This is the Point/Counterpoint presentation for Group 1. This collaborative presentation on the positive uses and benefits of technology in the classroom, or pro-technology stance, was created by Samuel Sicilia, Rich Edelen, Zacary Perfitt, and Neil Wetherbee.
In arguing for the use of technology as a positive tool for improving instruction we have chosen to center our argument around the article “Building Better Instruction” by Kathy Brabec, Kimberly Fisher, and Howard Pitler. We specifically focus on the nine strategies listed in the book “Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement.” These nine strategies are the ones “most likely to lead to enhanced student achievement.” Our focus in this presentation is how to use technology to implement each of these strategies, drawing on research and experience.
(Read the quote) The question for us as implementers of technology becomes how do we use technology to increase the effectiveness of this strategy. How do we help students develop the skill of effectively and usefully distilling information so that they remember what is important and don’t get bogged down in irrelevant or frivolous details.
Summarizing does not necessitate the use of technology, but by using technology we have the potential to adapt more easily to the context in which we teach. Students today grow up being exposed to moving images from very young ages, so one way to help with the strategy of summarizing is to use video. New technologies make the utilization of video easier than ever. With websites like United Streaming (Discover Education) or even online news media, short videos with direct ties to content can be found with a few clicks of your mouse. Thus, video can be up to date, and can be adapted to the needs and experiences of our students. Using short video clips to help student with summarizing skills can be a powerful tool. The goal would be that this skill translates from summarizing short videos to all types of media (print, visual, audio, online).Technologies that I have found useful in utilizing the strategy of note taking are Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. Teaching 7th graders, I often have to guide students through how to take notes. One way that I have found to be effective is to have students take notes during a PowerPoint presentation that I am presenting. By using the outline of the PowerPoint to create a notes worksheet. I try to include a diverse set of note-taking strategies (such as outlining, question and answer, fill in the blank) in these guided notes. This isn’t quite note-taking in the traditional sense, but by guiding students through this type of note taking students can develop the skills of distilling information for themselves. As the year progresses the notes become less guided and more student driven, with only general outlines included for students to fill in with whichever note taking strategy they find fits them best.
Allowing students to experience success includes allowing students to make mistakes and not have immediate consequences for the mistakes.
Praise, however, can be thought of as undermining, even patronizing, when given in excess, as well as when it incorporates rewards like candy, toys, etc.My school offers a reward called a complementary. However, I am not a firm believer in this reward. Instead, I would rather give a high-five and compliment the student on a job well-done. Consequently, our students and parents are so well-trained to receive these complementaries that any other form of praise is thought of as a joke and not representative of the students ability, or effort.
Non-linguistic representations provide networks for organizing information for students. The bubble map is used for describing. The bridge map helps us create relationships among concepts using analogies. The circle map is used for defining in context. The brace and flow maps are used for classifying and sequencing respectively. Using technology while working with these representations can help students increase knowledge and learning within the classroom.
Many websites are available for teacher and student use to create non-linguistic representations. Kidspiration, developed by Inspiration, allows for customizing based on student and teacher need. Most districts will pay for a subscription for you. Also, for a whole class lesson, a teacher can create a model on the computer using the shapes function in the one of the Microsoft applications (i.e. Word). The model can then be projected on to a white board and can be filled out by the entire learning community. Another great use of non-linguistic representations using technology is creating hyperlinks to add to the thinking maps. This way students can click on the hyperlinks for more information.
On average, research conducted by Robert Marzano has concluded the students who use non-linguistic representations have a 27 percentile gain within the classroom.
While working in groups, I have seen my students express great thoughts that otherwise may not have been expressed to a larger crowd. These group activities decentralize the authority from the teacher and puts the burden of accountability on the group, rather than an individual. Additionally, I have seen students improve upon their interpersonal relations with classmates and establish friendships from their collaboration.
Rubrics are a great tool for providing immediate feedback and assessing student attainment of objectives. Rubistar.com is a website which helps teachers create rubrics for assessing student work. The link on this slide will take you directly to the page to create rubrics.In addition, many educational publications used in the classroom provide websites to enhance student learning. On those websites one will find links to assignments that can be completed, and then emailed directly to a teacher for immediate feedback. Go.hrw.com is a website that has a tool similar to the aforementioned.
The strategies of Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers all “give students a preview of what they are about to learn or experience and thus help help activate students’ prior knowledge,” according to Brabec.Furthermore, Brophy states.(Read quote). Brophy goes on to state that “These introductions facilitate students’ learning by communicating the nature and purpose of the activity…. Good lesson orientations also stimulate students’ motivation to learn by communicating enthusiasm for the learning or helping students to appreciate its value or application potential.”
Cues, questions, and advance organizers are all strategies that most teachers incorporate in their own classrooms already. But by utilizing a variety of technologies teachers can enhance and even expand on the cues, questions, and advance organizers they use in the classroom. An effective way I have observed technology being used to for cues and questions is student response pads. These handheld devices are used by each individual student to provide instant feedback to a question. While these are often used for review and assessment purposes, they are equally effective as a preview tool. By asking anticipatory questions and getting instant feedback through the pads, a teacher can get a sense of the prior knowledge of a group of students, and also stimulate interest by allowing students to see what others think about a topic or question. These questions can be presented using a variety of programs including PowerPoint and Examview.Advance organizers can be enhanced through programs like Microsoft PowerPoint . In my own classroom I type out agendas and warm-ups within PowerPoint, which allows me keep an electronic record of what we have done in class. I also use Microsoft Word to create Agenda worksheets that students use to keep their own record. These sheets tell students what we will be doing in class that day, and what homework may be assigned and what important due dates or test dates are approaching. By having the students keep their own record it gives them ownership of what we are doing, and what is expected of them. If students have daily access to computers, like a computer course, this could even be done using the internet. In a computer class students could view daily schedules online, and keep track of the agendas in their own Microsoft Word file. Many districts give teachers the ability to create their own webpage, but there are also many free spaces like wikispaces.com. Wikis offer more than just advance organizer opportunities, but also collaborative opportunities as well.
