20140809 Edanz Kyushu
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20140809 Edanz Kyushu 20140809 Edanz Kyushu Presentation Transcript

  • Dr Jeffrey Robens Dr Melanie de Souza Kyushu University Office for Strategic Research Planning Seminar Series – Session 1 Effective Writing 9 August 2014
  • Seminar series Session 1 Session 2 Professional writing skills Manuscript structure Effective writing & common mistakes Cover letters Journal selection Peer review
  • Why publish? Exchange ideas globally Your research is not complete until it is published Communicate on a global stage One publication per year
  • Writing a manuscript – 4 common myths S My manuscript is a written record of my findings My findings speak for themselves, even if the manuscript is written poorly Good English means only grammar and spelling Complex words makes my writing more impressive
  • Writing a manuscript – 4 common myths S My manuscript is a written record of my findings My findings speak for themselves, even if the manuscript is written poorly Good English means only grammar and spelling Complex words makes my writing more impressive Your manuscript is to communicate your findings You need a well-written manuscript to effectively communicate your findings Complex words makes your writing more difficult to understand Good English means clear English with high readability
  • Which journal would you choose?
  • International language of academics People want to hear from Japanese researchers International reputation Funding Career advancement Why English?
  • Publication success = Academic success S Publication Metrics and Success on the Academic Job Market van Dijk et al. Current Biology. 2014; 24: R516-R517. • >25,000 researchers in PubMed • Determined which factors positively correlated with academic success • Number of publications • Impact factor of the journal • Number of citations • University ranking • Gender
  • Publication output of Japan S www.scimagojr.com 1.37 14.57 1.58 4.87
  • What do international journal editors want? Interesting to journal’s readership Increase impact High quality research Original and novel research Clear and concise English Real-world applications
  • Relevant topic Significant results Logical presentation High readability Addresses an important problem researchers are facing Findings that advance the knowledge in the field Information and results clearly presented in a logical manner Ideas are easily understood Qualities of a well-written article
  • Professional writing skills Section 1
  • Writing skills Native language vs English Implement ideas locally National collaborations Regulatory authorities Write and communicate in your own language International collaborations Grant applications Career advancements Publish manuscripts in English to exchange ideas globally International reputation
  • Writing skills Adopt a winning strategy Publication recordWin games Baseball Scientist Preparation Communication Knowledge Tactics Physical fitness Team members Rules of the game Opposition Understanding Manuscript Publication process Published literature Results
  • Writing skills Strong research motive Good research question + Clear scientific message for readers 1. Outline 2. Figure • Short title • What you did • Trends • Unexpected results 3. Discussion Presenter Create discussion New ideas Audience Alternative explanations Solutions • New models • Next experiments
  • Writing skills Using your figures to structure your manuscript Where to start?  Your findings are why you want to publish your work  Form the basis of your manuscript  First step, is to logically organize your findings Figure 1 Figure 2 Table 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Logical presentation New data?
  • Writing skills Evaluate results Impact Target audience • Who will benefit? • Implications?• Novel? • Significance? • Importance? International or regional journal? Broad- or narrow- focused journal?
