IMEX                                                                                                                    RE...
Abstract                                                                                      IMEX                        ...
Big Data in IT Industry Roadmap                                                                                           ...
Harnessing Big Data for Business Insights                                                        IMEX                     ...
Corporate Need: Business Perf... OptimizationIMEX        RESEARCH.COM                          Unstructured Big Data can p...
Corporate Need: Real Time Analytics   IMEX                                      RESEARCH.COM                              ...
Corporate Need: Business Insights                                                               IMEX                      ...
Opportunity: Converting Big Data Delugeinto Predictive Analytics & Insights                                               ...
Issues with Existing RDBMS                                                                        IMEX                    ...
Issues with Existing RDBMS                             IMEX                                                       RESEARCH...
Big Data - Database Solutions   IMEX                                RESEARCH.COM                                      11
Big Data – The New Face of DBs                                 IMEX                                                       ...
Analytics – The Next Frontier in IT   IMEX                                      RESEARCH.COM                              ...
Key Innovations: HW Technologies IMEX                                RESEARCH.COM                                      14
Key Innovations – Solid State Storage                                                                                     ...
Innovations – DB SW Technologies                                                                                          ...
Big Data - Key Requirements                                                                          IMEX                 ...
Big Data – Architectural Goals                                        IMEX                                                ...
Big Data - Market Requirements                                               IMEX                                         ...
Big Data – Market Requirements                                                IMEX                                        ...
Big Data - Market Requirements                                                      IMEX                                  ...
Big Data – Product Metrics Choices IMEX       RESEARCH.COM                               PB              Data Set Size    ...
Advantage: Big Data Products                                               IMEX                                           ...
Advantage: Big Data Products                                                             IMEX                             ...
Big Data Ecosystem   IMEX                     RESEARCH.COM                           25
Big Data Stack                                                                        IMEX                                ...
Hadoop’s Fit in Enterprise Stack   IMEX                                   RESEARCH.COM                                    ...
Big Data - Hadoop Architecture                                                                 IMEXRESEARCH.COM           ...
Big Data Connectors to EDW/BI                                                                  IMEX                       ...
Big Data Infrastructure – Map                                                IMEX                                         ...
Big Data Infrastructure – HDFS                                                                                            ...
Hadoop Distributed File System                     IMEX                                                    RESEARCH.COMHDF...
Hadoop Architecture - Overview        IMEX                                      RESEARCH.COMHadoop Data Processing Archite...
Key Technologies Required for Big Data                       IMEX                                                         ...
Cloud Infrastructure for Big Data                                                           IMEX                          ...
Cloud Infrastructure for Big Data                                                                 IMEX                    ...
Private Cloud Requirements for Big Data                                                                             IMEX  ...
Virtualization: Workloads Consolidation                           IMEX                                                    ...
Storage Architecture - Impact from VZ                                                         IMEX                        ...
Storage – Issues & Solutions                                               IMEX                                           ...
Storage Architecture Impacting Big Data                                                                           IMEX    ...
Data Storage: Hierarchical Usage                                                                  IMEX                    ...
SSD Storage: Filling Price/Perf.Gaps IMEX                                                                    RESEARCH.COM ...
SSD Storage - Performance & TCO                                                                                           ...
Workloads Characterization                                                                                             IME...
Workloads Characterization                                                              IMEX                              ...
Best Practices – Storage in Big Data Apps                                      IMEX                                       ...
Best Practices: I/O Forensics in Storage-Tiering                                                           IMEX           ...
Best Practices: Cached Storage                                                                                        IMEX...
Big Data Targets: Analytics                                               IMEX                                            ...
Big Data Targets – Storage Infrastructure                                                                   IMEX          ...
Big Data Targets: Storage Infrastructure                                                                                  ...
Big Data Targets: Savings w Open Source         IMEX                                                RESEARCH.COM Legacy BI...
Rise of Big Data Adoption   IMEX                            RESEARCH.COM54
Key Takeaways                                                                               IMEX                          ...