Nine Strategies for Building Better Instruction:<br />Identifying Similarities and Differences<br />Summarizing and Note Taking<br />Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition<br />Homework and Practice<br />Nonlinguistic Representations<br />Cooperative Learning<br />Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback<br />Generating and Testing Hypotheses<br />Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers<br />
Comparing and Contrasting Using Software<br />1. IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES<br />
Identifying Similarities and Differences<br />Comparison Tasks<br />Classifying Tasks<br />Metaphors<br />Analogies<br />Compare Ideas or Objects<br />Classify or Group Items<br />Identify how Dissimilar Items are Similar <br />
Cons<br />(Arguments against)<br />Pros<br />(Arguments for)<br /><ul><li>Technology is Hard to Use
Too Much Information? </li></ul>Identifying Similarities and Differences<br />
Increasing Students ability to Distill Information<br />2. SUMMARIZING AND NOTE TAKING<br />
Summarizing and Note Taking<br />“Both[Summarizing and Note Taking] require students to determine what is most important and then state that information succinctly”<br />- Brabec<br />
Summarizing and Note Taking<br />Summarizing Using Video<br />Discovery Education (United Streaming<br />Online News Outlets (NBC News, CNN, etc.)<br />Guided Note Taking<br />Microsoft Word<br />Microsoft PowerPoint<br />Scaffolding<br />Work from guided note taking to independent distilling of information<br />
Rewarding students <br />for achieving goals<br />3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition<br />
Understanding the Teachers Role<br />Allow students to experience success<br />Recognize increased, or improved, effort<br />Express enthusiasm for group ideas<br />Encourage additional inquiry<br />Be compassionate<br />Be sincere<br />
“Though there are many ways to tell a student he or she has done well, recognition is most effective when it is abstract or symbolic and contingent on students’ attaining specific performance goals. (p. 1)”<br />- Brabec<br />
Enhancing understanding and Skills<br />4. Homework and Practice<br />
Homework and Practice<br />Deepen Understanding<br />Strengthen Skills<br />Importance of Homework Policy<br />
Cons<br />(Arguments against)<br />Pros<br />(Arguments for)<br /><ul><li>Technology is Hard to Use
Students Spend Considerable Amount of Time using Technology at Home
Students “Lose” Files</li></ul>Using Technology is a Necessary Skill<br />Increases teacher / parent contact<br />Accommodations can be Made<br />Teaches Constructive Ways to Use Technology<br />Teaches Responsibility in the Digital Age<br />Homework and Practice<br />
Helping Students Organize Information<br />5. Nonlinguistic Representation<br />
Using N.L.R. With Technology<br /><ul><li>Use student-friendly websites for students to build their own thinking diagrams (www.kidspiration.com)
Use a projector to display representations on the white board to fill out as a whole class.
N.L.R. can be easily shared and filled out cooperatively via email, school networks, and blogs.
Students and teachers can add hyperlinks to specific websites when technology is used to fill out graphic organizers.</li></li></ul><li>N.L.R. With Technology Continued<br />Many districts will provide enrollment to online visual tool creation programs.<br />N.L.R. have been proven to help students make a 27 percentile gain within the classroom (Marzano, 2004)<br />
Cooperative learning <br />at the Elementary School Level<br />6. Collaboration<br />
“In effect, a complex system is not just the sum of its parts, but the product of the parts and their interactions.” (Staples, M.E. (2008))<br />Cooperative work, by nature, is a complex system.<br />Multiple participants<br />Multiple tasks<br />Multiple outcomes<br />
Understanding the Teachers Role<br /><ul><li>Promoting individual and group accountability
Promoting positive sentiment among group members
Supporting student-student exchanges with tools and resources (i.e. technology)
Supporting student-student inquiry in direct interaction with groups
Staples, M.E. (2008). </li></ul>It has been interesting to see the importance of interpersonal and conflict resolution skills in collaboration <br />(Beheler, T., Malar, J. (n.d.))<br />
Co-Operative Learning<br /> Some forms of co-operative learning call for students to help one another achieve individual learning goals, for example by discussing how to respond to assignments, checking work, or providing feedback or tutorial assistance. Other forms of co-operative learning call for students to work together to achieve a group goal by pooling their resources and sharing the work. (p. 28)<br />- Brophy<br />
Using Rubrics to set Expectations<br />7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback<br />
7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback<br />Using technology to provide feedback<br />Using technology to help set objectives<br /><ul><li>Rubrics can be created using Microsoft Excel, which can be displayed via email or blog.
Rubistar is a website that can be used to create rubrics to provide feedback.
Many publishers provide websites for on-line learning to assess student knowledge-
We use rubrics to provide feedback on student attainment of objectives.
Students can create learning logs using Excel or Word to monitor progress of reaching objectives.</li></li></ul><li>Establishing Learning Orientations<br />9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers<br />
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers<br />“Research indicates the value of establishing a learning orientation by beginning lessons and activities with advance organizers or previews.”<br />- JereBrophy<br />
Class Wikis</li></ul>Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers<br />
Bibliography<br />Brabec, K., Fisher, K., Pitler, H. (n.d.). Building Better Instruction.<br />Staples, M.E. (2008). Promoting student collaboration in a detracked, heterogeneoussecondary mathematics classroom. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education<br />Beheler, T., Malar, J. (n.d.). Student Collaboration: The Ups and Downs of a Real Life Project.<br />Brophy. Teaching, n.d., retrieved from www.ibe.unesco.org<br />