  • Writing skills Prepare an outline Now that you know what findings you are going to present, you know what you need to write about Introduction Methods Results Discussion What background information you will introduce What techniques you will describe What findings you will discuss What interpretations, limitations, and implications you will discuss
  • Writing skills Prepare an outline I. Introduction A. General background B. Related studies C. Problems in the field D. Aims II. Methods A. Subjects/Samples/Materials B. General methods C. Specific methods D. Statistical analyses III. Results A. Key points about Figure 1 B. Key points about Table 1 C. Key points about Figure 2 D. Key points about Figure 3 E. Key points about Figure 4 IV. Discussion A. Major conclusion B. Key findings that support conclusion C. Relevance to published studies D. Limitations E. Unexpected results F. Implications G. Future directions  Knowing what you need to discuss, write down the key ideas  Use short bullet points to list ideas  Don’t let “writing correct English sentences” get in the way of outlining your ideas List important information from your reading in the appropriate section with citations
  • Writing skills Manuscript structure Manuscript sections • Title • Abstract • Introduction • Methods • Results • Figures • Discussion • Conclusions The beginning The end The middle
  • Writing skills The ‘write’ order Title Abstract Discussion Conclusions Introduction Methods Results After selecting target journal During your research Write last
  • Writing skills Methods and Results Methods Results • List all methods • Details of unusual methods • Researchers can repeat experiments • Based on figures • Coherent and logical flow • Unbiased analysis • Effectively conveys a clear scientific message
  • Writing skills Discussion • Coherent interpretation • Explain trends versus the literature • Support all claims • Propose new models and theories Know target journal Convince readers of your results • Do not repeat your results • Do not use assumptions • Propose new models and theories  
  • Writing skills Conclusion and Introduction Conclusions • Short and concise • Implications and benefits • Future work Introduction • Summarize current understanding • Scientific gaps • Clear hypothesis and aims • Include recent citations What is the study about? Why is it important? How does it advance field? Know target journal
  • Writing skills Abstract and Keywords Abstract • Word limits • Structured vs unstructured • No references Keywords • Avoid acronyms • Appear in Abstract
  • Writing skills Tips for a clear Abstract Background Methods Results/ Conclusions Implications Aims Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery
  • Writing skills After the first draft…. Update references • 75% from the last 5 years • Avoid too many self citations • Include international citations Most referencesIntroduction DiscussionMethods Some references No referencesConclusion AbstractResults
  • Writing skills After the first draft…. Format manuscript • Journal template • Word limits • Reference formatting Revise manuscript • Proof read • Input from colleagues • Reduce by 15% • Clear Figures/Tables • Logical flow
  • Professional writing skills Exercises
  • Popular appeal Publication Public press
  • Selecting articles for press releases Good story Good Figures Good Abstract Grab journal editor’s attention!
  • From Abstract….. Abstract The spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a fatal disease of honey bees that occurs worldwide. Previously, we identified a complex hybrid nonribosomal peptide/polyketide synthesis (NRPS/PKS) gene cluster in the genome of P. larvae. Herein, we present the isolation and structure elucidation of the antibacterial and antifungal products of this gene cluster, termed paenilamicins. The unique structures of the paenilamicins give deep insight into the underlying complex hybrid NRPS/PKS biosynthetic machinery. Bee larval co-infection assays reveal that the paenilamicins are employed by P. larvae in fighting ecological niche competitors and are not directly involved in killing the bee larvae. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities qualify the paenilamicins as attractive candidates for drug development. People eat honey; People like bees People do not want to be sick Muller et al. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014; doi: 10.1002/anie.201404572.
  • To Press release…. People eat honey; People like bees People do not want to be sick http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/6467901/Hope_for_the_Honey_Bee.html
  • Writing skills exercise You are the Journal Editor. Can you spot a good article for a press release?
  • Exercise: Abstract Communication Cavitand-Grafted Silicon Microcantilevers as a Universal Probe for Illicit and Designer Drugs in Water† Abstract The direct, clean, and unbiased transduction of molecular recognition into a readable and reproducible response is the biggest challenge associated to the use of synthetic receptors in sensing. All possible solutions demand the mastering of molecular recognition at the solid– liquid interface as prerequisite. The socially relevant issue of screening amine-based illicit and designer drugs is addressed by nanomechanical recognition at the silicon–water interface. The methylamino moieties of different drugs are all first recognized by a single cavitand receptor through a synergistic set of weak interactions. The peculiar recognition ability of the cavitand is then transferred with high fidelity and robustness on silicon microcantilevers and harnessed to realize a nanomechanical device for label-free detection of these drugs in water. Taking illicit drugs: Bad Need to detect drug-use easily Biavardi et al. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014; doi: 10.1002/anie.201404774.
  • Exercise: Press release Taking illicit drugs: Bad Need to detect drug-use easily http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/6286411/Drug_Sensing_by_a_Synthetic_Receptor.html
  • Improving readability Section 2
  • Readability Japanese vs. English scientific writing style Japanese English Followed by conclusion Cause/reason comes first Passive voice Followed by explanation Conclusion comes first Active voice
  • Readability High readability Your reader should… Understand your logic immediately Not have to read slowly Only have to read once
  • Readability Reader expectations Information is easier to understand when it is placed where readers expect to find it Good writers are aware of these expectations
  • Readability Subject-verb placement Readers expect verbs to closely follow the subject Subject Verb
  • Readability Subject-verb placement Readers expect verbs to closely follow the subject Subject Verb
  • Readability Subject-verb placement The viral infection that the patient caught on her recent trip to the outbreak-prone areas in Africa spread quickly. The patient caught a viral infection on her recent trip to the outbreak-prone areas in Africa, and this infection spread quickly.