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NextGen Infrastructure for Big Data

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Anil Vasudeva President & Chief Analyst imex@imexresearch.com
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NextGen Infrastructure for Big Data

  1. 1. IMEX RESEARCH.COM NextGen Infrastructure Are SSDs Ready for Enterprise Storage Systems Anil Vasudeva, President & Chief Analyst, IMEX Research for Big Data © 2007-12 IMEX Research All Rights Reserved Copying Prohibited Contact IMEX for authorization Anil Vasudeva President & Chief Analyst imex@imexresearch.com IMEX RESEARCH.COM 408-268-0800© 2010-12 IMEX Research, Copying prohibited. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Abstract IMEX RESEARCH.COM• NextGen Infrastructure for Big Data • This session will appeal to Business Planning, Marketing, Technology System Integrators and Data Center Managers seeking to understand the drivers behind the demand for and rise of Big Data. • Abstract • The internet has spawned an explosion in data growth in the form of data sets, called Big Data, that are so large they are difficult to store, manage and analyze using traditional RDBMS which are tuned for Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) only. Not only is this new data heavily unstructured, voluminous and streams rapidly and difficult to harness but even more importantly, the infrastructure cost of HW and SW required to crunch it using traditional RDBMS, to derive any analytics or business intelligence online (OLAP) from it, is prohibitive. • To capitalize on the Big Data trend, a new breed of Big Data technologies (such as Hadoop and others) many companies have emerged which are leveraging new parallelized processing, commodity hardware, open source software and tools to capture and analyze these new data sets and provide a price/performance that is 10 times better than existing Database/Data Warehousing/Business Intelligence Systems. • Learning Objectives • The presentation will illustrate the existing operational challenges businesses face today using RDBMS systems despite using fast access in-memory and solid state storage technologies. It details how IT is harnessing the emergent Big Data to manage massive amounts of data and new techniques such as parallelization and virtualization to solve complex problems in order to empower businesses with knowledgeable decision-making. • It lays out the rapidly evolving big data technology ecosystem - different big data technologies from Hadoop, Distributed File Systems, emerging NoSQL derivatives for implementation in private and hybrid cloud-based environments, Storage Infrastructure Requirements to Store, Access, Secure, Prepare for analytics and visualization of data while manipulating it rapidly to derive business intelligence online, to run businesses smartly.2 2
  3. 3. Big Data in IT Industry Roadmap IMEX RESEARCH.COM Analytics – BI IT Industry Predictive Analytics - Unstructured Data Roadmap From Dashboards Visualization to Prediction Engines using Big Data. Cloudization On-Premises > Private Clouds > Public Clouds DC to Cloud-Aware Infrast. & Apps. Cascade migration to SPs/Public Clouds. Automation Automatically Maintains Application SLAs (Self-Configuration, Self-Healing©IMEX, Self-Acctg. Charges etc.) Virtualization Pools Resources. Provisions, Optimizes, Monitors Shuffles Resources to optimize Delivery of various Business Services Integration/Consolidation Integrate Physical Infrast./Blades to meet CAPSIMS ®IMEX Cost, Availability, Performance, Scalability, Inter-operability, Manageability & Security StandardizationStandard IT Infrastructure- Volume Economics HW/Syst SW(Servers, Storage, Networking Devices, System Software (OS, MW & Data Mgmt. SW) 3
  4. 4. Harnessing Big Data for Business Insights IMEX RESEARCH.COM Data Big Data Business Sources Infrastructure Insights Information is at the center of Majority of data growth is being 80% of world’s data is unstructured New Wave of opportunity driven by unstructured data driven by rise in Mobility devices, and billions of large objects collaboration machine generated data. 4
  5. 5. Corporate Need: Business Perf... OptimizationIMEX RESEARCH.COM Unstructured Big Data can provide Next Gen Analytics to help businesses make informed, better decision in: ▪ Product Strategy ▪ Targeting Sales ▪ Just-In-Time Supply-Chain Economics ▪ Business Performance Optimization ▪ Predictive Analytics & Recommendations ▪ Country Resources Management 5
