, 4 parallel sides)sides)  orbicularis andorbicularis and sphincters (circular)sphincters (circular) Rhomboideus major Trapezius Deltoid Serratus anterior
  30. 30.  maximus (largest)maximus (largest)  minimis (smallest)minimis (smallest)  longus (longest)longus (longest)  brevis (short)brevis (short)  major (large)major (large)  minor (small)minor (small) Psoas major Psoas minor Muscles Named by SizeMuscles Named by Size
  31. 31. Muscles Named byMuscles Named by Direction of FibersDirection of Fibers  Rectus (straight)Rectus (straight) ––parallel to longparallel to long axisaxis  TransverseTransverse  ObliqueOblique Rectus abdominis External oblique
  32. 32.  Biceps (2)Biceps (2)  Triceps (3)Triceps (3)  Quadriceps (4)Quadriceps (4) Muscles Named forMuscles Named for Number of OriginsNumber of Origins Biceps brachii
  33. 33. Muscles Named for Origin andMuscles Named for Origin and InsertionInsertion SternocleidomastoidSternocleidomastoid originates fromoriginates from sternum and claviclesternum and clavicle and inserts onand inserts on mastoid process ofmastoid process of temporal bonetemporal bone origins insertion
  34. 34. Muscles Named for ActionMuscles Named for Action  Flexor carpi radialisFlexor carpi radialis (extensor carpi radialis)(extensor carpi radialis) –– flexes wristflexes wrist  Abductor pollicis brevisAbductor pollicis brevis (adductor pollicis)(adductor pollicis) –– flexes thumbflexes thumb  Abductor magnusAbductor magnus –– abducts thighabducts thigh  Extensor digitorumExtensor digitorum –– extends fingersextends fingers Adductor magnus
  35. 35. CLINICAL CORRELATIONCLINICAL CORRELATION
  36. 36. Exercise-Induced Muscle DamageExercise-Induced Muscle Damage  Intense exercise can cause muscle damageIntense exercise can cause muscle damage  electron micrographs reveal tornelectron micrographs reveal torn sarcolemmas, damaged myofibrils ansarcolemmas, damaged myofibrils an disrupted Z discsdisrupted Z discs  increased blood levels of myoglobin & creatineincreased blood levels of myoglobin & creatine phosphate found only inside muscle cellsphosphate found only inside muscle cells  Delayed onset muscle sorenessDelayed onset muscle soreness  12 to 48 Hours after strenuous exercise12 to 48 Hours after strenuous exercise  stiffness, tenderness and swelling due tostiffness, tenderness and swelling due to microscopic cell damagemicroscopic cell damage
  37. 37.  AtrophyAtrophy wasting away of muscleswasting away of muscles caused by disuse (disuse atrophy) or severing ofcaused by disuse (disuse atrophy) or severing of the nerve supply (denervation atrophy)the nerve supply (denervation atrophy) the transition to connective tissue can not bethe transition to connective tissue can not be reversedreversed  HypertrophyHypertrophy increase in the diameter of muscle fibersincrease in the diameter of muscle fibers resulting from very forceful, repetitive muscularresulting from very forceful, repetitive muscular activity and an increase in myofibrils, SR &activity and an increase in myofibrils, SR & mitochondriamitochondria
  38. 38. Axial MusculatureAxial Musculature  Arises from and inserts on the axialArises from and inserts on the axial skeletonskeleton  Positions the head and spinal columnPositions the head and spinal column  Moves the rib cage, assisting inMoves the rib cage, assisting in breathingbreathing • Axial musculature – Originates and inserts on axial skeleton • Appendicular musculature – Stabilizes or moves components of the appendicular skeleton
  39. 39. Axial muscles organized into fourAxial muscles organized into four groupsgroups  Muscles of the head and neckMuscles of the head and neck  Muscles of the vertebral columnMuscles of the vertebral column  Oblique and rectus musclesOblique and rectus muscles  Muscles of the pelvic floorMuscles of the pelvic floor
