Steps to Low Carbon & (Zero-) Carbon schools and beyond


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Presentation for Workshop Energy Education
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Steps to Low Carbon & (Zero-) Carbon schools and beyond

  1. 1. Steps to Low Carbon & (Zero-) Carbon schools and beyond Eddy Deruwe (BE) Presentation for Workshop Energy Education on 12th of February 2009 - EUSEW - Brussels with the help of other Thematic Workgroup members Susanna Ceccanti (IT), Malte Schmidthals (GE), Camelia Rata (RO), Eva Stroffekova (SK) and Alan Morton (Uk). THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION EUROPEAN 1 1 COMMISSION
  2. 2. Energy Saving and CO2 reduction in schools • Significant potential for energy savings in buildings => 40% of energy • 70% of this is used for heating purposes • Possible to reduce energy consumption by 20% without additional costs • Increasingly more energy performant schools due to new energy performance regulations and other mandatory standards • Many EU-countries are promoting high energy performant schools. Some have made it compulsory (as in the UK). Nevertheless standard building regulations stays reference for constructing or refurbishment of schools • Implementation of low or zero carbon schools going far beyond the minimum requirements, are less obvious • By appropriate demand side behaviour, by students, teachers..., could decrease energy use by 30% • Major improvements to become a “Green School” (as BREEAM School rating) can be achieved at little extra cost and even at no cost at all • Including highest standards at an early design stage can minimise cost THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 2 2
  3. 3. NEW BUILDINGS - ENERGY EFFICIENT CONSTRUCTION • With proper technical solutions, heat demand easy lowered to legal standards. • Although initial capital costs may be higher, an energy-efficient building can result in significant cost savings from energy bills. • The potential energy saving by users are: - Heating, thermostat  5% of heating costs; - Heating ventilation  1 to 50 % of consuming - Lightning  8 to 20 % of lightning energy - Home equipment  1% to 10 % of building energy use; • A properly performed thermal insulation of a building allows gaining energy self-dependency and climate neutrality of the building at a much lower cost. • Easy to pass from a passive house to a zero- energy building. All the energy required for the house could be generated by installing on the roof approx. 20 m2 of solar PV cells. • For making a poorly insulated building an energy self-dependent one, one would have to install 10 times more solar PV cells! This is not be profitable. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 3 3
  4. 4. Low-energy School Buildings ==> Not more than 45% of standard heat demand ==> Identified low- or no-cost options include: > Water-efficient appliances, > Provision of low-energy lighting, > Enhanced thermal performance through increased insulation levels, > Avoiding air-conditioning wherever possible. ==> Measures with greatest reduction potential in carbon emmission: Lighting controls yield the greatest reduction in carbon emissions.  Improving the U-value is next best option. (BRE)  Reduction air infiltration is least reduction in carbon emissions. (BRE)  > Energy used in a building can vary greatly depending behavior of occupants. > If IT increases, schools may have to import energy to compensate. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 4 4
  5. 5. Meadowside Primary School, Quedgeley (Uk) ==> Planning and building  Environmental impacts of each action examined  Alternative products used in order toevaluate new technologies  No more than ten year pay back period ==> The Building as an Educational Tool In the entrance hall a section of  Comfortable Learning Environment the wall has been  Sun Pipes exposed to show  Sky Lights you how it has been built.  Large Windows  Reflective Flooring The wind catchers  Underfloor Heating - Wall space free of radiators - help us to keep Comfortable to sit on the classrooms  Highly efficient heating system fresh without having to open  Working with efficient condensing boilers - Trend the windows and Electronic Optimiser - Zoned system of control lose all our heat.  Passive Ventilation If you look up you will see Pupils actively involved into energy use evaluation skylights in the roof, to let in as much daylight as possible. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 5 5
  6. 6. Meadowside Primary School, Quedgeley THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 6 6
