Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
20140830 Edanz Kyushu
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

20140830 Edanz Kyushu

272

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
272
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Dr Jeffrey Robens Dr Andrew Jackson Kyushu University Office for Strategic Research Planning Seminar Series – Session 2 Writing & Submitting Your Manuscript 30 August 2014
  • 2. Seminar series Session 1 Session 2 Professional writing skills Manuscript structure Effective writing & common mistakes Cover letters Journal selection Peer review
  • 3. Today’s presentation Session 1 Session 2 Professional writing skills Manuscript structure Effective writing & common mistakes Cover letters Journal selection Peer review
  • 4. The ‘write’ order Manuscript sections • Title • Abstract • Introduction • Methods • Results • Figures • Discussion Writing order • Figures • Methods • Results • Discussion • Introduction • Abstract • Title
  • 5. Section 1 Display items
  • 6. Display items Present large amount of data quickly and efficiently Figures, graphs Keep it simple: use separate panels if necessary Usually the first thing readers will look at Must be able to stand alone: clear labels and figure legends & tables
  • 7. Display items Using your figures to structure your manuscript Where to start?  Your findings are why you want to publish your work  Form the basis of your manuscript  First step, is to logically organize your findings Figure 1 Table 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Logical presentation Is anything missing? ? Additional experiments?
  • 8. Display items structure your manuscript Where to start?  Your findings are why you want to publish your work  Form the basis of your manuscript  First step, is to logically organize your findings Using your figures to Figure 1 Table 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Logical presentation New data
  • 9. Display items Figures Clear figure legend Kindlin-2 knockdown and focal adhesion localization. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy with anti-β1 integrin and anti-paxillin on C2C12 cells transfected with RNAi and then changed to differentiation media for 2 days. Control cells show linear staining consistent with localization to costameres (arrows), as well as punctate focal contact staining (arrowheads). Focal contact proteins in the kindlin-2 RNAi cells fail to form linear structures and instead are concentrated in unusual appearing puncta (*). (Scale bar = 20 μM). Dowling et al. (2008) BMC Cell Biol 9:36. Clear indicators Title of the experiment Brief methodology Key findings
  • 10. Display items Data aligned and formatted Table formatting Muñoz et al. New Engl J Med. 2003;348:518−527. Clear and concise table caption Abbreviations defined
  • 11. Display items Is this a good table? Alignment and formatting problems Alignment of text Alignment of parentheses Alignment of decimals Data similarity Lines Tumor size (mm3) before treatment Mean (±SD) Tumor size (mm3) after treatment Mean (±SD) % decrease Treatment time Group 1 423.2 (6.23) 232.8 (3.18) 44.99 4 months Group 2 286.43 (4.8) 157.32 (2.29) 45.08 14 weeks Group 3 342.7 (6.88) 218.4 (5.2) 36.27 3.5 months Group 4 404 (3) 302 (4.21) 25.247 90 days
  • 12. Display items Making a good table Tumor size (mm3) before treatment Mean (±SD) Tumor size (mm3) before treatment Mean (±SD) Tumor size (mm3) after treatment Mean (±SD) Tumor size (mm3) after treatment Mean (±SD) % decrease % decrease Treatment Treatment time (weeks) Group 1 423.20 (6.23) 232.80 (3.18) 44.99 16 Group 2 286.43 (4.80) 157.32 (2.29) 45.08 14 Group 3 342.70 (6.88) 218.40 (5.20) 36.27 14 Group 4 404.00 (3.00) 302.00 (4.21) 25.25 12 time Group 1 423.2 (6.23) 232.8 (3.18) 44.99 4 months Group 2 286.43 (4.8) 157.32 (2.29) 45.08 14 weeks Group 3 342.7 (6.88) 218.4 (5.2) 36.27 3.5 months Group 4 404 (3) 302 (4.21) 25.247 90 days
  • 13. Display items Graphs 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 h 2 h 3 h 4 h 5 h 6 h Drug A Drug B ng/ml 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 h 2 h 3 h 4 h 5 h 6 h  Use high contrasting colors  Clearly label axes  Clear legends Which of these graphs is clearer?
  • 14. Display items Drug B Drug A 30 25 15 10 5 0 20 0 1 h 2 h Graphs 3 h 4 h 5 h 6 h NEVER use 3-D graphs for 2-D data
  • 15. Display items Bar graphs CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis Statistical significance Figure 7 Adoptive transfer of B6 but not Cxcr5-/- CD4+ T cells rescues T cell localization and protection in Cxcr5-/-Mtb-infected mice... (B) The average size of B cell lymphoid follicles in FFPE lung sections on day 50 using the morphometric tool of the Zeiss Axioplan microscope… *** P = 0.0005. Slight et al. J Clin Invest. 2013;doi:10.1172/JCI65728. Measured variable Groups
  • 16. Display items Error bars CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis Error bars may represent standard deviation (SD) or the standard error of the mean (SEM). SD = variability in the data SEM = accuracy of the estimated mean Figure 7 Adoptive transfer of B6 but not Cxcr5-/- CD4+ T cells rescues T cell localization and protection in Cxcr5-/-Mtb-infected mice... The data points represent the mean (SD) of values from 4–6 mice. SEM = SD/√sample size SEM is always smaller than the SD Slight et al. J Clin Invest. 2013;doi:10.1172/JCI65728.
  • 17. Display items When not to use bar graphs Bar graphs Mean ± SD Normally distributed data What if you don’t have normally distributed data? Should present median and interquartile range (IQR) Box plots
  • 18. Display items Box plots Maximum 75% Median 25% Minimum Figure 2 Dual luciferase reporter assays. The ratios of Firefly luciferase activity (signal S) to Renilla luciferase (control C) are displayed using box and whisker plots… Hijikata et al. Hum Genetics. 2012;131:675−682.
  • 19. Section 2 Methods
  • 20. Coverage Methods and Staffing Plan Reasons for rejection Analyzed 42 manuscripts from 8 biomedical journals Flaws found in: Introduction 66.7% Methods 85.7% Results 66.7% Discussion 71.% Ezeala et al. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013; 3: 376–379.