  • Readability Short sentences Reading once… 4% of readers can understand a 27-word sentence 75% of readers can understand a 17-word sentence Pinner and Pinner (1998) Communication Skills Goals to aim for: One idea per sentence 15–20 words
  • Readability 30 words The largest company, a Japanese corporation founded in 1916 outside of Osaka by Ichiro Tanaka, was considered to be a model in the development of modern employee conditions by economists. Short sentences
  • Readability Short sentences Economists considered the largest company to be a model in the development of modern employee conditions. This company was a Japanese corporation founded in 1916 outside of Osaka by Ichiro Tanaka. 16 words 15 words One idea per sentence
  • Readability Active voice Sentences written in the active voice are: simple direct clear easy to read The mechanisms regulating tumor growth were investigated. Passive We investigated the mechanisms regulating tumor growth. Active
  • Readability Active voice Ferreira F. Cognitive Psychology 2003; 47: 164–203. • 48 native English-speaking university students • 36 active voice sentences • 36 passive voice sentences Accurate statements • The dog bit the man. • The man was bitten by the dog. Inaccurate statements • The man bit the dog. • The dog was bitten by the man.
  • Readability Active voice 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Active Passive Accuracy (%) 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 Active Passive Decision time (ms) Ferreira F. Cognitive Psychology 2003; 47: 164–203. • 36 active voice sentences (‘the dog bit the man’) • 36 passive voice sentences (‘the man was bitten by the dog’)
  • Readability Active voice is preferred “Use the active voice when it is less wordy and more direct than the passive”. (3rd ed., pg. 42) “Use the active voice rather than the passive voice…”. www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/effective-verb-use.aspx “As a matter of style, passive voice is typically, but not always, inferior to active voice”. (15th ed., pg. 177) “In general, authors should use the active voice…”. (10th ed., pg. 320) ACS Style Guide APA Style Chicago Style Guide AMA Manual of Style “Nature journals prefer authors to write in the active voice” (http://www.nature.com/authors/author_resources/how_write.html) Nature
  • Readability Stress position Readers focus at the end of the sentence to determine what is important. 1. You deserve a raise, but the budget is tight. Which sentence suggests that you will get a raise? 2. The budget is tight, but you deserve a raise. http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/flow/
  • Readability The budget is tight, but you deserve a raise. Your salary will increase at the beginning of next year. http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/flow/ Stress position The stress position also introduces the topic of the next sentence Stress position Topic position The topic position introduces the idea of the current sentence
  • Readability Topic position The patient went to the hospital to see a gastroenterologist. The doctor then performed a series of diagnostic tests. The results showed the patient suffered from a bacterial infection. Antibiotics were prescribed to treat the infection before the patient developed an ulcer. idea ideaideaidea Topic link sentence
  • Readability Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012; 13: 211. Linking your ideas in your manuscript Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women. Despite smoking prevention and cessation programs and advances in early detection, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is only 16% with current therapies. Although lung cancer incidence rates have recently declined in the United States, more lung cancer is now diagnosed when considered together in former- and never-smokers than in current smokers. Thus, even if all of the national anti-smoking campaign goals are met, lung cancer will remain a major public health problem for decades. New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. One potential therapeutic target for lung cancer is the Wnt signaling pathway. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway in mammals consists of a family of secreted lipid-modified Wnt protein ligands that bind to a family of 7-pass transmembrane Frizzled (Fzd) receptors, as reviewed… Topic sentence Stress sentence Topic sentence
  • Improving readability Exercises
  • Readability exercises What is wrong with the following sentences? How would you rewrite them improve their readability? 1. The patient that was admitted to the clinic after running a marathon held in honor of those who died from prostate cancer was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer.