  40. 40. Muscles of the Head and NeckMuscles of the Head and Neck  Muscles of facial expressionMuscles of facial expression  Extrinsic eye musclesExtrinsic eye muscles  Muscles of masticationMuscles of mastication  Muscles of the tongueMuscles of the tongue  Muscles of the pharynxMuscles of the pharynx  Muscles of the anterior neckMuscles of the anterior neck
  41. 41. Muscles of Facial ExpressionMuscles of Facial Expression  Originate on surface of skullOriginate on surface of skull  Largest group associated with mouthLargest group associated with mouth Orbicularis orisOrbicularis oris BuccinatorBuccinator  Occipitofrontalis muscleOccipitofrontalis muscle Movement of eyebrows, forehead, scalpMovement of eyebrows, forehead, scalp  PlatysmaPlatysma Skin of neck, depresses mandibleSkin of neck, depresses mandible
  42. 42. Six Extra-Ocular (Oculomotor)Six Extra-Ocular (Oculomotor) MusclesMuscles  Inferior rectusInferior rectus  Superior rectusSuperior rectus  Medial rectusMedial rectus  Lateral rectusLateral rectus  Superior obliqueSuperior oblique  Inferior obliqueInferior oblique
  43. 43. Muscles of MasticationMuscles of Mastication  Act on the mandibleAct on the mandible MasseterMasseter TemporalisTemporalis Pterygoid musclesPterygoid muscles
  44. 44. Muscles of the TongueMuscles of the Tongue  Necessary for speech and swallowingNecessary for speech and swallowing GenioglossusGenioglossus HyoglossusHyoglossus PalatoglossusPalatoglossus StyloglossusStyloglossus
  45. 45. Muscles of the PharynxMuscles of the Pharynx  Initiate swallowingInitiate swallowing Pharyngeal constrictorsPharyngeal constrictors Laryngeal elevatorsLaryngeal elevators PalatopharyngeusPalatopharyngeus SalpingopharyngeusSalpingopharyngeus StylopharyngeusStylopharyngeus Palatal musclesPalatal muscles
  46. 46. Muscles of the PharynxMuscles of the Pharynx
  47. 47. Anterior Muscles of the NeckAnterior Muscles of the Neck  Foundation for the muscles of the tongue andFoundation for the muscles of the tongue and pharynxpharynx DigastricDigastric MylohyoidMylohyoid StylohyoidStylohyoid SternocleidomastoidSternocleidomastoid
  48. 48. Anterior Muscles of the NeckAnterior Muscles of the Neck
  49. 49. Muscles of the Vertebral ColumnMuscles of the Vertebral Column  Covered by a superficial layer of backCovered by a superficial layer of back musclesmuscles  TrapeziusTrapezius  Latissimus dorsiLatissimus dorsi  Superficial and deep layersSuperficial and deep layers • Superficial muscles: • Splenius muscles • Spinal extensors – Spinalis – Longissimus – Iliocostalis • Longissimus and iliocostalis merge in lumbar region • Deep muscles: Interconnect and stabilize the vertebrae – Transversospinal group • Semispinalis • Multifidus • Rotatores • Interspinales – Intertransversarii
  50. 50. Muscles of the Vertebral ColumnMuscles of the Vertebral Column  Longus capitusLongus capitus  Longus colliLongus colli  Rotate and flex the neckRotate and flex the neck  Quadratus lumborumQuadratus lumborum musclesmuscles  Flex the spineFlex the spine  Depress the ribsDepress the ribs
  51. 51. Muscles of the Vertebral ColumnMuscles of the Vertebral Column
  52. 52.  Oblique muscles of neckOblique muscles of neck and thoraxand thorax  ScalenesScalenes  IntercostalsIntercostals  Transverses musclesTransverses muscles  Important in respirationImportant in respiration  DiaphragmDiaphragm  Separates abdominopelvicSeparates abdominopelvic and thoracic cavitiesand thoracic cavities  Most important muscle inMost important muscle in respirationrespiration The Oblique and RectusThe Oblique and Rectus MusclesMuscles • Oblique and Rectus Muscles • Rectus abdominus • Abdominal oblique muscles – Compress underlying organs – Rotate the vertebral column • External oblique muscle • Internal oblique muscle • Rectus abdominis muscle