  • 21. Coverage Methods and Staffing Plan Who reads the Methods? Experimental Design How it was done General methods Specific techniques (discuss controls) Data analysis Quantification methods Statistical tests What/who was used Samples or participants Materials How it was analyzed
  • 22. Coverage Methods and Staffing Plan Participants What/who was used Age and gender Enrollment Inclusion/exclusion criteria CONSORT flow diagram Animals, cells Materials Species/cell type Age, gender, weight Living/incubation conditions Where purchased [city, state (if US), country] How much was used
  • 23. Coverage and Staffing Plan Methods Clinical trial registration Clinical trials must be registered Not required for observational studies ClinicalTrials.gov UMIN-CTR (www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/) Treatments/interventions are not assigned by the investigator Retrospective registration is sometimes possible Should be registered before journal submission
  • 24. Coverage and Staffing Plan Methods How it was done Previously used methods • Cite previous publications • XXXX was done as previously described23. Briefly… • Give enough detail to be reproducible • Validation for new technique Order • General methods first • Specific techniques in order of appearance New methods Always state sample number and controls
  • 25. Methods Materials science – Coverage and Staffing Plan Order of methodology • Materials • Synthesis • Material 1 (bulk-CH3NH3PbI3) • Material 2 (TiO2, CH3NH3PbI3 films) • Sample preparation • Analysis • Absorbance/photoluminescence • Scanning electron microscopy • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy Choi et al. Nano Lett. 2014; 14: 127−133.
  • 26. Methods Clinical research – Coverage and Staffing Plan Order of methodology • Patients: enrollment, eligibility criteria • Study design: • multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial • Treatment regiment • Outcomes and assessments: • Survival (primary) and safety (secondary) • Tumor measurements • Statistical analyses Llovet et al. New Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 378−390.
  • 27. Coverage Methods and Staffing Plan Biological research – Order of methodology • Materials: mouse line, DNA constructs, antibodies and reagents • General methods: cell culture and transfection • Specific methods: • Immunocytochemistry • In vitro protein binding assays • Mitochondrial motility assays • Statistical analyses Chen et al. J Cell Biol. 2013; 202: 351−364.
  • 28. Coverage and Staffing Plan Methods How it was analyzed Computer programs • Where obtained • Which version • Specific parameters • Choose right test! • P-value for significance Quantification methods • Explain how the data was quantified • Rationale Statistical analyses
  • 29. Coverage Methods and Staffing Plan Statistical problems Surveyed 25 editors from high impact medical journals “…respondents expressed concern over researchers’ choice of statistical tests. Specifically, frequent problems exist in the appropriateness of statistical tests chosen for the questions of interest and for the data structure.” When in doubt, consult a statistician Fernandes-Taylor et al. BMC Res Notes. 2011; 4: 304.
  • 30. Coverage and Staffing Plan Methods Statistical tests 2 categorical endpoints Paired (within sample) Unpaired (between sample) McNemar Fisher’s exact test 2 treatment groups Chi-square test* 2+ treatment groups *for sample sizes > 60 du Prel et al. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 343–8.
  • 31. Coverage Methods and Staffing Plan Statistical tests Continuous endpoints Parametric Nonparametric Paired Unpaired Paired Unpaired 2 groups: Paired t-test >2 groups: ANOVA 2 groups: Unpaired t-test >2 groups: ANOVA 2 groups: Wilcoxon rank sum test >2 groups: Friedman test 2 groups: Mann–Whitney U test >2 groups: Kruskal–Wallis test du Prel et al. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 343–8.
  • 32. Section 3 Results
  • 33. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice 1. Novel observation 2. Characterization 3. Application Each subsection corresponds to one figure What you found, not what it means Logical presentation Subsections Factual description
  • 34. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Materials science – Result presentation Osteophilic multilayer coatings for accelerated bone tissue growth Fabrication of osteophilic multilayer coating Characterize properties during assembly/degradation Promote differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts Synthesis Characterization Application Shah et al. Adv Mater. 2012; 24: 1445–1450.
  • 35. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Combined Results and Discussion Figure 1 Results Interpretation Figure 2 Results Interpretation Figure 3 Results Interpretation Figure 4 Results Interpretation Logical presentation Novel observation Characterization Application
  • 36. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Clinical research – Result presentation Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer Treatments and patient characteristics Bevacizumab + chemotherapy improves survival Bevacizumab slightly increased adverse events Study design Efficacy Safety Hurwitz et al. New Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2335–2342.
  • 37. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Biological research – Research presentation β-catenin driven cancers require a YAP1 transcriptional complex for survival and tumorigenesis Identified YAP1 as an essential gene in β-catenin active cancer cell lines YAP1 activity and binding partners (YES1) Inhibition of YES1 (dasatinib) impairs proliferation of β-catenin active cancer cell lines Novel observation Characterization Application Rosenbluh et al. Cell. 2012; 151: 1457–1473.
  • 38. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Factual description Belongs in the Discussion Drug A is more effective in treating liver cancer as we observed a 32.7% decrease in tumor size compared with only a 22.1% decrease after Drug B treatment. The efficacy of Drug A was significantly higher than that for Drug B, with decreased tumor size 32.7% or 22.1%, respectively. Exception is when the Results and Discussion sections are combined “These results suggest that Drug A may be more effective…”
  • 39. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Group repetitive results Drug A reduced tumor volume by 32.7%, increased blood pressure by 12.3%, and decreased the patient’s weight by 7.3 kg. Drug B reduced tumor volume by 22.3%, increased blood pressure by 15.6%, and decreased the patient’s weight by 2.4 kg. Drug C reduced tumor volume by 38.1%, increased blood pressure by 6.9%, and decreased the patient’s weight by 9.2 kg.
  • 40. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Group repetitive results Drug A reduced tumor volume by 32.7%, increased blood pressure by 12.3%, and decreased the patient’s weight by 7.3 kg. Drug B reduced tumor volume by 22.3%, increased blood pressure by 15.6%, and decreased the patient’s weight by 2.4 kg. Drug C reduced tumor volume by 38.1%, increased blood pressure by 6.9%, and decreased the patient’s weight by 9.2 kg.
  • 41. CustoRmeseur lStse rvice Group repetitive results Patients treated with Drug C showed the greatest reduction in tumor volume (28.1%) compared with those treated with Drug A (32.7%) or Drug B (22.3%). Drug C also had the lowest increase in blood pressure (6.9%) compared with that seen after treatment with Drug A (12.3%) or Drug B (15.65). However, patients treated with Drug C had the highest weight gain among the three groups (Drug A, 7.3 kg; Drug B, 2.4 kg; Drug C, 9.2 kg).