  6. 6. Corporate Need: Real Time Analytics IMEX RESEARCH.COM 6
  7. 7. Corporate Need: Business Insights IMEX RESEARCH.COM Item Issue . Solution Information Exploding A unified information/content Volume: Digital Content doubling every 18 storage methodology that enables Store months. Velocity: >80% growth driven from users to manage the volume, velocity and unstructured data. Variety: sources of data variety of information from multiple sources changing Complexity in "managing" A solution portfolio of tools and information. - Need to classify, services to manage all types of Manage synchronize, aggregate, integrate, share, information in a hybrid storage environment transform, profile, move, cleanse, protect, retire Current solutions limited to BI tools Build/buy packaged Real-Time Analyze focused on structured and lagging Predictive Analytical Solutions for information unstructured analytics tools Multiple access methods needed to Centralized share, collaborate and Collaborate meet needs of a diverse audience. act on insights anytime, anywhere on any device. Ability to understand how the Model Information on current Model/ Adapt information impacts the business. operations w/potential strategy How to transfer to action. impact. Leverage Tech. to adapt. 7
  8. 8. Opportunity: Converting Big Data Delugeinto Predictive Analytics & Insights IMEX RESEARCH.COM Big Data Predictive Analytics Personal Location Services Data Generated by TB/Year Navigation Devices 600 Navigation Apps on Phones 20 Smart Phone Opt-In Tracking 1000 Geo Targeted Ads 20 People Locator (Emergency Calls/Search..) 10 Location based Services (e.g.Games) 5 Other 45 Total (Est.) 1700 8
  9. 9. Issues with Existing RDBMS IMEX RESEARCH.COM Key Issues with RDBMS Technologies Handling Mixed Unstructured Data Unstructured Scalability - RDBMs don’t handle non-tabular data Data (Notorious for doing a poor job on recursive data structure) Legacy Archaic Architecture - RDBMS don’t parallelize well to accommodate Fault commodity HW clusters Cost Tolerance Speed Big Data - Seek time of physical Storage has not kept pace with Analytics network speed improvementsEU Adhoc Latency ScaleAnalytics - Difficult to scale-out RDBMS efficiently – Clustering beyond few servers notoriously hard Integration Deep - Data processing tasks need to combine data from non- Availability Insights related sources, over a network Volume - Data volumes have grown from 10s GB >100s TB > PBs in recent years. Existing Tabular RDBMS can’t handle such large DBs 9
  10. 10. Issues with Existing RDBMS IMEX RESEARCH.COMPresent RDBMS struggling to Store & Analyze Big Data 10
  11. 11. Big Data - Database Solutions IMEX RESEARCH.COM 11
  12. 12. Big Data – The New Face of DBs IMEX RESEARCH.COMBig Data Paradigm - The New face of DB Systems• Adopts Schema-Free Architecture• Can do away with Legacy Relational DB Systems Some data have sparse attributes, do not need relational property• Key Oriented Queries Some data stored/retrieved mainly by primary key, w/o complex joins• Trade-off of Consistency, Availability & Partition Tolerance• Scale Out, not up, - Online Load balancing cluster growth 12
  13. 13. Analytics – The Next Frontier in IT IMEX RESEARCH.COM 13
  14. 14. Key Innovations: HW Technologies IMEX RESEARCH.COM 14
  15. 15. Key Innovations – Solid State Storage IMEX RESEARCH.COM Storage - IOPS/GB & Price Erosion - HDD vs. SSDs 600 8 HDD Units (Millions) IOPS/GB 300 SSD IOPS/GB HDDs 0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Note: 2U storage rack, • 2.5” HDD max cap = 400GB / 24 HDDs, de-stroked to 20%, • 2.5” SSD max cap = 800GB / 36 SSDs Key to Database performance are random IOPS. SSDs outshine HDD in IO price/performance – a major reason, besides better space and power, for their explosive growth. ©2011 1515Source: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report
