SAP FI Organization Structure |


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  • Workshops taking days, weeks or months are conducted to assist in hierarchy definition. A hierarchy is a structure that is arranged in successive levels, where the individual elements in the different levels are interdependent. For a hierarchy workshop to be successful, a skilled hierarchy consultant with SAP knowledge should facilitate the sessions. Client representatives may include financial supervisors and process owners (financial hierarchy), manufacturing supervisors and management (materials management hierarchy), and financial and sales management (sales hierarchy). The client must make their own hierarchy decision; however, the consultant should assist the client in making this decision. For example, the client should be aware of the implications of each hierarchy option. The SAP Knowledge Network database and the PwC informal network are good tools from which to obtain existing workshop materials.
  • The hierarchy structures are explained during the hierarchy workshop. A hierarchy structure is mapped to SAP applications using Organizational Units. Organizational units handle specific business functions. Organizational Units may be assigned to a single application (e.g., the Sales Organization in the Sales & Distribution module) or to several applications (e.g., Plants assigned to Materials Management and Production Planning). The correct mix of functional resources should attend the workshop. For example, the finance team will be interested in account group assignment decisions made by the Materials Management team. Some decisions involve all parties, and other decisions require the involvement of a single team. For example, decisions about defining Storage Locations will not impact the Finance Team.
  • FI Organizational Units and their descriptions: Client - A self-contained unit in an R/3 System with separate master records and its own set of tables. The data in a Client may not be accessed by another Client. Chart of Accounts - A classification scheme consisting of a group of general ledger (G/L) accounts. A chart of accounts provides a framework for the recording of values, in order to ensure an orderly rendering of accounting data. The G/L accounts they contain are used by one or more company codes. Chart of Depreciation - The chart of depreciation contains the defined depreciation areas. It also contains the rules for the evaluation of assets that are valid in a given country or economic area. Each company code is allocated to one chart of depreciation. Several company codes can work with the same chart of depreciation. The chart of depreciation and the chart of accounts are completely independent of one another. Credit Control Area - An o rganizational unit that represents an area responsible for granting and monitoring credit. This organizational unit is either for a single company code or, if credit control is performed across several company codes, multiple company codes. Credit information can be made available per customer within a credit control area. Company Code - The smallest organizational unit for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for purposes of external reporting. The company code represents an independent legal entity. The process of external reporting involves recording all relevant transactions and generating all supporting documents required for financial statements.
  • SAP Organizational Structure (continued) FI Organizational Units and their descriptions (cont.) Business Area - An Organizational Unit within financial accounting that represents a separate area of operation or responsibility within an organization and to which value changes recorded in Financial Accounting can be allocated. Business area balance sheets and income statements are used only for internal reporting purposes. Dunning Area - An optional organizational unit within a company code from which dunning (notice of past due accounts) is conducted. The dunning procedure is controlled and the dunning notices are sent separately per dunning area. A dunning area can represent the following: Division, Distribution channel, Sales organization, Business area CO Organizational Unit and its description: Controlling Area - The primary organizational structure in the Controlling Module. A controlling area represents a complete, self-contained cost accounting system and internal reporting structure for all or part of an organization. A controlling area may include single or multiple company codes that may use different currencies. These company codes must use the same operative chart of accounts. All internal allocations refer exclusively to objects in the same controlling area. MM Organizational Units and their descriptions: Purchasing Organization - Organizational unit within Logistics, subdividing an enterprise according to the requirements of Purchasing. A purchasing organization procures materials and services, negotiates conditions of purchase with vendors, and bears responsibility for such transactions. The form of procurement is specified through the assignment of purchasing organizations to company codes and plants. Purchasing Group - A buyer or group of buyers responsible for purchasing activities. Plant - Organizational unit within Logistics, serving to subdivide an enterprise according to production, procurement, maintenance, and materials planning. A plant is a place where either materials are produced, or goods and services are provided. The plant plays an important role in material valuations, inventory management, MRP, production, costing and plant maintenance. Shipping Point - Organizational unit in Logistics which carries out shipping processing. The shipping point is the part of the company responsible for the type of shipping, the necessary shipping materials and the means of transport. Loading Point - A place within the Shipping Point where goods are loaded. Storage Location - An Organizational Unit that allows the differentiation of material stocks within a Plant.