  53. 53. The Oblique and RectusThe Oblique and Rectus MusclesMuscles
  54. 54. The DiaphragmThe Diaphragm
  55. 55. Muscles of the Pelvic FloorMuscles of the Pelvic Floor  Extend from the sacrum and coccyx to the ischium and pubisExtend from the sacrum and coccyx to the ischium and pubis  Support the organs of the pelvic cavitySupport the organs of the pelvic cavity  Flex the joints of the sacrum and coccyxFlex the joints of the sacrum and coccyx  Control movement of materials through anus and urethraControl movement of materials through anus and urethra • Perineum – Anterior urogenital triangle • Urogenital diaphragm – Posterior anal triangle • Pelvic diaphragm
  56. 56. Muscles of the Pelvic FloorMuscles of the Pelvic Floor
  57. 57. Figure 10.15c Muscles of theFigure 10.15c Muscles of the Pelvic FloorPelvic Floor
  58. 58. Appendicular musculature isAppendicular musculature is responsible forresponsible for  Stabilizing pectoral girdleStabilizing pectoral girdle  Stabilizing pelvic girdleStabilizing pelvic girdle  Moving upper and lower limbsMoving upper and lower limbs Four groups of muscles • Muscles that position the pectoral girdle • Muscles that move the arm • Muscles that move the forearm and hand • Muscles that move the hand and fingers
  59. 59. Muscles that move the pectoralMuscles that move the pectoral girdlegirdle  Trapezius muscleTrapezius muscle  Affects position of pectoral girdle,Affects position of pectoral girdle, neck, headneck, head  Rhomboid musclesRhomboid muscles  Adducts scapulaAdducts scapula  Deep to trapeziusDeep to trapezius  Inserts on scapulaInserts on scapula  Levator scapulae muscleLevator scapulae muscle  Elevates scapulaElevates scapula • Serratus anterior muscle – Abducts scapula – Swings shoulder anteriorly – Originates on ribs • Subclavius and pectoralis minor muscles – Arise along ventral surface of ribs – Depress and protract shoulder
  60. 60. Muscles that Move the ArmMuscles that Move the Arm  Deltoid and supraspinatusDeltoid and supraspinatus  Abduction at the shoulderAbduction at the shoulder  Supscapularis and teresSupscapularis and teres majormajor  Rotate arm mediallyRotate arm medially  Infraspinatus and teresInfraspinatus and teres minorminor  Rotate arm laterallyRotate arm laterally • Rotator cuff – Supraspinatus – Infraspinatus – Teres minor – Subscapularis • Coracobrachialis – Flexion and adduction at shoulder • Pectoralis major muscle – Flexes shoulder – Adducts and medially rotates arm • Latissumus dorsi muscle – Extends shoulder – Adducts and medially rotates arm
  61. 61. Muscles that Move the ArmMuscles that Move the Arm
  62. 62. Muscles of the pelvic girdle andMuscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbslower limbs  Three groupsThree groups Muscles that move the thighsMuscles that move the thighs Muscles that move the legMuscles that move the leg Muscles that move the foot and toesMuscles that move the foot and toes
  63. 63. Muscles that Move the ThighMuscles that Move the Thigh  Gluteal muscles cover lateralGluteal muscles cover lateral surface of iliumsurface of ilium  Gluteus maximusGluteus maximus  Extension and lateral rotation of hipExtension and lateral rotation of hip  Pulls on iliotibial tractPulls on iliotibial tract  Tensor fasciae latae muscleTensor fasciae latae muscle  Produces flexion, abduction andProduces flexion, abduction and medial rotationmedial rotation  Pulls on iliotibial tractPulls on iliotibial tract • Piriformis and obturator muscles – Lateral rotators • Psoas major and iliacus – Merge to form iliopsoas – Power flexor of hip • Adductor group adducts hip – Adductor magnus muscle – Adductor brevis muscle – Adductor longus muscle – Pectineus muscle – Gracilis muscle