  16. 16. Innovations – DB SW Technologies IMEX RESEARCH.COM Tech Innovation 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 OLTP Transactions Open Source / Rows Locking Optimizer Parallel Query Clustering XML Grid DB SW Hadoop OLAP- Analytics Materialized Bit Mapped Indexing Partitioning Columnar In-Memory Query Binding DB SW View Index Multi-core/ Hardware 32 bit SMP NUMA 64 bit Flash MPP Blades Columnar MPP Big Data Multi-core In-Memory Visualization OLTP Database Innovation Progress Big Data: Analytics DB Technology Impact 100000 10000 100,000 100000 10000 10000 1000 10,000 $/GB 1000 TPMc / Processor 1,000 DW Size TB$ / TPMc 1000 100 100 $/TPMc 100 10 100 TPMc/Processor 10 10 1 10 1 0.1 1 0.01 1 0.1 .1 0 0.001 0.1 0.01 .01 0 0.0001 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 16
  17. 17. Big Data - Key Requirements IMEX RESEARCH.COM Types of Data Organizations Analyze 59% Customer/member data 68% 44% Transactional data from applications 68% 69% Application Logs 37% 64% Other Types of Event Data 23% 41% Network Monitoring/Network Traffic 33% 33% Online Retail Transactions 34% 51% Other Log Files 26% 28% Call Data Records 32% 46% Web Logs 21% 36% Text data from social media and online 15% 36% Search logs 11% 18% Trade/quote data 15% Hadoop 18% Intelligence/defense data 11% Non Hadoop 21% Multimedia (audio/video/images) 9% 8% Weather 3% 3% Smartmeter data 6% 3% Other (please specify) 5% 17
  18. 18. Big Data – Architectural Goals IMEX RESEARCH.COM Meet Requirements of V3 Meet Enterprise Criterion Big Data Platform Analyze Data in Native Format 18
  19. 19. Big Data - Market Requirements IMEX RESEARCH.COM Unified system: Pre-integrated for Ease of Installation and Management • Platform – Large Scale Indexing Pre-integrated using Hadoop Foundation, • Integrated Text Analytics - Address Unstructured Data • Usability - User Friendly Admin Console including HDFS Explorer, Query Languages • Enterprise Class Features – Provisioning, Storage, Scheduler, Advance Security • Supports search-centric, document-based XML data model o store documents within a transactional repository. • Schema-Free: o No advance knowledge of the document structure (its "schema") needed o Index words and values from each of the loaded documents together with its document structure. • Standard commodity hardware leveraged 19
  20. 20. Big Data – Market Requirements IMEX RESEARCH.COMArchitectural• Shared-nothing clustered DB architecture o programmable and extensible application servers.• Support massive scalability to petabytes of source data• Support open-source XQuery- and XSLT-driven architecture• Simple to Deploy, Develop and Manage (UI & Restful Interface)• Support extreme mixed workloads - a wide variety of data types including arbitrarily hierarchical data structures, images, waveforms, data logs etc.• Support thousands of geographically dispersed on--line users and programs executing variety of requests from ad hoc queries to strategic analysis• Loading data before declaring or discovering its structure• Load data in batch and streaming fashion• Integrate data from multiple sources during load process at very high rates Spread I/O and data across instances• Provide consistent performance with linear cost• Leverage Open Source SW Lo Costs, Multiple Sources, Hadoop Foundation Tools• Connectivity with Oracle DB, Teradata Warehouse, JDBC Connectivity, 20
  21. 21. Big Data - Market Requirements IMEX RESEARCH.COMReal Time Analytics Execution• Execute “streaming” analytic queries in real time on incoming load data• Updating data in place at full load speeds• Scheduling and execution of complex multi-hundred node workflows• Join a billion row dimension table to a trillion row fact table without pre-clustering the dimension table with the fact tablePerformance• Analyze data, at very high rates >GB/sec• Predictable Sub-ms response time for highly constrained standard SQL queriesAvailability• Ability to configure without any single point of failure• Auto-Failover Extreme High Availability o Automated failover and process continuation without operational interruption when processing nodes fail 21
  22. 22. Big Data – Product Metrics Choices IMEX RESEARCH.COM PB Data Set Size TB GB Transaction Machine Data Structure Unstructured Other Transaction Access/Use Search Big Data Analytics - Appliance Product Parallel Cluster < 1K Processing Metrics Cluster > 1K In-Memory Memory Flash Columnar DB Technique Zero Sharing No SQL Text Data Image Cataloging Audio SW Video 22