  7. 7. ==> Low Energy building Full refurbishment of a school in Klokocov (Sl) • 1962 school building in state of disrepair • Project by BIOMASA to retrofit school & install biomass boiler – Replaced windows & doors – Insulated outside walls & roof & improved façade – Replaced heat distribution pipes, installed new radiators & heat zone regulation – Upgraded electrical installations • 50% energy saving • BIOMASA promoted the project widely & raised awareness of the benefits of biomass heating systems • Better working environment for pupils & staff THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 7 7
  8. 8. Full refurbishment of a school in Klokocov (Sl) The new biomass heating boiler The school building before the reconstruction The school building after reconstruction THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 8 8 School children visit the Klokocov boiler room
  9. 9. ==> Low Energy building Kvernhuset Ungdomsskole Pir II Arkitektkontor Fax : 73 98 40 90 > Kvernhuset Ungdomsskole, Fredrikstad, Norway,(2002) >Designed on principles of sustainability, natural ventilation, and maximum flexibility. >Technical solutions • a natural thermal ventilation system using underground ducts, • a heat pump running on thermal energy, • skylights and translucent facades to conserve daylight. • measures to make a fantastic learning tool for the school’s curriculum.  Air treatment plant&heating ensure good indoor air quality and best energy efficiency.  Energy: Est 120 kWh/m2/yr, -100 kWh/m2/yr is electricity and 20 KWh/yr for heating oil. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 9 9
  10. 10. Kvernhuset Ungdomsskole  During the concept stage involved the local population,  Areas into three wings dedicated towards water, energy and natural growth issues  Features allowing the pupils to learn through observation, utilisation and enhancement of diversified interests, as well as adapt their perspective to a sustainable way of life  Insulation has been simply screened with glass for children to inquire  Water and sewage pipeshave been with glass partitions for questions to appear  Layout is designed allowing for contacts between individuals.  Pupils informed about features of their school, including building management system pupils guide the visitors through the building complex THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 10 10
  11. 11. Passive School Buildings • A reduction in the need for space heating of 80% or more. • Eliminate need space heating and cooling through the use of Passive Solar Design principles (PSD), super-insulation, extremely air-tight fabric, no thermal bridges and use of MVHR (Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery). • First Passivhaus residential, applicable to other building and refurbishment. • Passivhaus design standards: • Heating and cooling no more than 15kWh/m/a • Primary energy no more than 120kWh/m/a. (incl elect. Appl. and lighting) • Building envelope should also have “U” values of 0.15W/m2K or less • Air-change rate should be less than 0.6 of the house volume per hour • A protocol “Passivhaus-Schulen” is been developed (since 2006) • Issues ventillation, energetical losses doorways at entrances and “vapour barriers” in big buildings. • Well over 10,000 Passivhaus projects have been constructed around the world. • City of Frankfurt has adopted Passivhaus standards as requirements for all new public buildings and Germany adopt the standard for 2012. Denmark has set a target that all new housing should meet Passivhaus standards by 2020. www.passivhaustagung.de1111 THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION
  12. 12. Passive School Buildings [Peper 2007] www.passivhaustagung.de1212 THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION
  13. 13. ==> Passive Building School Passivhausschule Riedberg / FFM (Ge) Wilhelm-Busch-Schule first school - Passivestandaerd in Germany (2004).  Capacity of 400 students, kindergarten 125 children, a refectory, kitchen and a gym. quot;Passivhaus Projektierungspaketquot; (PHPP), need of energy is +- 59 kWh/m/a.  Heating oil consumption of about 1.5 l/m/a  Primary energy (electricity and heating) under 120 kWh/m2/a Schools and nurseries are predestined to be built as passive houses. For example, outside -12 C heat of 25 pupils and one teacher is sufficient to keep classroom warm.  In order to build the school in passive house standard, the extra costs amount to 5.3% of the construction costs.  According to the energy costs of 2003, the pay back period estimated as 38,6 years (without any sponsorship). The pay back period is now reduced to 10 years.  At the moment the city of Frankfurt in may 2006 the decision was made to construct all new municipality buildings if possible in passive house standard. Architekten: Architekten 4a, Stuttgart THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 13 13