  64. 64. Muscles that Move the Thigh
  65. 65. Muscles that Move the ThighMuscles that Move the Thigh
  66. 66. Muscles that Move the LegMuscles that Move the Leg  Extensor muscles of theExtensor muscles of the kneeknee  Anterior and lateral surfaces ofAnterior and lateral surfaces of the thighthe thigh  Flexor muscles of the kneeFlexor muscles of the knee  Posterior and medial surfacesPosterior and medial surfaces of the thighof the thigh  Flexors and adductorsFlexors and adductors  Originate on pelvic girdleOriginate on pelvic girdle  ExtensorsExtensors  Originate at femoral surfaceOriginate at femoral surface • Flexors of the knee and extensors of hip – Biceps femoris – Semimembranosus muscle – Semitendinosus muscle • Sartorius muscle – Flexor of knee • Popliteal muscle – Medial rotation of tibia – Unlocks knee joint • Quadriceps femoris knee extensors – Vastus intermedius muscle – Vastus lateralis muscle – Vastus medialis muscle – Rectus femoris muscle
  67. 67. Muscles that Move the Foot andMuscles that Move the Foot and ToesToes Gastrocnemius and soleus musclesGastrocnemius and soleus muscles  Plantar flexionPlantar flexion  Tibialis anteriorTibialis anterior  DorsiflexionDorsiflexion  Fibularis musclesFibularis muscles  Eversion and plantar flexionEversion and plantar flexion • Smaller muscles of calf and shin – Position foot – Move toes • Precise control of phalanges – Muscles on tarsal and metatarsal bones
  68. 68. Muscles that Move the ForearmMuscles that Move the Forearm and Handand Hand  Biceps brachiiBiceps brachii Flexes elbowFlexes elbow Supinates forearmSupinates forearm  Triceps brachiiTriceps brachii Extends elbowExtends elbow
  69. 69. Muscles that Move the ForearmMuscles that Move the Forearm and Handand Hand  Brachialis andBrachialis and brachioradialisbrachioradialis  Flex the elbowFlex the elbow  Anconeus muscle andAnconeus muscle and triceps brachiitriceps brachii  Extend the elbow (opposeExtend the elbow (oppose brachialis)brachialis)  Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexorFlexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, palmariscarpi radialis, palmaris longuslongus  Flex the wristFlex the wrist  Flexor carpi ulnaris adductsFlexor carpi ulnaris adducts wristwrist  Flexor carpi radialis abductsFlexor carpi radialis abducts • Extensor carpi radialis muscle – Abducts and extends wrist • Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle – Adducts and extends wrist • Pronator teres, pronator quadratus muscles – Pronate forearm without flexion or extension • Suppinator muscle – Opposes pronator muscles
  70. 70. Muscles that Move the Hand andMuscles that Move the Hand and FingersFingers  Superficial and deep muscles ofSuperficial and deep muscles of the forearmthe forearm  Large musclesLarge muscles  Tendons cross wristTendons cross wrist  Synovial tendon sheathsSynovial tendon sheaths  Thickened fasciaThickened fascia  Extensor retinaculum and flexorExtensor retinaculum and flexor retinaculumretinaculum  Carpal tunnel syndromeCarpal tunnel syndrome
  71. 71. Extrinsic Muscles that Move the Hand andExtrinsic Muscles that Move the Hand and FingersFingers
  72. 72. Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons and LigamentsIntrinsic Muscles, Tendons and Ligaments of the Handof the Hand

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