  23. 23. Advantage: Big Data Products IMEX RESEARCH.COMCharacteristic Legacy Paradigm Big Data ParadigmStructure •Transactional/Corporate •Unstructured/Derivative/InternetMode •Data Collection •Data AnalysisFocus •Find Answers •Find QuestionsFacility •Reportive / What Happened? •Analytic / Why did it Happen? Predictive / What will Happen Next?Opportunity •Very Small Growth •Massive GrowthPlayers •Legacy Players •Agile Start Ups, well fundedImpact •Analyze Existing Businesses •Create New Businesses 23
  24. 24. Advantage: Big Data Products IMEX RESEARCH.COMCharacteristic Traditional RDBMS Big Data/MapReduceData Size •GB •PBAccess •Interactive •Batch/Near Real-TimeLatency •Low •HighData Updates •Read & Write Many Times •Write Once Read Many TimesSchema/Structure •Static Schema •Dynamic SchemaLanguage •SQL •UQL/Procedural (Java,C++..)Integrity •High •Not 100%Works Well for •Process Intensive Jobs •Data Intensive JobsWorks Well w Data Size •Gigabytes •PetabytesData/Processing •Low Latency/High BW – precursor to •Sends Code to Data, instead ofInteractions success. Ntwk. BW can be a Sending Data to other Nodes bottleneck causing nodes to be idle (Requiring Lower BW in Cluster)Fault Tolerance •Coordinating Processes with Node •Fault Tolerant for HW/SW Failures Failures – a challengeAccess •Interactive •Batch/Near Real-timeScaling •Non-linear •LinearPgm-Distribution of Jobs •Difficult •Simple & Effective 24
  25. 25. Big Data Ecosystem IMEX RESEARCH.COM 25
  26. 26. Big Data Stack IMEX RESEARCH.COMMerging Hadoop innovations into Nextgen DBMS Data Analytics Platform Applications Sources Advanced RHive Analytics Oracle DBA PerfMon, Query IBM Teradata… Data Enterprise Plan Importer Hive Workflow ETL Databases Oracle-to-Hive Ad-hoc query Data Data Sources Importer OLAP Data Server Data Store exporter Streaming (Hadoop) OLTP Data Server Collector Devices Rest/ JSON Search API Real-time Admin Center Queries 26
  27. 27. Hadoop’s Fit in Enterprise Stack IMEX RESEARCH.COM 27
  28. 28. Big Data - Hadoop Architecture IMEXRESEARCH.COM Data Flow SQL Programming (Pig) (Hive) Languages Coordination Management Distributed Computing Framework (Zookeeper) Computations (MapReduce) (HMS) Metadata Column-Stg Tabular (HCatalog) (HBase) Storage Hadoop Distributed File System Object (HDFS) Storage 28
  29. 29. Big Data Connectors to EDW/BI IMEX RESEARCH.COMBI Framework - Interoperable with Enterprise Data Warehousing EDW BI APPLICATIONS (Query, Analytics, Reporting, Statistics) Big Data Big Data Orchestration Framework (Connectors) HBase Avro Flume ZooKeeper Big Data Access Framework Backup & Recovery Hive Sqoop Management Pig Security Network Big Data Storage Framework Big Data Processing Framework (HDFS) (MapReduce) Hypervisor/VMs Operating System Servers 29
  30. 30. Big Data Infrastructure – Map IMEX RESEARCH.COMReduce Data Flow SQL (Pig) (Hive) MapReduceCoordinationManagement Computing (Zookeeper) (HMS) Framework) Metadata MetadataColumn-Stg (HCatalog)CV (HBase) (HCatalog)CV Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Map Reduce  A Distributed Computing Model  Typical Pipeline: Input>Map>Shuffle/Sort>Reduce>Output  Easy to Use , Developer writes few functions, Moves compute to Data  Schedules work on HDFS node with data  Scans through data, reducing seeks  Automatic Reliability and re-execution on failure 30
  31. 31. Big Data Infrastructure – HDFS IMEX RESEARCH.COM HDFS Architecture Actively Maintaining High Availability Persistent Namespace Metadata & Journal Persistent Namespace Metadata & Journal Namespace NFS Namespace Namespace NFS Namespace State Block State Block NFS Map NFS Map Name Node Name Node Hierarchical Namespace File name >> Block IDs >> Block Locations 0. Bad/ 3. Block Lost Block 1. Replicate Periodically Check Heartbeats & Block Reports Received Block Checksums b1 b2 b1 b2 b1 b2 b1 b2 b1 b2 b1 b2 b1 b2 b1 b2 b3 Data Node b3 Data Node b3 Data Node b3 Data Node b3 Data Node b3 Data Node 2. Copy b3 Data Node b3 Data Node JBOD JBOD JBOD JBOD JBOD JBOD JBOD JBOD Block ID >> Data Block ID >> Data Horizontally Scale I/O & Storage Horizontally Scale I/O & Storage HDFS  Immutable File System – Read, Write, Sync/Flush – No random writes  Storage Server used for Computation – Move Computation to Data  Fault Tolerant & Easy Management – Built In Redundancy, Tolerates Disk & Node Failure, Auto-Managing addition/removal of nodes, One operator/8K nodes  Not a SAN but high bandwidth network access to data via Ethernet  Used typically to Solve problems not feasible with traditional systems: Large Storage Capacity >100PB raw, Large IO/computational BW >4K node/cluster, scale by adding commodity HW, Cost ~$1.5/GB incl. MR cluster
