On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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What are the shifting discourses of educational quality in your chosen context?
What influences these changing discourses?
(Post)colonialism.. Cycles of response
Narratives of power and response. We cannot but reference the past….
Resistance/development/overcoming the situation that is pre-given.
Write a short narrative of the legacies that are alive in your chosen educational context…and how they connect with something that happens now..
Placing ourselves in this narratives
Matjinge Secondary school, Zim, 1991-94
VSO - Colonialism
Nation – building and school expansion
Agriculture, Building subjects
SAPs – maternal mortality doubling
Philosophically.. We both live out these dominant narratives ( and in doingso, recreate them
Write a short narrative that places your own experiences in context of a dominant discourse – as teacher, as student, your own, your grandmothers….
Three key texts…
Jomtien (1990) World Declaration on Education For All - Meeting Basic Learning Needs (and framework for Action)
Dakar framework for Action (2000)
1. World Declaration on Education for All
Quality as meeting basic learning needs;
Enhanced environment for learning (nutrition, health care, and general physical and emotional support).
Discourse Analysis of the text
Is this universal?
2. Dakar Framework for Action
Says a lot about quality.
Quality at heart of education. Quality education satisfies basic learning needs, enriches lives.
Students, teachers, learning methods, learning facilities, curriculum, language of instruction, environment (safe, gender-sensitive), assessment of learning outcomes, management, relationship with community & cultures.
Dakar (2000) EFA Goals
(i) expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;
(ii) ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;
(iii) ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes;
(iv) achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;
(v) eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality;
(vi) improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
Say very little about quality
All children should complete full cycle of primary education.
EFA and Quality?
Quality vs. Quantity issue (quality discourse is response to EFA discourse)
Is it feasible to implement quality improvements alongside expansion?
1. Gains in quantity come at cost to quality
2.Targets for expansion are unachievable.
3. Is international emphasis on quality being implemented at country level?
Zones of Exclusion (Lewin 2007)
Lewin (2007) Compare 37(5)
the majority not enrolled have attended & dropped out;
many more enrolled but not attending regularly;
amongst those enrolled & attending many learning little – ‘silently excluded’;
Primary enrolment ratios relate to secondary enrolment ratios through teacher supply & impact of transition rates.
write up and send me the narrative that you wrote today (
OR find one other article that you enjoy on the topic of frameworks for education quality. Write a short review of this article. Send me the reference for the article ( or the article itself) and your review piece.