  • Readability exercises What is wrong with the following sentences? How would you rewrite them improve their readability? 1. The patient that was admitted to the clinic after running a marathon held in honor of those who died from prostate cancer was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer. 1. The patient was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer. This patient was admitted to the clinic after running a marathon held in honor of those who died from prostate cancer.
  • Readability exercises What is wrong with the following sentences? How would you rewrite them improve their readability? 1. The patient that was admitted to the clinic after running a marathon held in honor of those who died from prostate cancer was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer. 1. The patient was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer. This patient was admitted to the clinic after running a marathon held in honor of those who died from prostate cancer. Keep subjects and verbs close
  • Readability exercises What is wrong with the following sentences? How would you rewrite them improve their readability? 2. Randomized groups of mice were subjected to different treatments based on age and sex to evaluate the effects of specific drugs on their nervous systems and freely fed organic food and water until the next treatment regimen commenced. 39 words! 2. Randomized groups of mice were subjected to different treatments based on age and sex to evaluate the effects of specific drugs on their nervous systems. The groups were then freely fed organic food and water until the next treatment regimen commenced. 25 words 16 words One idea per sentence
  • Readability exercises Are the following sentences in active or passive voice? If passive, rewrite them in active voice. 9. The effects of UV treatment on the physical properties of graphene were investigated under high pressure. 10. Surgery was performed to remove the tumor from the liver. 11. Manufacturing increased after the introduction of the new assembly line. 12. Manufacturing was increased by the introduction of the new assembly line. Passive Passive Passive Active
  • Readability exercises Are the following sentences in active or passive voice? If passive, rewrite them in active voice. 9. The effects of UV treatment on the physical properties of graphene were investigated under high pressure. 10. Surgery was performed to remove the tumor from the liver. 11. Manufacturing increased after the introduction of the new assembly line. 12. Manufacturing was increased by the introduction of the new assembly line. Passive Passive Passive Active We investigated the effects of UV treatment on the physical properties of graphene under high pressure. We performed surgery to remove the tumor from the liver. The introduction of the new assembly line increased manufacturing.
  • Readability exercises Based on the stress and topic positions, how would you logically organize these four sentences ? A) Centrally located cells likely received lower drug concentrations due to decreased drug bioavailabilty. B) Application of the drug decreased cell movement but increased cell survival. C) Increasing the bioavailability of the drug is an important area of future research. D) Cell survival rates were higher in the tissue periphery and lower in the center.
  • Readability exercises Based on the stress and topic positions, how would you logically organize these four sentences ? A) Centrally located cells likely received lower drug concentrations due to decreased drug bioavailabilty. B) Application of the drug decreased cell movement but increased cell survival. C) Increasing the bioavailability of the drug is an important area of future research. D) Cell survival rates were higher in the tissue periphery and lower in the center.
  • Readability exercises Based on the stress and topic positions, how would you logically organize these four sentences ? Application of the drug decreased cell movement but increased cell survival. Cell survival rates were higher in the tissue periphery and lower in the center. Centrally located cells likely received lower drug concentrations due to decreased drug bioavailabilty. Increasing the bioavailability of the drug is an important area of future research.
  • Simple language Section 3
  • Simple language Nature’s guide to authors: Nature is an international journal covering all the sciences. Contributions should therefore be written clearly and simply so that they are accessible to readers in other disciplines and to readers for whom English is not their first language. www.nature.com/nature/authors/gta/index.html#a4 “I should use complex words to make my writing more impressive.”
  • Simple language Complex words To ascertain the efficaciousness of the program, we interrogated the participants upon completion. To determine the success of the program, we questioned the participants upon completion.
  • Simple language Simple words Preferred Enough Clear Try Very Size Asked Keep Later Enough End Use Avoid Adequate Apparent Endeavor Exceedingly Magnitude Requested Retain Subsequently Sufficient Terminate Utilization
  • Simple language Avoid At a concentration of 2 g/L At a temperature of 37C At a wavelength of 340 nm In order to In the first place Four in number Green color Subsequent to Prior to Preferred At 2 g/L At 37C At 340 nm To First Four Green After Before Unnecessary words
  • Simple language In the first place, in order to determine the critical point of the material, we incubated it at a temperature of 95°C until it became black in color. First, to determine the critical point of the material, we incubated it at 95°C until it became black. 28 words 18 words Unnecessary words
  • Simple language Exercises
  • Simple language exercises Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and subsequently tested in the water maze. 2. We endeavored to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was apparent that the drug was exceedingly effective.