  32. 32. Hadoop Distributed File System IMEX RESEARCH.COMHDFS Architecture HDFS Characteristics • Based on Google GFS (Google File System) • Redundant Storage for massive amounts of data • Data is distributed across all nodes at load time – efficient MapReduce processing • Runs on commodity hardware – assumes high failure rate for components • Works well with lots of large files • Built around Write once – Read many times” • Large Streaming Reads – Not random access • High Throughtput more important than low latency 32
  33. 33. Hadoop Architecture - Overview IMEX RESEARCH.COMHadoop Data Processing Architecture 33
  34. 34. Key Technologies Required for Big Data IMEX RESEARCH.COM Key Technologies Required for Big Data • Cloud Infrastructure • Virtualization • Networking • Storage o In-Memory Data Base (Solid State Memory) o Tiered Storage Software (Performance Enhancement) o Deduplication (Cost Reduction) o Data Protection (Back Up, Archive & Recovery) 34
  35. 35. Cloud Infrastructure for Big Data IMEX RESEARCH.COM Service Cloud Services Providers Examples Public - BT, Telstra, T-Systems France Telecom Public – Mutitenancy,OnDemand Providers Private - On Premises, Enterprise Private – Hybrid – IBM/Cloudburst, Hybrid – Interoperable P2P Examples SaaS Software-as-a-Service - Servers, Network, Storage eMail - Yahoo!,Google… Collaboration - Facebook,Twitter … - Management, Reporting Bus.Apps - SalesForce, GoogleApps, Intuit… Examples PaaS Platform Tools & Services - Deploy developed platforms Amazon EC2 Force.com ready for Application SW on Navitaire Cloud Aware Infrastructure Examples Infrastructure HW & IaaS Amazon S3 Services Nirvanix - Servers, Network, Storage - Management, Reporting35
  36. 36. Cloud Infrastructure for Big Data IMEX RESEARCH.COM Cloud Computing Private Cloud Hybrid Public Cloud Service Enterprise Cloud Providers SaaS Applications SaaS App App App App App SLA SLA SLA SLA SLA Platform Tools & Services Management Python Ruby .Net ….. ….. EJB PHP PaaS Operating Systems Virtualization IaaS Resources (Servers, Storage, Networks) Application’s SLA dictates the Resources Required to meet specific requirements of Availability, Performance, Cost, Security, Manageability etc.
  37. 37. Private Cloud Requirements for Big Data IMEX RESEARCH.COM PublicOperational Flexibility Cloud Storage Private Cloud Storage Service Catalog VZ  Choose pre-defined IT Services/user/dept. App  Define SLA to efficiently meet services Silos Costs Self- Service Private Service Cloud Analytics  Access Resources on demand to Storage  Monitor & Analyze Usage for speed deployment and delivery Charge back  Scale Resource Up/down  Interactively auto-tune  to optimize their usage, performance  Release when not needed Availability with SLA Automation requirements  Automated Provisioning - Moving Data & Processes Seamlessly  Allocation, Self Tuning of Resources to meet Workload Requirements
  38. 38. Virtualization: Workloads Consolidation IMEX RESEARCH.COM • A single server 1.5x larger than standard 2-way server will handle consolidated load of 6 servers. • VZ manages the workloads + important apps get the compute resources they need automatically w/o operator intervention. • Physical consolidation of 15-20:1 is easily possible • Reasonable goal for VZ x86 servers – 40-50% utilization on large systems (>4way), rising as dual/quad core processors becomes available • Savings result in Real Estate, Power & Cooling, High Availability, Hardware, Management Source: Dan Olds & IMEX Research 2009
  39. 39. Storage Architecture - Impact from VZ IMEX RESEARCH.COM Data Protection Storage Efficiency Virtualization (VZ) requires Shared Storage for Back Up/Archive/DR Virtualization - VMotion RAID – 0,1,5,6,10 Thin Provisioning - Storage VMotion Virtual Tape Deduplication - HA/DRS Auto Tiering - Fault Tolerance Replication MAID Additional Capacity Consumed for - VZ snapshots, - VM Kernel etc.Source: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report ©2011 39