  • SAP Organizational Structure (continued) SD Organizational Units and their descriptions: Distribution Channel - A channel through which salable materials or services reach customers. Examples include wholesale, retail and direct sales. You can assign a distribution channel to one or more sales organizations. Sales Organization - Organizational unit within Logistics which structures the company according to its sales requirements. A sales organization is responsible for selling materials and services. It can be used to subdivide sales markets regionally. Division - An Organizational Unit that can be used to define a division-specific Sales Organization (by product group, for example). Sales Area - A combination of Sales Organization, Distribution Channel & Division. Sales Office - An Organizational Unit assigned to a Sales Area. It can be used to define geographical designations of the organization. Sales Group - A subdivision of the Sales Office that can be used for reporting purposes.
  • The Client is the highest hierarchical level in the SAP Organizational Structure. Each Client is a self-contained unit with separate master records and a complete set of tables. Specifications made or data entered at this level are valid for all Company Codes attached to the Client. A single Client allows central maintenance and ensures standardized data. Access authorization is assigned per Client. A User master record must be created for each user in the Client where he or she wishes to work. Each user must specify a Client key when logging on to the system.
  • Each Company Code represents an independent legal entity for external reporting purposes. The Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss (P&L) statement required by law are created at the Company Code level. Multiple Company Codes can be created in each Client. In an international business, operations are often located across numerous countries. Since most governments and tax authorities require each company to be established as a separate legal entity, a Company Code is usually defined for each country.
  • The Company ID is a grouping of Company Codes (legal entities) that can be consolidated using the SAP FI-LC (Legal Consolidation) module. Legal consolidation is the process of reconciling and combining the financial statements of two or more individual Company Codes.
  • Business Areas are business entities (e.g., product line, division) for which internal Balance Sheets and internal P&L Statements can be established. Business Areas can cross Company Codes but must be consistent in their definition and use. For example, defining business areas along product lines AND geography should be avoided. Business Areas are independent of Company Codes. Business Areas can incorporate Company Codes that use different Charts of Accounts. Note : The Business Area Breakdown Report splits out all Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss items with the exception of bank accounts, capital accounts, and taxes.
  • The Chart of Accounts (COA) is an organized list of all General Ledger (G/L) Accounts used by one or more Company Codes. Each Company Code is assigned to only one COA; however, multiple Company Codes within a Client can use the same COA. SAP delivers numerous COA country-based templates, which can be copied and maintained as needed. There are three types of Charts available in R/3 Operating Chart of Accounts: The standard COA used in both financial accounting and cost accounting. Country or Alternative Chart of Accounts: Meets localized national reporting requirements. To use this type of Chart of Accounts, the alternative account number must be entered in the Company Code section of each General Ledger Account Master Record. Corporate or Group Chart of Accounts: Groups dissimilar charts together for consolidated reporting. The Group Chart fulfills the need for summarized reporting using a common set of accounts across Company Codes that do not use the same Operating Chart of Accounts.
  • Dunning is the process of automatically notifying and requesting payment from customers with past due invoices. Dunning Areas represent areas within a corporation responsible for monitoring customer activity. A Company Code can have many Dunning Areas. A Dunning Area can belong to more than one Company Code.
  • A Credit Control Area is the Organizational Unit used to set and control credit limits for customers. The Credit Control Area is used by the Sales and Distribution components of R/3 as well as the Accounts Receivable component to provide integrated credit management. Many Credit Control Areas can be created within a Client. A company code will have one credit control area directly assigned to it and possibly several other credit control area defined as “permitted” for the particular company code. The actual credit control area for a transaction can be determined in the line item or an order form (i.e order data, customer data). Credit Management will be discussed in detail in Chapter 19 (Credit Management).
  • The benefits of the Organizational Structure in R/3 are: The flexibility of reflecting complex Organizational Structures. The ability to add Organizational Units. Separation of data into logistical (Production Planning, Sales and Distribution, Materials Management) and financial (Financial Accounting, Controlling) views based on the information you require.
