08.Abap Dialog Programming Overview

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08.Abap Dialog Programming Overview

  1. 1. Dialog Programming Overview
  2. 2. SAP System : Dialog Processing (Report) SAP GUI Report zpsm1. Request Tables customers. List Select single * from Generate 1 10 customers where id = 1. Screen(List) Application Server Send Request Write: / customers-name. Store request to queue3 Dispatcher Send 2 Search for SAP Buffer List 9 free WP Request Check Program in 7 Program Queue Send request Program Buffer 5 Execute to WP 4 ABAP … D D D … D stateme nt … 8 6 SQL Load&Gen Database Server Request Program
  3. 3. Dialog WP : Executable Program Dialog WP Local Memory TaskHandler Memory Space ABAP Processor DYNPRO Processor List Buffer DB Interface Result Set Memory Database
  4. 4. Types of ABAP Report 1 3 1. Report Listing 4 2. Drill-down Report 3. Control-break Report 4. ALV Report
  5. 5. SAP System : Dialog Processing (DIALOG) SAP GUI Program sapmzex001. Request Include …. Screen Set screen 100. Generate Dialog 1 10 … Screen Application Server Send Request Store request to queue3 Dispatcher Send 2 Search for SAP Buffer List 9 free WP Request Check Program in 7 Program Queue Send request Program Buffer 5 Execute to WP 4 ABAP … D D D … D stateme nt … 8 6 SQL Load&Gen Database Server Request Program
  6. 6. Dialog WP : Dialog Program Dialog WP Local Memory ABAP Memory TaskHandler ABAP Processor DYNPRO Processor Screen Buffer DB Interface Result Set Memory Database
  7. 7. Dialog Program : Transaction
  8. 8. Dialog Program Components Transaction Code Dialog Program Program Naming Convention : SAPM… ABAP Module Pool Screen : 100 PBO (Screen Layout) Flow Logic PAI ABAP Module Pool PBO ABAP Module Pool Screen : 200 (Screen Layout) Flow Logic PAI ABAP Module Pool
  9. 9. SAP Transaction DB Commit DB Commit  An SAP transaction consists of Dialog steps. A Dialog step begins when the user press Enter,activates a function by pressing a function key,double-clicks or chooses a function from a menu.It ends when the next screen is display  In the course of a Dialog step,The PAI modules belonging to the current screen and the PBO modules belonging to the next screen
  10. 10. Data Transfer (Local Memory) Local Memory Screen Work Area ABAP Work Area ok_code Screen Buffer ABAP Memory Space PBO Element List customers id name city … customers-id 0000000 customers-name ok_code PAI
  11. 11. Flow Logic  Process Before Output(PBO)  After it has processed all of the modules in the PBO processing block, the system copies the contents of the fields in the ABAP work area to their corresponding fields in the screen work area.  Process After Input(PAI)  Before it processes the first module in the PAI processing block, the system copies the contents of the fields in the screen work area to their corresponding fields in the ABAP work area.
  12. 12. OK Code Field in Screen OK Code Field or Command Field (ok_code in Element List)
  13. 13. Defining Screen (4 Steps)  Screen Attribute  Screen Layout  Flow Logic Element List(ok_code  Element List field)
  14. 14. Flow Logic in Screen 100 PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE STATUS_0100. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE USER_COMMAND_0100.
  15. 15. PBO in Screen 100 MODULE status_0100 OUTPUT. SET PF-STATUS ‘0100’. SET TITLEBAR ‘0100’. ENDMODULE.
  16. 16. PAI in Screen 100 MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. CASE ok_code. WHEN ‘EXIT’. “Leave program SET SCREEN 0. LEAVE SCREEN. “Leave to screen 0 WHEN ‘SAVE’. UPDATE customers. MESSAGE S000(38) WITH ‘Update OK’. SET SCREEN 50. LEAVE SCREEN. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  17. 17. How to Create Dialog Program  Transaction SE80 : Create Dialog Program  Create Screen(4 steps)  Screen Attribute  Screen Layout  Flow Logic(PBO,PAI)  Define Variable ok_code in Element List  Define Data Object in ABAP Work Area at TOP Include(Tables, Data,...)  Check and Activate Dialog Program  Create Transaction Code
  18. 18. Example I Maintain Customers Data Screen : 100 Screen : 200
  19. 19. Example I  Create Dialog Program SAPMZEX<nn> for changing Customers table  Screen 100  Field customers-id  Screen 200  Field customers-id and customers-name
  20. 20. Example I  Screen 100 PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE STATUS_0100. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE USER_COMMAND_0100.
  21. 21. Example I  Screen 100 MODULE status_0100 OUTPUT. SET PF-STATUS ‘0100’. SET TITLEBAR ‘0100’. ENDMODULE.