  40. 40. Storage – Issues & Solutions IMEX RESEARCH.COM Technologies Reducing Storage CostsStorage Costs Reduction Traditional Thin Replication ~ 95% Data Growth Snapshots ~ 75% Virtual Clones ~80% Thin Provisioning ~30% DeDuplication ~ 25-95% CAPACITY Auto-Tiering 65-95% SAVINGS ~ xx % RAID*DP ~ 40% vs. R10 Capacity Requirements
  41. 41. Storage Architecture Impacting Big Data IMEX RESEARCH.COM Data Protection Storage Efficiency Back Up/Archive/DR Auto-Tiering System Storage Virtualization using Flash SSDs RAID – 0,1,5,6,10 Thin Provisioning Data Class Virtual Tape Deduplication (Tiers 0,1,2,3) Auto-Tiering Storage Media Type Replication MAID (Flash/Disk/Tape) Policy Engines (Workload Mgmt.) DRAM Transparent Migration Flash (Data Placement) File Virtualization SSD Performance Disk (Uninterrupted App.Opns.in Migration) Capacity Disk TapeSource: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report ©2011 41
  42. 42. Data Storage: Hierarchical Usage IMEX RESEARCH.COM I/O Access Frequency vs. Percent of Corporate Data 95% 75% Cloud 65% FCoE/ Storage SAS SATA Arrays % of I/O Accesses • Back Up Data SSD • Tables • Archived Data • Logs • Indices • Offsite DataVault • Journals • Hot Data • Temp Tables • Hot Tables 1% 2% 10% 50% 100% % of Corporate DataSource:: IMEX Research - Cloud Infrastructure Report ©2009-12 42
  43. 43. SSD Storage: Filling Price/Perf.Gaps IMEX RESEARCH.COM Price $/GB CPU SDRAM DRAM getting DRAM NOR Faster (to feed faster CPUs) & Larger (to feed Multi-cores & NAND Multi-VMs from Virtualization) PCIe SCM SSD HDD SSD segmenting into SATA  PCIe SSD Cache Tape SSD - as backend to DRAM &  SATA SSD HDD becoming - as front end to HDD Cheaper, not faster Source: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report ©2010-12 Performance I/O Access Latency 43
  44. 44. SSD Storage - Performance & TCO IMEX RESEARCH.COM SAN TCO using HDD vs. Hybrid Storage SAN Performance 250 Improvements using SSD 300 10 IOPS 9 200 $/IOPS 250 Improvement Improvement 8 475% 145 800% 7 200 150 HDD-FC 6 Cost $K 0 IOPS $/IOP HDD- 36 150 5 100 SATA 4 0 100 3 SSD 64 50 75 2 50 RackSpace 1 28 14.2 Pwr/Cool 5.2 0 0 0 HDD Only HDD/SSD FC-HDD Only SSD/SATA-HDD Power & Cooling RackSpace SSDs HDD SATA HDD FC Performance (IOPS) $/IOPSource: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report ©2011 44
  45. 45. Workloads Characterization IMEX RESEARCH.COM 1000 K OLTP Transaction Processing eCommerce 100 K Business IOPS* (*Latency-1) (RAID - 1, 5, 6) Data Intelligence (RAID - 0, 3) Warehousing 10K OLAP 1K Scientific Computing HPC Imaging TP 100 Audio Web 2.0 HPC Video 10 1 5 10 50 100 500 *IOPS for a required response time ( ms) MB/sec *=(#Channels*Latency-1)Source:: IMEX Research - Cloud Infrastructure Report ©2009-12
  46. 46. Workloads Characterization IMEX RESEARCH.COM Storage performance, management and costs are big issues in running Databases  Data Warehousing Workloads are I/O intensive • Predominantly read based with low hit ratios on buffer pools • High concurrent sequential and random read levels  Sequential Reads requires high level of I/O Bandwidth (MB/sec)  Random Reads require high IOPS) • Write rates driven by life cycle management and sort operations  OLTP Workloads are strongly random I/O intensive • Random I/O is more dominant  Read/write ratios of 80/20 are most common but can be 50/50  Can be difficult to build out test systems with sufficient I/O characteristics  Batch Workloads are more write intensive • Sequential Writes requires high level of I/O Bandwidth (MB/sec)  Backup & Recovery times are critical for these workloads • Backup operations drive high level of sequential IO • Recovery operation drives high levels of random I/OSource: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report ©2011 46
  47. 47. Best Practices – Storage in Big Data Apps IMEX RESEARCH.COM Goals & Implementation • Establish Goals for SLAs (Performance/Cost/Availability), BC/DR (RPO/RTO) & Compliance • Increase Performance for DB, OLTP and OLAP Apps: −Random I/O > 20x , Sequential I/O Bandwidth > 5x −Remove Stale data from Production Resources to improve performance • Use Partitioning Software to Classify Data −By Frequency of Access (Recent Usage) and −Capacity (by percent of total Data) using general guidelines as: −Hyperactive (1%), Active (5%), Less Active (20%), Historical (74%) Implementation • Optimize Tiering by Classifying Hot & Cold Data −Improve Query Performance by reducing number of I/Os −Reduce number of Disks Needed by 25-50% using advance compression software achieving 2-4x compression • Match Data Classification vs.Tiered Devices accordingly −Flash, High Perf Disk, Low Cost Capacity Disk, Online Lowest Cost Archival Disk/Tape • Balance Cost vs. Performance of Flash −More Data in Flash > Higher Cache Hit Ratio > Improved Data Performance • Create and Auto-Manage Tiering (Monitoring, Migrations, Placements) without manual intervention 47
  48. 48. Best Practices: I/O Forensics in Storage-Tiering IMEX RESEARCH.COM Storage-Tiered Virtualization Storage-Tiering at LBA/Sub-LUN Level Physical Storage Logical Volume SSDs Hot Data Arrays Cold Data HDDs Arrays LBA Monitoring and Tiered Placement • Every workload has unique I/O access signature • Historical performance data for a LUN can identify performance skews & hot data regions Automatic by LBAs Migration (Policy Based)Source: IBM & IMEX Research SSD Industry Report 2011 ©IMEX 2010-12 48
  49. 49. Best Practices: Cached Storage IMEX RESEARCH.COM App/DB Application Improvement over Cached Server vs.HDD only Oracle OLTP Benchmarks 681% SQL Server OLTP 1251% Benchmark Neoload (Web Server 533% Simulation SysBench (MySQL OLTP 150% LSI MegaRAID CacheCade Pro 2.0 Server) Response Time TPS 660 700 655 700 600 600 500 500 400 330 373 400 300 300 200 200 100 0 0 100 0 All HDD Smart Flash Persist 0 Cache Data on All HDD Smart Flash Persist Data Warpdrive Cache on Warpdrive 49
  50. 50. Big Data Targets: Analytics IMEX RESEARCH.COMKey Industries Benefitting from Big Data Analytics Global IT Spending by Industry Verticals 2010-15 $B CAGR % (2010-15) 5 Year Cum Global IT Spending 2010-15 ($B) 50
  51. 51. Big Data Targets – Storage Infrastructure IMEX RESEARCH.COM Value Potential of Using Big Data by Data Intensive Verticals Data Intensity by Industry Vertical Banking & Financial Services Media & Entrertainment Healthcare Providers Professional Services Telecommunications Pharma, Life Sciences & Medical Pdcts Retail & Wholesales Utilities Indl Elex & Electrical Equipment SW Publishing & Internet Srvcs Consumer Products Insurance Transportation Energy 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Installed Terabytes/$M Rev 2010 51
  52. 52. Big Data Targets: Storage Infrastructure IMEX RESEARCH.COM Data Stored by Large US Enterprises Big Data Storage Potential Data Stored by Large US Enterprises Big Data Storage Potential Data Stored by Large US Enterprise Stored Data TB/Firm Stored Data by Industry (in US 2009 PB) (>1K Employees US) Discrete Manafacturing 14% 231 Government 12% 150 Communications and Media 10% 825 Process manufacturing 10% 1,507 Banking 9% 536 Health Care Providers 6% 801 Securities & Investment Srvcs 6% 870 Professional Services 6% 319 Retail 5% 697 Education 4% 278 Insurance 4% 3,866 Transportation 3% 370 Wholesale 3% 1,931 Utilities 3% 831 Resource Industries 2% 1,792 Consumer and Recreational 2% 1,312 Services Construction 1% 967 52
  53. 53. Big Data Targets: Savings w Open Source IMEX RESEARCH.COM Legacy BI vs. Open Source Big Data Analytics 53
  54. 54. Rise of Big Data Adoption IMEX RESEARCH.COM54
  55. 55. Key Takeaways IMEX RESEARCH.COM Big Data creating paradigm shift in IT Industry Leverage the opportunity to optimize your computing infrastructure with Big Data Infrastructure after making a due diligence in selection of vendors/products, industry testing and interoperability. Apply best storage technologies listed in this presentation and elsewhere Optimize Big Data Analytics for Query Response Time vs. # of Users Improving Query Response time for a given number of users (IOPs) or Serving more users (IOPS) for a given query response time Select Automated Storage Management Software Data Forensics and Tiered Placement • Every workload has unique I/O access signature • Historical performance data for a LUN can identify performance skews & hot data regions by LBAs.Non-disruptively migrate hot data using auto-tiering Software Optimize Infrastructure to meet needs of Applications/SLA • Performance Economics/Benefits • Typically 4-8% of data becomes a candidate and when migrated for higher performance tiering can provide response time reduction of ~65% at peak loads. Many industry Verticals and Applications will benefit using Big DataSource: IMEX Research SSD Industry Report ©2011 55
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