  • 42. Methods & Results Activities Please see associated handouts
  • 43. Results activity Results Food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a significant increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). Measuring the food consumption of mice after earthquakes and other natural disasters has long been ignored in the literature. Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 44. Results activity Results More descriptive heading Food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a significant increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). Measuring the food consumption of mice after earthquakes and other natural disasters has long been ignored in the literature. Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 45. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a significant increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). Measuring the food consumption of mice after earthquakes and other natural disasters has long been ignored in the literature. Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 46. Results activity Results Increased food consumption “significant increase” The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a significant increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). Measuring the food consumption of mice after earthquakes and other natural disasters has long been ignored in the literature. Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 47. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). Measuring the food consumption of mice after earthquakes and other natural disasters has long been ignored in the literature. Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 48. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the Belongs main earthquake in Introduction (Figure 2A). Measuring the food consumption of mice after earthquakes and other natural disasters has long been ignored in the literature. Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 49. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 50. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main Belongs earthquake in Methods (Figure 2A). Daily food consumption per mouse was measured by subtracting the weight of the food at the end of the eating period with the weight at the beginning of the eating period. The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 51. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 52. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption Group results immediately Spacing after the main Inappropriate earthquake (Figure words 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, the day after the earthquake, food consumption increased to 2.2±0.19g. Shockingly, two days after the seismic event, food consumption continued to increase to 2.3±0.11g. Three days after the earthquake, mean food consumption was 2.5±0.16 g (Figure 2A). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the increase in food consumption was significant after the earthquake (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 53. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, there was a significant increase in food consumption after the earthquake, with mean consumptions of 2.2±0.19, 2.3±0.11, 2.5±0.16 g at one, two, and three days following the seismic event (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 54. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, there was a significant increase in food consumption after the earthquake, with mean consumptions of 2.2±0.19, 2.3±0.11, 2.5±0.16 g at one, two, and three days following the seismic event Belongs (t(5) in = Discussion 18.5, p<0.001). This demonstrates that earthquakes can dramatically affect the food consumption in laboratory animals, likely caused by increased stress hormone levels. Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 55. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, there was a significant increase in food consumption after the earthquake, with mean consumptions of 2.2±0.19, 2.3±0.11, 2.5±0.16 g at one, two, and three days following the seismic event (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 56. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, there was a significant increase in food consumption after the earthquake, with mean consumptions of 2.2±0.19, 2.3±0.11, 2.5±0.16 g at one, two, and three days following the seismic Should event (show t(5) = 18.5, the data p<0.001). Even though food consumption continued for over one month, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period.
  • 57. Results activity Results Increased food consumption The first behavioral abnormality we noticed was a considerable increase in food consumption immediately after the main earthquake (Figure 2A). The day before the earthquake, food consumption was 1.7±0.13 (mean±SD) g. However, there was a significant increase in food consumption after the earthquake, with mean consumptions of 2.2±0.19, 2.3±0.11, 2.5±0.16 g at one, two, and three days following the seismic event (t(5) = 18.5, p<0.001). Even though food consumption continued for over one month with an average daily consumption of 2.3±0.12 g, the body weight of earthquake-experienced mice increased only slightly during that period (186.3±1.2 g on day 1 and 188.2±1.6 g on day 30).
  • 58. Any questions? Thank you! Jeffrey Robens: jrobens@edanzgroup.com Andrew Jackson: ajackson@edanzgroup.com edanzediting.co.jp/kyushu_20140930 Download and further reading @JournalAdvisor Follow us on Twitter facebook.com/EdanzEditing Like us on Facebook
  • 59. Section 4 Introduction
  • 60. Introduction General introduction Current state of the field Problem in the field Aims Specific aims
  • 61. Introduction Writing the Introduction Beginning should demonstrate relevance/interest Interest Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women. Despite smoking prevention and cessation programs and advances in early detection, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is only 16% with current therapies. Although lung cancer incidence rates have recently declined in the United States, more lung cancer is now diagnosed when considered together in former- and never-smokers than in current smokers. Thus, even if all of the national anti-smoking campaign goals are met, lung cancer will remain a major public health problem for decades. New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. Identified problem is directly related to the Aims and scope Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012; 13: 211.
  • 62. Introduction Aims and scope BMC Cancer BMC Cancer is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on all aspects of cancer research, including the pathophysiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancers. The journal welcomes submissions concerning molecular and cellular biology, genetics, epidemiology, and clinical trials.
  • 63. Introduction Writing the Introduction Your aims should directly address the identified problem Problem: New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. This study explored the hypothesis that inhibition of TNKS…would inhibit lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo… Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012; 13: 211.
  • 64. Introduction Writing the Introduction – Materials science Identify an important problem Problem in the field However, conventional thin-film materials limit the use of such thin-film transistors in flexible backplane-circuitry due to their fragility and relatively low mobility. Problems with current solution Two-dimensional layered semiconducting chalcogenides (such as MoS2) have attracted attention due to their having an intrinsically high carrier mobility, mechanical flexibility, and a finite bandgap. However, improvements for MoS2 transistors have been hampered by the presence of a Schottky barrier… Lee et al. J Korean Phys Soc 2014; 64: L945–L948.
  • 65. Introduction Writing the Introduction – Materials science Your aims should address the identified problem Aims In this research, we investigated the high-temperature electrical behavior of a MoS2 transistor with a high Schottky barrier… High temperature leads to a larger thermionic emission that transports electrons over the energy barrier. Propose a solution to the problem Lee et al. J Korean Phys Soc 2014; 64: L945–L948.
  • 66. Section 5 Discussion
  • 67. Discussion Summary of findings Relevance of findings Similarities/differences Unexpected results Limitations Implications for the field
  • 68. Discussion Writing the beginning of your Discussion State the major conclusion of the study Re-introduce the topic Re-introduce the problem State major conclusion to answer the problem Summarize key data to support conclusion
  • 69. Discussion State the major conclusion of the study Re-introduction Writing the beginning of your Discussion GPER is an E2 binding, G-protein coupled membrane receptor that was reported to be overexpressed in breast, endometrial, ovarian and thyroid cancers. The results presented here extend these observations to show that different types of lung cancers including adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinomas express higher GPER than normal lung tissue. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that GPER is overexpressed in lung tumors and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines relative to normal lung and immortalized normal lung cell lines, although the expression of GPER transcript in HPL1D cells is higher than HBECs. Conclusion Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 624.