  • SAP Hierarchy Structure - Composed of three areas: Financial, Materials Management, and Sales & Distribution. Each area has its own distinguishable hierarchical structure (See Slide FI_03.3). Client - The highest level in SAP R/3. The data in a Client may not be accessed by another Client. Chart of Accounts - An organized list of all General Ledger (G/L) accounts used by one or more Company Codes. Credit Control Area - An Organizational Unit assigned to a Company Code used to set credit limits for customers. Company Code - An Organizational Unit within a Client that is used to represent an independent legal entity. It is the level at which balanced financial statements are produced. Business Area - An Organizational Unit within the Financial Accounting module which represents a separate area of operations or responsibilities within an organization. Note: For the remainder of the definitions, refer to pages 3.5 and 3.6
  • SAP FI Organization Structure |

    1. 1. Chapter 3 Organizational Structure <ul><li>The system can be configured to reflect a company’s organizational structure and has the flexibility to incorporate future changes in that structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the Organizational Structure and how it relates to the Financial Accounting module. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define each Organizational Unit in the structure related to the Financial Accounting module. </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>Option 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Option n </li></ul>Hierarchy Workshop
    3. 3. SAP Hierarchy Structure Client Bus. Area 2000 Bus. Area 1000 Company 0003 Company 0002 Company 0001 Bus. Area 3000 Company Code Sto.Loc. 0001 Plant 0001 Sto. Loc. 0002 Plant 0002 Sto. Loc. 0003 Plant 0003 Company Code 1000 2000 3000 10 20 10 10 01 01 01 02 01 02 02
    4. 4. SAP Organizational Structure Client Chart of Depreciation Controlling Area Business Area Distribution Channel Sales Organ. Sales Office Sales Group Division Purchasing Group Plant Shipping Point Storage Location Company Code Loading Point Purchasing Org. Chart of Accounts Dunning Area Credit Control Area
    5. 5. SAP Organizational Structure (continued) Client Chart of Depreciation Controlling Area Business Area Distribution Channel Sales Organ. Sales Office Sales Group Division Purchasing Group Plant Shipping Point Storage Location Company Code Loading Point Purchasing Org. Chart of Accounts Dunning Area Credit Control Area
    6. 6. SAP Organizational Structure (continued) Client Chart of Depreciation Controlling Area Business Area Distribution Channel Sales Organ. Sales Office Sales Group Division Purchasing Group Plant Shipping Point Storage Location Company Code Loading Point Purchasing Org. Chart of Accounts Dunning Area Credit Control Area
    7. 7. Financial Module (Organizational Structure) Company Code Business Area Credit Control Area Chart of Accounts Dunning Area Client
    8. 8. Client (Organizational Structure) Client General Electric
    9. 9. Client - Company Code (Organizational Structure) Client General Electric Company Code Lighting Company Code Aviation Services Company Code Appliances Company Code Aircraft Engines
    10. 10. Client - Company ID - Company Code Company Code Lighting Company Code Aircraft Engines Company Code Aviation Services Client GE Company ID Consumer Products Company ID Aviation Company Code Appliances
    11. 11. Client - Company Code - Business Area Company Code Transportation Systems Client General Electric Company Code Aviation Services Company Code Aircraft Engines Business Area Engine Repair Business Area Engine Sales
    12. 12. Client - Chart of Accounts - Company Code Chart of Accounts CAUS CAEU General Electric Client Global Finance Company Code Chart of Accounts Aircraft Engines Company Code Aviation Services Company Code
    13. 13. Client - Company Code - Dunning Area General Electric Aviation Services Aircraft Engines Dunning Area 2 Dunning Area 1 Dunning Area 1 Client Company Code Company Code
    14. 14. Client - Credit Control Area - Company Code Credit Control Area CAUS Credit Control Area CAEU General Electric Client
    15. 15. Benefits of the SAP Organizational Structure Human Resources Controlling Client Company Code Purchasing Organization Personnel Area Production Planning Sales and Distribution Materials Management Financial Accounting Sales Area Controlling Area Plant
    16. 16. <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAP Hierarchy Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart of Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit Control Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dunning Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loading Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Consolidation </li></ul></ul>Organizational Structure Chapter Summary