  22. 22. Example I  Screen 100 MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. CASE ok_code. WHEN ‘BACK’. LEAVE PROGRAM. “leave to screen 0 WHEN space. “if not assign Enter Key SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. LEAVE TO SCREEN 200. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  23. 23. Example I  Screen 200 PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE STATUS_0200. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE USER_COMMAND_0200.
  24. 24. Example I  Screen 200 MODULE status_0200 OUTPUT. SET PF-STATUS ‘0200’. SET TITLEBAR ‘0200’. ENDMODULE.
  25. 25. Example I  Screen 200 MODULE user_command_0200 INPUT. CASE ok_code. WHEN ‘BACK’. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. “set screen 100 WHEN ‘SAVE’. UPDATE customers. MESSAGE S000(38) WITH ‘Update OK!’. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  26. 26. Example I  TOP Include TABLES customers. DATA ok_code TYPE sy-ucomm.  Create Transaction Code Transaction Code : ZEX<nn>
  27. 27. Exercise Create Dialog Program : SAPMZCUST<nn> Transaction Code : ZCUST<nn>
  28. 28. Exercise : Customers Maintenance Screen : 100 Screen : 200
  29. 29. Setting the Cursor Position Dynamically PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE STATUS_0200. MODULE set_cursor. MODULE set_cursor OUTPUT. SET CURSOR FIELD ‘CUSTOMERS-CITY’ OFFSET 3. ENDMODULE. Cursor Position
  30. 30. Avoiding the Unexpected Processing Step of ok_code Field
  31. 31. 1. Auxiliary OK_CODE Variable  TOP Include TABLES customers. DATA ok_code TYPE sy-ucomm. DATA save_ok TYPE sy-ucomm.
  32. 32. Example I - Change  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. save_ok = ok_code. CLEAR ok_code. CASE save_ok. WHEN ‘BACK’. LEAVE PROGRAM. WHEN space. SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. LEAVE TO SCREEN 200. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  33. 33. Example I - Change  Screen 200 : PAI MODULE user_command_0200 INPUT. save_ok = ok_code. CLEAR ok_code. CASE save_ok. WHEN ‘BACK’. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. WHEN space. LEAVE TO SCREEN 200. WHEN ‘SAVE’. UPDATE customers. MESSAGE s000(38) WITH ‘Update OK!’. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  34. 34. 2. Specify the Enter Function at GUI Status
  35. 35. Check Enter Function  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. CASE ok_code. WHEN ‘BACK’. LEAVE PROGRAM. WHEN ‘ENTE’. SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. LEAVE TO SCREEN 200. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  36. 36. 3. Clear OK_CODE at PBO  Screen 100 : Flow Logic PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE STATUS_0100. MODULE clear_ok_code. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE USER_COMMAND_0100.
  37. 37. Clear OK_CODE at PBO  Screen 100 : PBO MODULE status_0100 OUTPUT. SET PF-STATUS ‘0100’. SET TITLEBAR ‘0100’. ENDMODULE. MODULE clear_ok_code OUTPUT. CLEAR ok_code. ENDMODULE.
  38. 38. Checking User Input
  39. 39. Example II Maintain Customers Data  Check Input Data Manually
  40. 40. Example II  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. ... WHEN SPACE. SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. IF sy-subrc <> 0. MESSAGE S000(38) WITH ‘Customers data not found’. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. ELSE. LEAVE TO SCREEN 200. ENDIF. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  41. 41. Example III Maintain Customers Data  Check Input Data Using Field Command
  42. 42. Example III – Field Statement  Screen 100 : Flow Logic (PAI) PROCESS AFTER INPUT. FIELD customers-id MODULE user_command_0100.
  43. 43. Example III  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. ... WHEN SPACE. SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. IF sy-subrc <> 0. MESSAGE E000(38) WITH ‘Customers data not found’. ELSE. LEAVE TO SCREEN 200. ENDIF. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  44. 44. Field Input Checking  If you want to check input values in the module pool and start dialog in the event of a negative result,you use the FIELD statement with the addition MODULE.  If the module results in an error(E) or warning(W) message,the screen is redisplayed without processing the PBO modules.The message text is displayed and only the field being checked by this module becomes ready for input again
  45. 45. Field Statement With More Than 1 Field  Screen 100 : Flow Logic (PAI) PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. FIELD: customers-id,customers-custtype MODULE user_command_0100. ENDCHAIN. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. CHAIN. FIELD customers-id MODULE user_command_0100. FIELD customers-custtype MODULE user_command_0100. ENDCHAIN.