  • 70. Discussion Writing the middle of your Discussion Compare your findings with those published by others GPER has been postulated to be involved in E2-activation of EGFR. Filardo’s group showed a link between GPER expression and tumor progression and increased tumor size in breast cancer patients. Recently, GPER overexpression was reported to be independent of ERα expression in breast cancer patient samples, indicating the importance of GPER in ERα negative tumors. GPER and EGFR expression were correlated in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Further, overexpression of GPER in advanced stage endometrial adenocarcinoma correlated with poor survival. Other studies also suggest increased GPER in breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers correlates with disease severity and reduced survival. These results are in agreement with studies demonstrating association of GPER overexpression in other cancers, although the scoring patterns and correlation of expression levels to disease state may vary among these studies. Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 624.
  • 71. Discussion Writing the middle of your Discussion Describe your limitations A limitation of our study is that the average GPER staining scores among different lung cancer grades (I (10 cases), II (30 cases), III (16 cases)) were not significantly different. One other limitation of the current study is that we cannot conclude at this time whether GPER overexpression is cause or consequence of cancer. It is also possible that overexpression of GPER in lung cancers may reflect a defense mechanism to counteract excessive proliferation. Indeed, a recent report by Krakstad et al. showed that loss of GPER in ERα-positive endometrial cancers is associated with poor prognosis. Another study showed that the GPER agonist G-1 inhibited E2-induced uterine epithelial cell proliferation in mice by repressing MAPK activation, indicating that GPER effects are tissue specific. Because our studies were performed on commercial TMAs, the results cannot be extrapolated to correlate GPER expression levels to disease outcomes. Clearly, this is a next logical step in light of the novel findings. Future directions Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 624.
  • 72. Discussion Writing the middle of your Discussion Describe any unexpected results We observed no differences in GPER expression between adenocarcinoma cell lines or tumors from male and female patients, similar to the previous findings of no difference in ERα or ERβ expression in NSCLC cells and tumors based on gender. In western blots, rather than rely on one GPER antibody in our study, we used 3 different commercial antibodies to determine the correlation between mRNA and protein levels. It is indeed evident from our western blot data that GPER appears to have different MW forms, likely due to glycosylation, dimerization, and interaction with other membrane proteins, and levels in the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. More trivial explanations for the different staining patterns of GPER in western blots may be due to differential purity/affinity of the three GPER antibodies as well as their capacity to bind to secondary antibodies. It will be important to determine the nature of these forms by proteomic analysis and gene sequencing to evaluate their biological significance. Future directions Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 624.
  • 73. Discussion Writing the end of your Discussion Re-state the major conclusion and relevance for the field Re-state your major conclusion Describe the key implications Recommend future research
  • 74. Discussion Writing the end of your Discussion Why your work is important to your readers In summary, we identified a P. infestans RXLR-WY–type effector, PexRD2, which interacts with MAPKKKε and perturbs plant immunity associated signaling pathways dependent on this kinase. Either overexpression of PexRD2 or knockdown of MAPKKKε supports enhanced pathogen growth and suppression of MAPKKKε-triggered or - dependent cell death readouts in N. benthamiana. This study represents a step toward understanding how oomycete RXLR-type effectors directly interact with MAPK cascades, which are well established as key regulators of plant immunity. The next challenge is to better understand the role of PexRD2 and PexRD2-like effectors, and their targets, in the progression of disease in important host crop plants, such as tomato and potato. The ultimate aim of this would be to manipulate these interactions to tip the balance in the coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host in favor of the plant. King et al. Plant Cell. 2014; 26: 1345−1359.
  • 75. Discussion Writing the end of your Discussion Why your work is important to your readers In summary, we identified a P. infestans RXLR-WY–type effector, PexRD2, which interacts with MAPKKKε and perturbs plant immunity associated signaling pathways dependent on this kinase. Either overexpression of PexRD2 or knockdown of MAPKKKε supports enhanced pathogen growth and suppression of MAPKKKε-triggered or - dependent cell death readouts in N. benthamiana. This study represents a step toward understanding how oomycete RXLR-type effectors directly interact with MAPK cascades, which are well established as key regulators of plant immunity. The next challenge is to better understand the role of PexRD2 and PexRD2-like effectors, and their targets, in the progression of disease in important host crop plants, such as tomato and potato. The ultimate aim of this would be to manipulate these interactions to tip the balance in the coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host in favor of the plant. King et al. Plant Cell. 2014; 26: 1345−1359. Conclusions Key findings Implications Future directions Field advancement
  • 76. Discussion Writing the end of your Discussion Why your work is important to your readers The technology of underbalanced drilling has been long used and is still a good drilling technology. Using the air injection connector system developed in this study in underbalanced drilling gives the technology a higher edge. The modification of the underbalanced drilling technology helps to reduce the density of the drilling fluid. Compared with the method of ‘‘U-tube’’ well for air injection, the parasite system with air injection connector is more economically feasible. As long as these controlling methods and safety rules are followed, the on-site engineering can be executed successfully. Topic Conclusion Implications Application Jiang et al. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol.
  • 77. Discussion Marketing your conclusions Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance …publishes articles on all aspects of basic and clinical research on the design, development, manufacture, and evaluation of magnetic resonance methods applied to the cardiovascular system. Topical areas include, but are not limited to: • New applications of magnetic resonance to improve diagnostic strategies and the characterization of diseases affecting the cardiovascular system.
  • 78. Discussion Marketing your conclusions For narrow-focused journals, be sure to market your conclusions towards the aims of the journal Atrial dimensions vary mainly by body surface area, with lesser effects of gender and age. Identification particularly of early abnormality requires reference ranges which normalize for all 3 variables. These ranges are supplied with this report in both tabular and graphical form and are of significant clinical and research utility for the interpretation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies. Also, best predictors of left atrial enlargement are provided. Maceira et al. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2010; 12: 65. Improve diagnostic strategies Interesting to readership
  • 79. Discussion Common mistakes Do not restate your results We showed that tumor volumes in Groups A, B, and C were 34.6, 74.2, and 53.9 mm3, respectively, after a 4-month drug treatment, reflecting only a 8.6% decrease. However, after a 12-month drug treatment, the tumor volumes in Groups A, B, and C were 16.3, 18.7, and 16.9 mm3, respectively, which reflects a 45.2% decrease (p<0.05). This demonstrates that a 12-month treatment is necessary for the drug to effectively reduce tumor size among the three groups.