  14. 14. Passivhausschule Riedberg / FFM (Ge) THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 14 14
  15. 15. Zero-energy School Buildings > Zero-energy buildings per saldo do not take energy from external sources, except for renewable energy like biomass or biofuels. A zero-carbon school is defined as one where the net CO2 emissions are zero (ie energy used to power, heat, cool, ventilate and illuminate the building). >A zero-carbon school schould use one of four possible configurations (BRE): - biomass and wind, - biomass and PV, - GSHP, solar hot water and wind, - GSHP, solar hot water and PV. > Reaching highest standards of current practice does incur cost premium, but careful consideration of design and specification at early design stage can limit this. >It should be noted that in some circumstances low/zero- carbon will not be possible to implement and will have a major impact on the costs.Paths to zero carbon may simply not be available to some schools at limited costs: good ground conditions suitable GSHP, a sufficient wind for wind power, and suitable roof area for PV, fuel availability for biomass. > Most Zero-energy School developments includes sustainable energy education >In the UK the intention id that all schools shall be become quot;Zero Carbonquot; by 2016. The target for ”Zero-carbon”other non-residential building is currently 2019. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 15 15
  16. 16. ==> Zero-energy buildings Howe Dell primary school, Hatfield (UK) >Electricity from solar panels + Toilets flush with collected rainwater >Hot water by solar thermal absorption panels on the sedum covered green roof >Classroom fixtures like desks and counter-tops are made from recycled materials. >Skylights that flood the classrooms and corridors with daylight, cutting lighting bills, and specified super-thick exterior walls and thick window glass to reduce heat loss. >Ordinary playground tarmac is an Interseasonal Heat Transfer (IHT) system (world's first IHT system underneath the playground). Pipes running under the playground collect solar heat and transfer it to soils under the building foundation, where insulation and the natural properties of the soil allow the heat to be stored until it is needed, even months later. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 16 16
  17. 17. Howe Dell primary school, Hatfield (UK) •The building itself functions as part of the curriculum: Students quot;can see how many kilojoules are pumped out be the wind turbines and how it relates to kettle or toaster uses,quot; •The school has an eight-pupil-strong quot;Eco-Squadquot; (members change every term) •The school's curriculum also incorporates sustainable education principles •it won the Eco-Schools Green Flag award for the environmentally aware additions to classes. •The green section of the curriculum aims to teach pupils the interdependence of peoples and countries, the need to promote sustainable development and an awareness of their personal responsibility for the environment. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 17 17
  18. 18. ENERGY-PLUS-SCHOOLS - SCHOOLS OF THE FUTURE? Plus-energy buildings Buildings with positive energy balance • Plus-energy buildings are the buildings of positive net energy balance, meaning that more energy is produced than is used • Generates electricity and its surpluses can be sold to the national grid. • Although such projects have already been developed, this high-tech concept is still too expensive to be used on a bigger scale. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 18 18
  19. 19. ENERGY-PLUS-SCHOOLS - SCHOOLS OF THE FUTURE? >The Energy Plus office building, located outside of Paris (Fr) > designed to produce all its own energy for heating, lighting and air conditioning. > According to the designers, will be the greenest office building ever created. > Producing enough energy to power the entire building and still feed extra back into the grid. >The building is expected to house up to 5,000 people. >It’s expected to cost approximately 25% to 30% more than a traditional office building. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION (Architects Skidmore Owings & Merrill) 19 19