  46. 46. Field Statement & Data Transport PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE a. •Transfer f3,f4 •Call module a FILED f1 MODULE b. •Transfer f1 FILED f2 MODULE c. •Call module b •Transfer f2 MODULE d. •Call module c Screen 100 •Call module d f1 f2 f3 f4
  47. 47. Required Field
  48. 48. Required Field
  49. 49. Required Field
  50. 50. At exit-command
  51. 51. Function Type : Exit Command
  52. 52. At exit-command  When user chooses a function with type E,the screen flow logic jumps directly to the following statement MODULE <module> AT EXIT-COMMAND  No other screen fields are transported to the program except OK Code field
  53. 53. At exit-command  Screen 100 : Flow Logic PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT. MODULE STATUS_0100. PROCESS AFTER INPUT. MODULE exit AT EXIT-COMMAND. MODULE USER_COMMAND_0100.
  54. 54. At exit-command  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE exit INPUT. CASE ok_code. LEAVE PROGRAM. WHEN ‘EXIT’. LEAVE PROGRAM. ENDCASE. ENDMODULE.
  55. 55. Function Module (POPUP_TO_CONFIRM_LOSS_OF_DATA)
  56. 56. Example IV Maintain Customer Data  Popup confirmation data using function ‘POPUP_TO_CONFIRM_LOSS_OF_DATA’
  57. 57. Example IV  TOP Include ... DATA ans.
  58. 58. Example IV  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE exit INPUT. CALL FUNCTION ‘POPUP_TO_CONFIRM_LOSS_OF_DATA’ EXPORTING textline1 = ‘Are you sure?’ titel = ‘Please Confirm!!!’ IMPORTING answer = ans. IF ans = ‘J’. “J = Ja in German= Yes in English LEAVE PROGRAM. ELSE. ENDIF. ENDMODULE.
  59. 59. SAP Transaction : Enqueue Lock Object
  60. 60. SAP Transaction & DB Transaction  Each Dialog step can contain update requests(INSERT,DELETE,UPDATE)  After each Dialog step,the R/3 system automatically passes a database commit to the database system.The database system then distributes the update requests from the individual dialog steps across several database transactions  A rollback in one Dialog step has no effect on database updates performed in previous Dialog steps
  61. 61. SAP Transaction(LUW) DB Commit DB Commit DB LUW SAP LUW
  62. 62. SAP Database Maintenance Steps  Check data locking by calling function ‘ENQUEUE_<lock object>’  Read data from Database Ex. Select single …  Data Processing Ex. Update ...  Release lock by calling function ‘DEQUEUE_<lock object>’
  63. 63. SAP Lock Object  Transaction SE11 : Lock object  ENQUEUE_<lock object>  DEQUEUE_<lock object>
  64. 64. SAP Lock Object : Function Module
  65. 65. Example IV  ENQUEUE /DEQUEUELock Object(SE11) CALL FUNCTION ‘ENQUEUE_EZCUST<nn>’ CALL FUNCTION ‘DEQUEUE_EZCUST<nn>’ User 1 User 2
  66. 66. Example IV (I)  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. ... WHEN SPACE. CALL FUNCTION ‘ENQUEUE_EZCUST00’ EXPORTING … id = customers-id EXCEPTIONS ... IF sy-subrc <> 0. MESSAGE ID SY-MSGID TYPE SY-MSGTY NUMBER SY-MSGNO WITH SY-MSGV1 SY-MSGV2 SY-MSGV3 SY-MSGV4. ELSE. SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. ...
  67. 67. Example IV (II)  Screen 100 : PAI MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT. ... WHEN SPACE. CALL FUNCTION ‘ENQUEUE_EZCUST00’ EXPORTING message id sy-msgid type id = customers-id sy-msgty number ... sy-msgno with sy- IF sy-subrc <> 0. msgv1 sy-msgv2 CONCATENATE ‘Data was locked by :’ sy-msgv1 INTO mess. sy-msgv3 sy- MESSAGE E000(38) WITH mess. msgv4. ELSE. SELECT SINGLE * FROM customers WHERE id = customers-id. ...
  68. 68. Example IV  Screen 200 : PAI MODULE user_command_0200 INPUT. ... WHEN ‘BACK’. CALL FUNCTION ‘DEQUEUE_EZCUST00’ EXPORTING … id = customers-id. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. …
  69. 69. Example IV  Screen 200 : PAI MODULE user_command_0200 INPUT. ... WHEN ‘SAVE’. UPDATE customers. MESSAGE S000(38) WITH ‘Update OK!’. CALL FUNCTION ‘DEQUEUE_EZCUST00’ EXPORTING … id = customers-id. LEAVE TO SCREEN 100. ... ...
  70. 70. Monitoring Enqueue Lock : SM12

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