  • 80. Discussion Common mistakes Do not restate your results Restated results We showed that tumor volumes in Groups A, B, and C were 34.6, 74.2, and 53.9 mm3, respectively, after a 4-month drug treatment, reflecting only a 8.6% decrease. However, after a 12-month drug treatment, the tumor volumes in Groups A, B, and C were 16.3, 18.7, and 16.9 mm3, respectively, which reflects a 45.2% decrease (p<0.05). This demonstrates that a 12-month treatment is necessary for the drug to effectively reduce tumor size among the three groups. Summarized results The results presented in this study demonstrate that Drug X more effectively reduces tumor size after 12 months of treatment (45.2% reduction) than it does after 4 months (8.6% reduction).
  • 81. Discussion Common mistakes Do not overgeneralize your findings Result: Drug A reduced breast cancer cell growth in vitro In this study, we demonstrated that Drug A effectively reduced tumor growth. Therefore, this drug should have therapeutic applications in breast cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that Drug A effectively reduced the growth of various breast cancer cell lines. This suggests that this drug may have therapeutic applications in breast cancer treatment.
  • 82. Discussion Linking your ideas in your manuscript General background Current state of the field Problems in the field Objectives Methodology Results and figures Summary of findings Relevance of findings Implications for the field Introduction Methods Results Discussion Logically link your ideas throughout your manuscript
  • 83. Discussion Linking your ideas in your manuscript Introduction New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. This study explored the hypothesis that inhibition of TNKS…would inhibit lung cancer growth… Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of TNKS1 and TNKS2…reduces lung cancer proliferation... Problem Objectives Conclusion Discussion Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012;13:211.
  • 84. Discussion Writing effective conclusions Your conclusion is a summary of your findings Your conclusion should be the answer to your research problem that is supported by your findings Emphasizes how your study will help advance the field
  • 85. Introduction & Discussion Activities Please see associated handouts
  • 86. Introduction activity Based on the following problem identified in the field, chose which aims are most appropriate. Problem: Currently it is not clear how the working environment affects the efficacy of weight management programs in preventing weight gain in men after smoking cessation. 1. In this study, we evaluated the effect of working hours on the efficacy of three S popular weight management programs in preventing weight gain in men after smoking cessation. 2. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of three popular weight management programs implemented during working hours in preventing weight gain in men after smoking cessation. 3. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of three popular weight management programs for the prevention of weight gain in men after smoking cessation.
  • 87. Discussion activity Match the aims from an Introduction with the most appropriate major conclusion (to be used in a Discussion). Aims: To date, few studies have investigated the influence of different tissue pressures on tumor growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how varying the pressure within brain, liver, and lung tissues affected the growth of transplanted tumors. A) Our results demonstrate the need to monitor pressures within different tissues when determining effective treatments. Implications
  • 88. Discussion activity Match the aims from an Introduction with the most appropriate major conclusion (to be used in a Discussion). Aims: To date, few studies have investigated the influence of different tissue pressures on tumor growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how varying the pressure within brain, liver, and lung tissues affected the growth of transplanted tumors. B) This study has shown that the increasing the pressure within tissues significantly reduces tumor growth. Conclusion answers the problem
  • 89. Discussion activity Match the aims from an Introduction with the most appropriate major conclusion (to be used in a Discussion). Aims: To date, few studies have investigated the influence of different tissue pressures on tumor growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how varying the pressure within brain, liver, and lung tissues affected the growth of transplanted tumors. C) In this study, we have shown that high pressure environments reduce the vascularization of growing tumors. Key finding
  • 90. Discussion activity Presentation of ideas in the Discussion This study has shown that the increasing the pressure within tissues significantly reduces tumor growth. Conclusion In this study, we have shown that high pressure environments reduce the vascularization of growing tumors. Key findings Our results demonstrate the need to monitor pressures within different tissues when determining effective treatments. Implications
  • 91. Who’s hungry? First impressions are important!
  • 92. Section 6 Titles and abstracts
  • 93. Titles & abstracts Effective titles Important points  Summarize key finding  Contains keywords  Less than 20 words Avoid Questions Describing methods Abbreviations “New” or “novel” Your title should be a concise summary of your most important finding
  • 94. Titles & abstracts SEO Search Engine Optimization  Identify 7–8 keywords (include synonyms)  Use 2 in your title, 5–6 in the keyword list  Use 3 keywords 3–4 times in your abstract  Use keywords in headings when appropriate  Be consistent throughout your paper  Cite your previous publications when relevant • Google Scholar ranks results by citations
  • 95. Titles & abstracts Abstract Importance of your results First impression of your paper Validity of your conclusions Relevance of your aims Judge your writing style Probably only part that will be read
  • 96. Titles & abstracts Sections of an abstract Concise summary of your research Background Aims Methods Results Conclusion Why the study was done Your hypothesis Techniques Most important findings Conclusion/implications
  • 97. Titles & abstracts Unstructured abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 98. Titles & abstracts Unstructured abstract Background Methods Results Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Conclusion Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 99. Titles & abstracts Writing your abstract Write the results section first  Key findings that directly support your aims  Will be interesting to the readers We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 100. Titles & abstracts Writing your abstract Write the background section second  Explain why this study needed to be done Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. Problem Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 101. Titles & abstracts Writing your abstract Write the methods section third  General techniques used to obtain the presented results We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 102. Titles & abstracts Writing your abstract Write the conclusion section last  Major conclusion that answers the problem  Implications for the readers However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. Conclusion Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Implications Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 103. Titles & abstracts Writing your abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 104. Titles & abstracts Writing your abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional Why (3D) needed cell culture to models be done wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of What a multicellular, you spherical did structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based What microtubule you motors. found Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process How observed advances during the normal field 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  • 105. Titles & abstracts References Abbreviations Don’t include… Jargon Non-essential numbers & statistics
  • 106. Titles & abstracts Do not include a lot of numbers and statistics The effect of high vacuum on the mechanical properties and bioactivity of collagen fibril matrices Summarize and simplify Anderton et al. (2013) Biointerfaces 8:2. Results The cell area histogram and mean cell areas for the HV-treated fibril matrices (2030 μm2 ± 137 μm2) are comparable to the cell areas of untreated fibril matrices measured here (2165 μm2 ± 206 μm2) and elsewhere... Cells on LV-treated fibril matrices have larger average surface areas (3450 μm2 ± 175 μm2) than the control untreated matrices, and their spread areas are more similar to that of cells plated on dehydrated fibrils (average cell area of 4348 μm2 ± 287 μm2). The modulus results for the first analysis reveal that HV treatment of the fibrils leads to a small, but statically significant (p < 0.0001), increase in mechanical rigidity of the fibril matrices. Untreated matrices had a modulus of 8.1 kPa ± 2.2 kPa and HV-treated matrices had a modulus of 13.1 kPa ± 3.8 kPa. However, the HV-treated matrices are approximately a factor of three more compliant than the dehydrated fibril matrices (35.4 kPa ± 4.9 kPa). The modulus results for the second analysis (Table 2) indicate that LV-treated fibril matrices (34.7 kPa ± 3.7 kPa) are nearly as mechanically stiff (p= 0.20) as the dehydrated matrices (36.4 kPa ± 4.2 kPa), and are considerably less compliant than the untreated matrices (11.2 kPa ± 3.7 kPa) in this experiment. Abstract your results We find that HV exposure has an unappreciable affect on the cell spreading response and mechanical properties of these collagen fibril matrices. Conversely, low vacuum environments cause fibrils to become mechanically rigid as indicated by force microscopy, resulting in greater cell spreading.
  • 107. Titles & abstracts Graphical abstracts Composite of RhyCr2‒yO3/(Ga1‒xZnx) (N1‒xOx) photocatalysts with hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the fabrication of novel reaction sites for water vapor splitting under visible light Rh y Cr2−y O3/(Ga1−x Zn x )(N1−x O x ) photocatalysts immobilized in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes has been investigated for the design of novel reaction sites. In the case of hydrophobic PTFE membranes, the Rh y Cr2−y O3/(Ga1−x Zn x )(N1−x O x ) photocatalyst simultaneously evolved both H2 and O2, even from an aqueous AgNO3 solution as sacrificial reagent. This indicates that water vapor was split into H2 and O2 by the Rh y Cr2−y O3/(Ga1−x Zn x )(N1−x O x ) photocatalyst particles in the hydrophobic pores of PTFE. Isogai et al. Catalysis Lett. 2013; 143: 150‒153.
  • 108. Titles & Abstracts Activities Please see associated handouts
  • 109. Title activity Which is the best title, and why? A) Characterization of the physical properties of gold nanoparticles in oxygen-deprived environments Describes methodology B) Low oxygen environments reduce the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles Summary of key finding C) Does low oxygen affect the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles? Don’t use questions D) Low oxygen environments promotes the inter-particle interaction of citrate-stabilized AuNPs causing them to aggregate and become toxic to biological tissues Too long, abbreviations
  • 110. Abstract activity Activity : Your colleague has written an abstract and has asked you to review it for them. How would you recommend improving this abstract?
  • 111. Abstract activity How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquake-experienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
  • 112. Abstract activity How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquake-experienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food Unnecessary information consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
  • 113. Abstract activity How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquake-experienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food Unnecessary information consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
  • 114. Abstract activity How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquake-experienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food Unnecessary information consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. How was this measured? No conclusions
  • 115. Journal editors are busy!
  • 116. Section 7 Cover letters
  • 117. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Cover letter: Significance Relevance First impression for journal editors Level of English Interesting to their readers? Why your work is important!
  • 118. Coverage and Staffing Plan Cover letters Building your cover letter Journal editor’s name Marc Lippman, MD Editor-in-Chief Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 3 September 2013 Dear Dr Lippman, Manuscript title Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Evaluation of the Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing curative resection for breast cancer liver metastases,” which we would like to submit for publication as an Original Article in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. Article type • Did you read the aims and scope? • Did you read the author guidelines?
  • 119. Coverage and Staffing Plan Cover letters Building your cover letter Second paragraph:  Current state of the field  Problem researchers are facing The Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) is of value for a variety of tumours. Several studies have Introduction investigated the prognostic value of the GPS in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but few studies have performed such an investigation for patients undergoing liver resection for liver metastases. Problem Furthermore, there are currently no studies that have examined the prognostic value of the modified GPS (mGPS) in these patients. The present study evaluated the mGPS in terms of its prognostic value Objectives for postoperative death in patients undergoing liver resection for breast cancer liver metastases.
  • 120. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Building your cover letter Third paragraph:  Briefly describe your methodology  Summarize your key findings A total of 318 patients with breast cancer liver metastases who underwent hepatectomy over a 15-year period were included in this study. The mGPS was calculated Methods based on the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin, and the disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival rates were evaluated in relation to the mGPS. Overall, the results showed a significant association between cancer-specific survival and the mGPS and carcinoembryonic antigen level, Key results and a higher mGPS was associated with increased aggressiveness of liver recurrence and poorer survival in these patients.
  • 121. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Building your cover letter Fourth paragraph:  Why interesting to the journal’s readership This study is the first to demonstrate that the preoperative mGPS, a simple clinical tool, is a useful Conclusion prognostic factor for postoperative survival in breast cancer patients undergoing curative resection for liver metastases. This information is immediately clinically applicable for surgeons and medical oncologists treating such patients. As a premier journal Relevance covering breast cancer treatment, we believe that Breast Cancer Research and Treatment is the perfect platform from which to share our results with all those concerned with breast cancer.
  • 122. Coverage and Staffing Plan Cover letters Building your cover letter Fourth paragraph:  Why interesting to the journal’s readership This study is the first to demonstrate that the preoperative mGPS, a simple clinical tool, is a useful prognostic factor for postoperative survival in breast cancer patients undergoing curative resection for liver metastases. This information is immediately clinically applicable for surgeons and medical oncologists treating such patients. As a premier journal covering breast cancer treatment, we believe that Breast Cancer Research and Treatment is the perfect platform from which to share our results with all those concerned with breast cancer. Target your journal – keywords from the Aims and Scope
  • 123. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Building your cover letter Last paragraph:  Disclaimers related to publication ethics  Sources of Funding  Conflicts of interest We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have approved the manuscript, including Ethics authorship and order of authorship, and agree with submission to the Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. This Funding study was funded by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Conflicts The of authors interest have no conflicts of interest to declare.