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and subsequently tested in the water maze. 2. We endeavored to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was apparent that the drug was exceedingly effective. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and later tested in the water maze. 2. We endeavored to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was apparent that the drug was exceedingly effective. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and later tested in the water maze. 2. We endeavored to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was apparent that the drug was exceedingly effective. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and later tested in the water maze. 2. We tried to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was apparent that the drug was exceedingly effective. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and later tested in the water maze. 2. We tried to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was apparent that the drug was exceedingly effective. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 1. The rats were fed a high protein diet and later tested in the water maze. 2. We tried to validate our hypothesis with a smaller sample size. 3. After analyzing the results, it was clear that the drug was very effective. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments terminated once a sufficient amount of data was collected. 5. Our results show that the utilization of this new method is more efficient than currently utilized methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments terminated once a sufficient amount of data was collected. 5. Our results show that the utilization of this new method is more efficient than currently utilized methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data was collected. 5. Our results show that the utilization of this new method is more efficient than currently utilized methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data was collected. 5. Our results show that the utilization of this new method is more efficient than currently utilized methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that the utilization of this new method is more efficient than currently utilized methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that the utilization of this new method is more efficient than currently utilized methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that the use of this new method is more efficient than currently used methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that the use of this new method is more efficient than currently used methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that using this new method is more efficient than currently used methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that using this new method is more efficient than currently used methods. Simple language exercises
  • Replace the complicated words in the following sentences with simpler words. 4. The experiments ended once enough data were collected. 5. Our results show that using this new method is more efficient than current methods. Simple language exercises
  • Cross out the unnecessary word(s) from each sentence. 3. We calculated the tumor volume in order to evaluate the drug’s effects. 4. The fluorescence was measured at a wavelength of 488 nm. 5. At a temperature of 60°C, the compound became white in color. 6. In order to investigate the frequency in occurrence of Parkinson’s disease in the community, 412 people in the community were recruited in the study. Simple language exercises We recruited 412 people from the community to investigate the frequency of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Common mistakes Section 4
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Correct verb tense  Present: stating widely accepted fact “Smoking causes cancer.”  Present perfect: referring to results from previous studies that are still relevant “Smoking has been shown to cause cancer.3” Introduction
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Correct verb tense  Past: describing what you did “We recruited 45 subjects for our study.” Methods
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Correct verb tense  Past: stating what you found “We observed that the weight of…”  Present: referring to the figures “Figure 3 shows the increase in weight…” Results and Figure Legends
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Correct verb tense  Present: stating widely accepted fact  Present perfect: referring to results from previous studies that are still relevant  Past: stating what you found “We found that smoking increased the…”  Present: referring to the implications of your findings for the current state of the field “These results suggest that smoking increases…” Discussion
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Proper punctuation Colons and semi-colons  Use colons to introduce a list  Use semi-colons to differentiate phrases that contain commas “We analyzed three journals: the Journal of Neurology, published by Springer, Practical Neurology, published by BMJ, and Annals of Neurology, published by Wiley.” “…increased toxicity; however, this was not found…” 1 2 3 4 5 6 Three or six?
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Proper punctuation Colons and semi-colons  Use colons to introduce a list  Use semi-colons to differentiate phrases that contain commas “We analyzed three journals: the Journal of Neurology, published by Springer; Practical Neurology, published by BMJ; and Annals of Neurology, published by Wiley.” “…increased toxicity; however, this was not found…” “…increased toxicity. However, this was not found…”
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Proper punctuation Hyphens and en dashes  Use hyphens to combine two words “wild-type”, “heat-induced increase”, “2-μm pore”  Use en dashes for ranges or combining two people’s names “aged 30−38 years”, “Mann−Whitney U test” Do not use en dashes with ‘from’ or ‘between’ “from 30 to 38 years”, “between 30 and 38 years”
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes UK vs. US English • For many journals, either UK or US English is acceptable • Have to be consistent throughout • