Maertz and Campion: A Foundation for Future Inquiries in Quitting Dynamics

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Maertz and Campion: A Foundation for Future Inquiries in Quitting Dynamics

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Maertz and Campion: A Foundation for Future Inquiries in Quitting Dynamics

  1. 1. Maertz and Campion 1Maertz and Campion: A Foundation for Future Inquiries in Quitting Dynamics by Edgardo Donovan ORG 601 – Dr. Stephen P. Fitzgerald Module 1 – Case Analysis Monday, April 15, 2008
  2. 2. Maertz and Campion 2 Maertz and Campion: A Foundation for Future Inquiries in Quitting Dynamics Since 1987, 7 million Americans have lost their jobs (Cascio 1995), and several industrial sectors have their hiring concomitantly. This evident mobility is tied to the formation of new and more varied employment relationships across industries as well as within specific firms. D.M. ROUSSEAU Annual Review of Psychology, 1997 ichael Campion and Carl Maertz’s research entitled “Profiles in Quitting: Integrating Process and Content Turnover Theory” builds heavily on past research while integrating a wealth of quantitative statistical data drawn from employee surveys in an attempt to understand theemotional and rational dynamics involved with corporate employee turnover. The researchattempts to point to correlations between certain physiological states and their impact onprofessional behavior affecting employee career decisions. Many external references areweaved into the research in an attempt to tie it in with past scholarship thereby adding agreater sense of thoroughness. This seems as an attempt to compensate for what theirresearch has not been able to accomplish. Although their work has value as a basis forfuture inquiry, they have difficulty in proving most of their hypotheses and are unable toaccount for employees who are motivated by multiple motivational forces leading them toprogress through multiple decision types relative to quitting their jobs.
  3. 3. Maertz and Campion 3 With few exceptions, most companies have a vested interest in being able toretain quality employees from today’s highly specialized and mobile workforce. Recruitingand training new employees is very expensive and it takes a long time to for a newemployee to acquire the organizational experience to equal the level of a veteran employeeThere is a desire among companies to better understand the dynamics of job satisfactionnot only because that leads to less turnover but also because it contributes to theenhancement of employees commitment to their organizations (Chen). Published in the Academy of Management Journal, “Profiles in Quitting: IntegratingProcess and Content Turnover Theory” seems to adhere to a post-positivist tradition ofdelineating a variety of hypotheses aligned with a multitude of previous work as a point ofdeparture. Throughout the work, the authors subsequently utilize an empirical quantitativestatistical study conducted through employee surveys in an attempt to prove or disprovethe latter. Process models of turnover focus on how people quit; content models focus on why. To integrate these approaches and test whether motives relate systematically to decision processes, we classified 159 leavers using four process types and measured eight content motives for leaving. One key finding was that those who quit with no job alternative had more negative affect than users of other decision types, suggesting affect-driven, impulsive quitting. Results suggest that process-content integration is a fruitful direction for turnover research. C.P. MAERTZ Academy of Management Journal, 2004 The level of detail that went into preparing the empirical quantitative statisticalstudy is impressive. Every possible demographic detail was collected and great effort was
  4. 4. Maertz and Campion 4put forth to ensure that the respondents provided a wide representation of differentindustries, professions, career maturity, and job satisfaction. The questions asked in thesurvey were designed in an attempt to categorize different employees among a welldefined set of motive forces: affective, contractual, constituent, alternative, calculative,normative, behavioral, moral, avoidability (Maertz). Martz attempts to conduct research that will provide proof that there are set ofdistinct emotions and rational reasons that lead to specific turnover types. There is a largeemphasis in examining different psychological profiles that attempt to display the differentprogressions influenced in part by reason and emotion that lead people to quit their jobs.Among the several profiles there are those which delineate a slow and rational plan takenon by the employee in actuating their desire to quit. Others are more emotionally drivenand quit impulsively after experiencing traumatic experiences within the workplace thatthe author refers to as shock events. The variety of variable data makes it very difficult toconstruct a research methodology that can accurately describe every employee consideredin the study without running the risk of generalizing. Maertz affirms that some individualbehaviors are categorized into four different decision types: impulsive, comparison,preplanned, and conditional quitting. However, the research does not accurately explainwhy the categories are relevant given that it is possible for some employees to actually gothrough an ordinal progression of all the quitting events: preplanned (decision to seekbetter remuneration elsewhere), comparison (job interviewing), conditional (turning downoffers while waiting for something better), and impulsive (finally quitting without a joblined up after a fight with the boss). The authors analyze eight motivational forces the leademployees to one of the aforementioned decision types but here again are not able todelineate how their methodology can actually measure different mixtures of motivationalforces and how their percentages actually influenced the tendency towards one or multipledecision types.
  5. 5. Maertz and Campion 5 The first half of the research seems to contradict the advice given in Campion’s workentitled “Rules for References: Suggested Guidelines for Choosing Literary Citations forResearch Articles in Applied Psychology” where he advocates for a measured use of multiplereferences. Although that may be advisable for most research projects, it is very useful hereespecially because they are trying in a constructivist fashion to weave their hypotheses along thelines of previous work in an attempt to build a consensus of ideas. Since they were only able toprove a small portion of the hypotheses detailed in the beginning the authors conclude that thegreater value of their work lies as a foundation for future inquiry. Multiple references should not be used merely to show thoroughness and scholarship, or to educate the reader. C.P. MAERTZ Academy of Management Journal, 2004 The first half of the research seems to contradict the advice given in Campion’s workentitled “Rules for references: suggested guidelines for choosing literary citations for researcharticles in applied psychology” where he advocates for a measured use of multiple references.Although that may be advisable for most research projects, it is very useful here especiallybecause they are trying in a constructivist fashion to weave their hypotheses along the lines ofprevious work in an attempt to build a consensus of ideas. Since they were only able to prove asmall portion of the hypotheses detailed in the beginning the authors conclude that the greatervalue of their work lies as a foundation for future inquiry. Foremost, the current study uncovered unique findings about how motive levels relate to different decision process types. These findings represent an important step and help to set an agenda for future research by demonstrating how process and content approaches to turnover can be integrated. We hope that this step will help stimulate integrative research efforts to develop a motive rich theory of turnover decisions. C.P. MAERTZ
  6. 6. Maertz and Campion 6 Academy of Management Journal, 2004 Michael Campion and Carl Maertz’s research entitled “Profiles in Quitting: IntegratingProcess and Content Turnover Theory” builds heavily on past research while integrating a wealthof quantitative statistical data drawn from employee surveys in an attempt to understand theemotional and rational dynamics involved with corporate employee turnover. The researchattempts to point to correlations between certain physiological states and their impact onprofessional behavior affecting employee career decisions. Many external references are weavedinto the research in an attempt to tie it in with past scholarship thereby adding a greater sense ofthoroughness. This seems as an attempt to compensate for what their research has not been ableto accomplish. Although their work has value as a basis for future inquiry, they have difficulty inproving most of their hypotheses and are unable to account for employees who are motivated bymultiple motivational forces leading them to progress through multiple decision types relative toquitting their jobs.
  7. 7. Maertz and Campion 7 BibliographyBarley, S. R., & Kunda, G. (1992). Design and devotion: surges of rational and normativeideologies of control in managerial discourse. Administrative Science Quarterly.Campion, M. A. (1997). Rules for references: suggested guidelines for choosing literarycitations for research articles in applied psychology. Personnel Psychology.Hall, Michael. (2008). Glossary of terms. International Society of Neuro-Semantics.Maertz, C. P. (2004). Profiles in quitting: integrating process and content turnover theory.Academy of Management Journal.Pine, Ronald. (2008). Science and the human prospect. Hawaii.Edu.Rousseau, D.M. (1997). Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. AnnualReview of Psychology.Trochim, William. (2008). Positivism & post-positivism. SocialResearchMethods.net.

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