  • 124. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Building your cover letter Other important information:  Recommended reviewers  Author’s contact information We would like to recommend the following reviewers to evaluate our manuscript: Reviewers 1. Reviewer 1 and contact information 2. Reviewer 2 and contact information 3. Reviewer 3 and contact information 4. Reviewer 4 and contact information Please address all correspondence to: Contact information
  • 125. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Marc Lippman, MD Editor-in-Chief Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 3 September 2013 Dear Dr Lippman, Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Evaluation of the Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing curative resection for breast cancer liver metastases,” which we would like to submit for publication as an Original Article in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. . The Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) is of value for a variety of tumours. Several studies have investigated the prognostic value of the GPS in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but few studies have performed such an investigation for patients undergoing liver resection for liver metastases. Furthermore, there are currently no studies that have examined the prognostic value of the modified GPS (mGPS) in these patients. The present study evaluated the mGPS in terms of its prognostic value for postoperative death in patients undergoing liver resection for breast cancer liver metastases. A total of 318 patients with breast cancer liver metastases who underwent hepatectomy over a 15-year period were included in this study. The mGPS was calculated based on the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin, and the disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival rates were evaluated in relation to the mGPS. Prognostic significance was retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, the results showed a significant association between cancer-specific survival and the mGPS and carcinoembryonic antigen level, and a higher mGPS was associated with increased aggressiveness of liver recurrence and poorer survival in these patients. This study is the first to demonstrate that the preoperative mGPS, a simple clinical tool, is a useful prognostic factor for postoperative survival in breast cancer patients undergoing curative resection for liver metastases. This information is immediately clinically applicable for surgeons and medical oncologists treating such patients. As a premier journal covering breast cancer treatment, we believe that Breast Cancer Research and Treatment is the perfect platform from which to share our results with all those concerned with breast cancer. We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have approved the manuscript, including authorship and order of authorship, and agree with submission to Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. This study was funded by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. We would like to recommend the following reviewers to evaluate our manuscript: Reviewer 1 and contact information Reviewer 2 and contact information Reviewer 3 and contact information Reviewer 4 and contact information Please address all correspondence to: We look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience. Yours sincerely, A good cover letter Manuscript information Background Key findings Relevance Disclaimers Recommended reviewers
  • 126. Cover letters Specific cover Coverage and Staffing Plan letter styles http://www.nature.com/nature/authors/submissions/subs/#a6
  • 127. Cover letters Recommending Coverage and Staffing Plan reviewers “Authors are requested to provide the names and full addresses (including e-mail address) of up to four potential referees…” “When submitting your paper, you must provide the names, affiliations, and valid e-mail addresses of five (5) reviewers. If you do not do so, your paper will be returned, unreviewed.”
  • 128. Coverage and Staffing Plan Cover letters PNAS http://www.pnas.org/site/authors/editorialpolicies.xhtml
  • 129. Cover letters Recommending Coverage and Staffing Plan reviewers Where to find them? From your reading/references, networking at conferences How senior? Aim for mid-level researchers Who to avoid? Collaborators (past 5 years), researchers from Kyushu University International list: 1 or 2 from Asia, 1 or 2 from Europe, and 1 or 2 from North America Have they published in your target journal?
  • 130. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Why recommend reviewers? Reviewers recommended by authors are usually more favorable 1. Scharschimidt et al. J Clin Invest. 1994; 93: 1877–1880. 2. Earnshaw & Farndon. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2000; 82: 133–135. 3. Grimm. Science 2005; 309: 1974. 4. Wager et al. BMC Med. 2006; 4: 13. 5. Schroter et al. JAMA 2006; 295: 314–317. 6. Rivara et al. J Pediatr. 2007; 151: 202–205. 7. Bornmann & Daniel. Res Eval. 2009; 18: 262–272. 8. Bornmann & Daniel. PLoS One 2010; 5: e13345.
  • 131. Coverage and Cover letters Staffing Plan Why recommend reviewers? Reviewers recommended by authors are usually more favorable Accept Reject Author Editor Author Editor JAMA (n=329) 56.9% 46.0% 12.9% 23.6% BMC Med (n=200) 47.0% 35.0% 10.0% 23.0% J Pediatr (n=280) 63.6% 42.9% 14.3% 25.0%
  • 132. Section 8 Peer review & revisions
  • 133. Peer review What reviewers are looking for The science The manuscript  Relevant hypothesis  Good experimental design  Appropriate methodology  Good data analysis  Valid conclusions  Logical flow of information  Manuscript structure and formatting  Appropriate references  High readability AbsRtreascutDlM taissn ecadtunh sIdosn idFtorsingo udruecst ion
  • 134. Peer review 30 August 2014 Dear Dr. Robens, Decision letter Manuscript ID NRL-11-7839: “Gene regulatory networks in living cells” Decision Your manuscript has been reviewed, and we regret to inform you that based on our Expert reviewers’ comments, it is not possible to further consider your manuscript in its current form for publication in Neurogenetics. Reason Although the reviews are not entirely negative, it is evident from the extensive comments and concerns that the manuscript, in its current form, does not meet the criteria expected of papers in Neurogenetics. The results appear to be too preliminary and incomplete for publication at the present time. Comments The reviewer comments are included at the bottom of this letter. I hope the information provided by the reviewers will be helpful in future. Thank you for your interest in the journal and I regret that the outcome has not been favorable at this time.
  • 135. Peer review Editor is interested in your work  The Reviewer comments are not entirely negative.  It is not possible to consider your manuscript in its current form.  I hope the information provided will be helpful when you revise your manuscript.  I regret that the outcome has not been favorable at this time.
  • 136. Peer review Editor is not interested in your work We cannot publish your manuscript Your study does not contain novel results that merit publication in our journal. We appreciate your interest in our journal. However, we will not further consider your manuscript for publication. We wish you luck in publishing your results elsewhere.
  • 137. Peer review Organize the reviewers’ comments Group similar comments together Experimental References Writing Reviewer 1: “Re-analyze the data in Figure 3 using a Mann–Whitney U test.” Reviewer 3: “Repeat the experiments in Figure 3 with additional controls.” Note: the comments of one reviewer may affect the comments of another • Mann–Whitney U test: 2 groups • Kruskal–Wallis test: >2 groups
  • 138. Peer review Writing response letters Read by the journal editor, not the reviewers Respond to every reviewer comment Easy to see changes Refer to line and page numbers Use a different color font Use strikethrough font
  • 139. Peer review Marc Lippman, MD Editor-in-Chief Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 3 September 2013 Dear Dr Lippman, Writing response letters Address editor personally Re: Resubmission of manuscript reference No. WJS-07-5739 Manuscript ID number Thank reviewers Please find attached a revised version of our manuscript originally entitled “Evaluation of the Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing curative resection for breast cancer liver metastases,” which we would like to resubmit for consideration for publication in the Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. The reviewer’s comments were highly insightful and enabled us to greatly improve the quality of our manuscript. In the following pages are our point-by-point responses to each of the comments. Revisions in the manuscript are shown as highlighted text. In accordance with the first comment, the title has been revised and the entire manuscript has undergone substantial English editing. We hope that the revisions in the manuscript and our accompanying responses will be sufficient to make our manuscript suitable for publication in the Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. Highlight major changes
  • 140. Peer review Agreeing with reviewers Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen to use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier to compare to previous results. Agreement Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis.
  • 141. Peer review Agreeing with reviewers Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen to use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier to compare to previous results. Agreement Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of the analysis. Our tailored function, in its current form, makes it difficult to tell that this measurement constitutes a significant improvement over previously reported values. We describe our new analysis using a Gaussian fitting function in our revised Results section (Page 6, Lines 12–18). Revisions Why you agree Location
  • 142. Peer review Disagreeing with reviewers Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen to use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier to compare to previous results. Response: Although a simple Gaussian fit would facilitate comparison with the results of other Evidence studies, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the data in terms of the Smith model [Smith et al., 1998]. We have now explained the use of this function and the Smith model in Revisions our revised Discussion section (Page 12, Lines 2–6). Location
  • 143. Peer review “Hidden” questions Reviewer comment: The authors looked for polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene; however, they didn't evaluate the untranslated regions. That is one of my concerns about this methodology. Is this a question? If you are unsure about a reviewer’s comment, ask a colleague
  • 144. Peer review “Hidden” questions Reviewer comment: The authors looked for polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene; however, they didn't evaluate the untranslated regions. That is one of my concerns about this methodology. Rephrased question: Why didn’t the authors evaluate polymorphisms in the untranslated regions of the gene?
  • 145. Peer review “Hidden” questions Reviewer comment: The authors looked for polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene; however, they didn't evaluate the untranslated regions. That is one of my concerns about this methodology. Evidence Response: In this study, we decided to focus on the promoter region of this gene because previous studies [Yajima et al., 2010; Jackson et al., 2011] have shown that its transcription Revisions was particularly affected. This has now been clarified in the Discussion section of our manuscript (Page 16, Line 24–28). Location
  • 146. Peer review “Unfair” reviewer Reviewer comment: Currently, the authors’ conclusion that this gene is involved in heart development is not completely validated by their in vitro analyses. They should do additional in vivo experiments using a genetic mouse model to show that heart development is regulated by this gene. Reasons why reviewers might make these comments  Current results are not appropriate for the scope or impact factor of the journal  Reviewer is being “unfair” comments
  • 147. Peer review “Unfair” reviewer comments What you should do First, contact the journal editor if you feel reviewer is being unfair  Do the experiments, revise, and resubmit  Withdraw submission and resubmit current manuscript to a journal with a different scope or lower impact factor
  • 148. Cover letters & peer review Activities Please see associated handouts
  • 149. Peer Review Exercises The Journal Editor has returned your manuscript along with questions from the reviewers. Write an appropriate response for each one, and then share with your group. One member of each group will then read their best response for one of the comments.
  • 150. Peer Review Exercises Reviewer #1: Although the author provided controls for the first two sets of experiments, it appears that control subjects were not included in the third set. Repeat the experiments with the proper controls and update your manuscript accordingly. Agreement We would like to thank Reviewer #1 for their comment. We agree that it is important to include the controls. Therefore, we have repeated the third set of experiments with the proper controls. We have now updated Figure 3 and revised the Results section (page XX, lines YY–ZZ) of our revised manuscript. What was done Revisions Location
  • 151. Peer Review Exercises Reviewer #2: In the Introduction, the authors failed to discuss the studies published by Robertson and colleagues regarding non-parametric analyses. These should be added to the revised manuscript. We would like to thank Reviewer #2 for identifying this oversight. We have now discussed the work from Robertson and colleagues (Robertson et al. Biophys Comm; 2005, 13: 18–29 and Robertson et al. Anal Biochem; 2008, 24: 243–252) in our revised Introduction (page XX, lines YY–ZZ). Revisions Location
  • 152. Peer Review Exercises Reviewer #3: The authors have proposed a very interesting model to explain consumer behavior in foreign countries. I wonder how this might impact the tourism industry. We would like to thank Reviewer #3 for their comment regarding our model. We also agree it would be of interest to the tourism industry. We have added a discussion about the impact our model might have for tourism-based marketing in our revised Conclusion (page XX, lines YY–ZZ). Revisions Location Agreement
  • 153. Section 6 Next steps
  • 154. Next steps If rejected, what should you do? Option 1: New submission to the same journal  Fully revise manuscript  Prepare point-by-point responses  Include the original manuscript ID number Option 2: New submission to a different journal  Revise manuscript  Reformat according to the author guidelines
  • 155. Next steps Promote your work Promote your work on social networks Allen et al. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e68914. • 16 PLOS ONE articles were promoted on social networks on one randomly chosen date • 16 PLOS ONE articles were not Views* Downloads* Promoted 18±18 4±4 Not promoted 6±3 1±1 *per day
  • 156. Next steps Altmetrics
  • 157. Next steps Altmetrics
  • 158. Next steps Promote your work Respond to post-publication comments
  • 159. Next steps Promote your work Present your work at conferences Allows you to discuss your work personally with your peers Get feedback about your work and future directions Networking and collaborations
  • 160. Be an effective communicator Your goal is not only to be published, but also to be widely read/cited  How to increase the readability of your writing  How to choose the most appropriate journal  How to logically present your research  How to write effective cover letters  How to properly revise your manuscript  How to actively promote your work
  • 161. Any questions? Thank you! Jeffrey Robens: jrobens@edanzgroup.com Andrew Jackson: ajackson@edanzgroup.com edanzediting.co.jp/kyushu_20140930 Download and further reading @JournalAdvisor Follow us on Twitter facebook.com/EdanzEditing Like us on Facebook

×