  20. 20. ECO-SCHOOL BUILDING - GREEN BUILDINGS Zero energy building versus green building Green Bld = resources efficiently and reduce negative impact on environment. Green Building Certification  Z-C Bld achieve one green-building goal of reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.  BREEAM schools rating (Uk)  Z-C Bld, however, are not necessarily green, because  HQE- LA HAUTE QUALITE in order to achieve net zero energy use, buildings do ENVIRONNEMENTALE (Fr) not require other green building practices.  Green Bld does not require to have net zero energy  Other Cerification schemes: use, only reduce energy use. - LEED-schools - USA  Green building certification criteria (such as the - Minergie - Switzerland, BREEAM) are check lists to reduce impact of buildings energy based certification on the environment, while improving environmental - Effinergie - French Minergy sustainability. - CASBEE - Japon certifiaction,  Computer models for green building design do not include thermal science and architectural design patterns necessary to passive or zero energy design. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 20 20
  21. 21. BREEAM Schools ratings BREEAM is a system for assessing the environmental performance of new and refurbished buildings. The environmental performance is expressed on a scale from “Pass” to “Excellent”. There is a specif scheme for schools (BREEAM schools) >BREEAM Schools considers nine classes of environmental impact which are weighted in accordance with a consultation process. Management: Commissioning, site management and procedural issues > Health and well being: Factors affecting health and well being of the occupants > Energy: Operational energy and CO2 emissions > Transport: Transport related CO2 emissions and location related factors > Water: Consumption of mains water > Land use: Greenfield and brownfield sites > Ecology: Ecological value of the site and the impacts of siting > Materials: Environmental implications of building material choices > Pollution: Minimising air and water pollution> >  Improvements in the sustainability performance of a building can be achieved at little additional cost: 0.8 to 2.7% for “Very good”, 3.9 to 4.4% for “Excellent”, 2.7 to 15.3% for low- or zero-carbon”. (collected by BRE and Faithful+Gould),  Secure the zero cost items first, then the low cost, then select medium followed by high cost items in order of cost. BREEAM = [Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method] => THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 21 21
  22. 22. BREEAM Schools ratings => THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 22 22
  23. 23. ==> BREEAM quot;EXCELLENTquot; SCHOOL BUILDING Herringthorpe School - in ROTHERHAM (Uk) •Herringthorpe Junior and Infant school were two separate schools on the same site. •Reuse parts existing building structure after demolition incorporation in landscape •In addition to involving the client with design development, participation by the children was encouraged through the school. To this end, the head teacher has contracted local artists through the Creative Partnerships Programme and the children will be involved in making artwork for integration directly into the building fabric. •Within corridors, high level roof lights add daylight to the space. Roof lights at the rear of the rooms increase natural daylight and provide cross ventilation. •A number of key elements to provide an environmentally friendly building were: • natural ventilation • control of carbon dioxide levels in key areas • maximising natural light but avoiding glare and solar overheating • sustainable heating • energy efficiency • user friendly local control • minimising use of VOCs • improving ecology • BREEAM rating is projected to ‘excellent’ rating. • The Architect is Howard Buckley. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 23 23
  24. 24. BREEAM quot;EXCELLENTquot; SCHOOL BUILDING Herringthorpe School - in ROTHERHAM (Uk) •Calculated CO2 emission rate for the notional building 49.94 KgCO2 /m/annum •Improvement factor 0.15 •LZC benchmark 0.10 •Building Target CO2 emissions rating (TER) for building as designed 38.17 KgCO2/m2/annum •Building CO2 emissions rating (BER) for building as designed 12.56 KgCO2/m2/annum •Projected building energy usage for building as designed 133.33 THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION kWh/m2/annum 24 24
