1. Source Literature 1Source Literature Annotations Review Edgardo Donovan ITM 604 – Dr. Indira Guzman Module 2 – Session Long Project Monday, April 3, 2010
2. Source Literature 2 Source Literature Annotations Review Companies align a portion of their processes with technologies they feel will render their operations more efficient. There isalways the potential that new aligned practices will synchronize with traditional operations thereby carving out a niche as one of themultiple operational tools. The potential for ultimate convergence with standard practices is the goal. IS literature repeatedly outlinesthe fundamental importance of alignment for organizational effectiveness. Alis "Antecedents and Drivers of IT-Business Strategic Alignment: Empirical Validation of a Theoretical Model" is a studythat deals with IT alignment centralization as a dependent variable. Knowledge, successful IT history, and relationship management asindependent variables. This study involves empirical, literary review, hypothesis, testing, and pilot testing with eMBA studentsenrolled in a large public university. The target population for the survey included business administrators with complete knowledgeof IT and business strategizing processes. The study found that business managers may reconsider their strategizing process and keepplanning integration as one of their primary goals. They may seek opportunities to increase their communication level with ITmanagers. Given the positive effect of formalization on strategic alignment, executives can choose to increase the level offormalization in their organizations through different strategies including clearly outlining the responsibilities of IT and business unitsin terms of integration and implementing policies and procedures regarding decision making processes. Overall I believe that Aliconducts good research, a good literary review, a good hypothesis, a good research model, and demonstrates clear findings that are notobvious from the outset that can further be examined for universal qualities.
3. Source Literature 3 Baets "Aligning Information Systems with Business Strategy" is a study that deals with IS strategy alignment as a dependentvariable. The Strategic Alignment Process of MacDonald (1991) and the Enterprise-wide Information Model of Parker, Benson andTrainor (1988) were used as a precursor to the introduction of an extended model for the strategic alignment process. The study foundthat generating improved IS Strategy Alignment is a lack of overall banking industry knowledge, not skills, among banking managers.The study also predicted that IS alignment after deployment or integration of new technologies will fail most of the time. All in all thisis not a very good piece of research. This could have been a good localized practitioner study but the conclusions are obvious at theoutset. This research serves primarily as a polling device regarding IS attitudes within a particular firm. Denfords "The Alignment of Knowledge Strategies" is a study that deals with strategic alignment as a dependent variable andaligned information, knowledge strategies, and associated business strategy as independent variables. It involves a literature reviewand a survey. It identifies cases of misalignment that may be beneficial. Finally, the paper integrates these contributions to support theposition that misalignment is at times necessary to address the environment and extends this work into the knowledge domain. Thisresearch is very strong in the literary review portion but is weaker in the actual hypothesis and testing phase. The sample is too smalland localized and cannot possibly explain alignment and misalignment advantages in a universal fashion. Maes "Redefining Business – IT Alignment Through a Unified Framework" is a study that deals with the concept of ITalignment as a dependent variable. It involves supporting a unified framework. Alignment is defined as the continuous process,involving management and design sub-processes, of consciously and coherently interrelating all components of the business – IT
4. Source Literature 4relationship in order to contribute to the organization’s performance over time. It is a good mini-research involving essay, literaryreview, and diagrams but does not create a hypothesis or a testing model. Palmers "The Performance Impact of Quick Response and Strategic Alignment in Specialty Retailing" is a study that dealswith the feasibility of the QR program as a value adding product for the retailing industry, Companies’ local environment and theirparticular need for EDI interchange, supply chain management, and other integrated solutions. It involves a cross sectional surveyfrom retail firms. The study supports a recommendation to implement at least some elements of the QR program. However, it did noteven attempt to prove anything else. This study was largely disjointed with no controlled testing environment. IS strategic alignment is a potentially ambiguous concept. All the above cited papers attempt to provide greater clarity to thisidea albeit in different ways. The dynamics of this process are different in every organization and are influenced not only by theavailability of finite IT resources but by management’s perspective of external competitive factors. The point of departure for theaforementioned studies is Yolanda Chan’s 1997 work which provided a theoretical model on how organizations can align their IT strategiesto better achieve organizational goals. Despite the arguably nebulous definition of what information systems strategic alignment universallymeans, Chan defines it as the fit between business strategic orientation and information systems (IS) strategic orientation (Chan 125). Sheprovides greater detail in stating that information systems and technologies are used to leverage unique business competences, mergecompanies, restructure industries, and facilitate global competition. The relation of information systems (IS) to company strategy and theattainment of competitive advantage has been the focus of much discussion (Chan 125).
5. Source Literature 5 Author(s) Year Title IV Dependent Research Unit of Analysis Relevant Findings Observations Variable (in Method parentheses if implicit)Ali, Yayla, 2009 Antecedents IT alignment Centralization, Empirical, Pilot test with Business managers may Good research,Hu, Qing and drivers of formalization, Literary EMBA students reconsider their good literary it-business shared domain Review, enrolled in a strategizing review, good strategic knowledge, Hypothesis, large public process and keep hypothesis and alignment: successful IT Testing university. The planning integration as research model, empirical history and target population one of their primary clear results that validation of a relationship for the survey goals and seek are not obvious theoretical management included opportunities to from the outset model business increase that can further administrators their communication be examined for with complete level with IT managers. universal knowledge of IT Given the positive qualities.
6. Source Literature 6and business effect of formalizationstrategizing onprocesses. strategic alignment, executives can choose to increase the level of formalization in their organizations through different strategies including clearly outlining the responsibilities of IT and business units in terms of integration and implementing policies and procedures regarding decision making processes.
7. Source Literature 7Baets, W. 1992 Aligning The Strategic N/A Case study Case study and Generating improved IS Not a very good information Alignment Process interview with Strategy Alignment is a piece of systems with of MacDonald 150 managers lack of overall banking research. This business (1991) and the industry knowledge, not could have been strategy. IS and Enterprise-wide skills, among banking a good localized business Information Model managers. IS practitioner strategy of Parker, Benson alignment after study but the alignment and Trainor (1988) deployment or conclusions are were used as a integration of new obvious at the precursor to the technologies will fail outset. This introduction of an most of the time. research serves extended model for primarily as a the strategic polling device alignment process. regarding attitudes regarding IS in a
8. Source Literature 8 particular firm.Denford, 2009 The alignment Strategic alignment Aligned Literature Interviews were It identifies cases of This research isJames of knowledge information, Review, conducted with misalignment that may very strong in strategies knowledge Survey, individuals be beneficial. Finally, the literary strategies, Interviews responsible for the paper integrates review portion associated archival, the functional these contributions to but is weaker in business strategy Macro areas of support the position that the actual qualitative executive, misalignment is at hypothesis and and operations, times necessary to testing phase. quantitative finance, IS, address the The sample is date collected human resources environment and too small and and marketing. extends this work into localized and the knowledge domain. cannot possibly explain alignment and misalignment advantages in a
9. Source Literature 9 universal fashion.Maes, Rik, 2000 Redefining The concept of IT A supporting Essay Essay, Literary Alignment is defined as It is a goodRijsenbrij, business – IT alignment unified Review the continuous process, mini-researchDaan alignment framework involving management involving essay, through a and design sub- literary review, unified processes, of and diagrams framework consciously and but does not coherently interrelating create a all components of the hypothesis or a business – IT testing model. relationship in order to contribute to the organization’s performance over time.Palmer, 2000 The The feasibility of Companies’ Research Cross sectional The study supports a This study wasJonathan W., performance the QR program as local method survey from recommendation to largely
10. Source Literature 10Markus, impact of quick a value adding environment and retail firms implement at least some disjointed. NoLynne response and product for the their particular elements of the QR controlled strategic retailing industry need for EDI program. Did not prove testing alignment in interchange, anything else environment, an specialty supply chain expansive retailing management, and other integrated solutions.
11. Source Literature 11 BibliographyR. Rajendran, 2008 Exploring relationship between information systems strategic orientation and small business performance.International Journal of E-Business Research, Volume 4, Issue 2aAli, Yayla, Hu, Qing (2009). Antecedents and drivers of it-business strategic alignment: empirical validation of a theoreticalmodel. 2009 17th European Conference on Information SystemsBaets, W. (1992) Aligning information systems with business strategy. IS and business strategy alignment 1(4): 205–213.Chan, Yolande E., Sid L. Huff, Donald W. Barclay, and Duncan G. Copeland. (1997). Business strategic orientation,information systems strategic orientation, and strategic alignment information. Systems Research 8, no. 2: 125-150.Chan, Yolande E. (2002). Why haven’t we mastered alignment? The importance of the informal organization structure. MISQuarterly Executive 1, no. 2: 97-112.Chan, Yolande E., and Blaize H. Reich. (2007). IT alignment: What have we learned? Journal of Information Technology 22,no. 4: 297-315.
12. Source Literature 12Chan, Yolande E., Rajiv Sabherwal, and Jason Thatcher. (2006). Antecedents of strategic is alignment: an empiricalinvestigation. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 53, no. 1 (February 2006): 27- 47.Chan, Yolande E., and Blaize H. Reich. (2007). IT alignment: an annotated bibliography. Journal of Information Technology22, no. 4 (December 2007): 316-396.Denford, James (2009). The alignment of knowledge strategies. Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, CanadaDonovan, Edgardo. (2006). The relationship between business strategy and information technology strategy.http://www.eddiedonovan.com/publications/ITM503MOD2CASE.pdfLuftman, J. (2000). Assessing business-it alignment maturity. Communications of Association for Information Systems, 4(14).Luftman, J. N., Lewis, P. R., and Oldach, S. H. (1993). Transforming the enterprise: The alignment of business andinformation technology strategies. IBM Systems Journal, 32(1), 198-221.Luftman, J., Kempaiah, R. (2007). An update on business-IT alignment: A line has been drawn. MIS Quarterly Executive, 6(2),165-177.
13. Source Literature 13Maes, Rik, Rijsenbrij, Daan (2000). Redefining business – IT alignment through a unified framework. Universiteit vanAmsterdamPalmer, Jonathan W., Markus, Lynne (2000). The performance impact of quick response and strategic alignment in specialtyretailing. Information Systems Research, 11, 3 (September): 241-259.