  25. 25. HQE- LA HAUTE QUALITE ENVIRONNEMENTALE (Fr) The Haute Qualité Environnementale or HQE (High Quality Environmental standard) is a standard for green building in France. Controlled by the Paris based Association pour la Haute Qualité Environnementale (ASSOHQE). The standard specifies criteria for the following: 1. Managing the impacts on the external environment▪ Harmonious relationship between buildings and their immediate environment▪ • Integrated choice of construction methods and materials▪ • • The avoidance of nuisance by the construction site. • Minimizing energy use▪Minimizing water use▪ • Minimizing construction waste▪ • Minimizing building maintenance and repair 2. Creating a pleasant interior environment▪Hydrothermal control measures▪ • Acoustic control measures▪Visual attractiveness▪ The French Government: • Measures to control smells▪ 50% of buildings • Hygiene and cleanliness of the interior spaces▪ constructed to HPE by • Air quality controls▪ 2008. ADEME identified • Water quality controls 400 projects. • Moreover a HQEE-programme is to support, financing public buildings that are more stringent in force (Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE); Haute Performance Energétique (HPE) Hhigh energy performance; Très Haute Performance Energétique (THPE); and Bâtiment basse consommation (BBC)). => THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 25 25
  26. 26. ==> HQE- The Haute Qualité Environnementale (Fr) Lycée Jacquard, HQE, Caudry, France >The Caudry college is one of the first constructed using HQE procedure (High Environmental Quality). Some of the significant actions: • Equal amounts of infill and spoil. • Long-lasting materials with low energy rating and with non-leaching treatments. • Non toxic. • Amount of PVC limited to 2.5 tons. Heavy materials produced less than 200 km • Building is flexible and neutral with large, modular spaces (building can be converted into housing). • Thermal comfort: insulation from the outside, no thermal bridges, window solar protection. >The main aims are: • To use renewable energies and free gains, Canadian wells, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors. • Choice of locally produced materials with low emissions. • Rain water management. • Optimisation of natural lighting. • Highly efficient heating and double flow ventilation. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 26 26
  27. 27. Lycée Jacquard, HQE, Caudry, France THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 27 27
  28. 28. ==> CONCLUSION • Educating future citizens is a real concern for sustainable or green schools. •The school buiding users are nevertheles an important factor to succeed. • Sustainable energy education should help to reach the learning, energy and carbon targets, while a schoolbuilding itself can be used as a continously learning tool. • By generalising a policy of investing in low- or zero carbon schools a messages to the community can be brought, that investing in eco-friendly buildings, behaviour and environment are everyones concern. • We can lower energy use of the school, to low or almost zero, without exagerated costs. Many sustainability measures can be implemented at little cost and some measures can be implemented at no additional cost. (BRE - Uk)) • Cost effective solutions are implemented at the design stage, rather than being retrofitted. • Effective management of the development process is critical to ensuring that all low-cost options are identified and achieved. Design costs can rapidly increase once all the low-cost options have been implemented/exhausted. • Each project must be considered in terms of its own opportunities: construction programme, stage of development, site location, orientation, local topography, the project team, standard procedures and specifications, economies of scale. THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION 28 28
  29. 29. Steps to Low Carbon & (Zero-) Carbon schools and beyond Eddy Deruwe (BE) Presentation for Workshop Energy Education on 12th of February 2009 - EUSEW - Brussels with the help of other Thematic Workgroup members Susanna Ceccanti (IT), Malte Schmidthals (GE), Camelia Rata (RO), Eva Stroffekova (SK) and Alan Morton (Uk). With many thanks to the Managenergy Crew, especially Mathieu Henceval. For more info: Eddy Deruwe, T: +32(0)2-5025670, THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION EUROPEAN 29 29 COMMISSION
  30. 30. Steps to Low Carbon & (Zero-) Carbon schools and beyond Eddy Deruwe (BE) Presentation for Workshop Energy Education on 12th of February 2009 - EUSEW - Brussels with the help of other Thematic Workgroup members Susanna Ceccanti (IT), Malte Schmidthals (GE), Camelia Rata (RO), Eva Stroffekova (SK) and Alan Morton (Uk). For more info: Eddy Deruwe, T: +32(0)2-5025670, THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION THEMATIC GROUP EDUCATION EUROPEAN 30 30 COMMISSION ==>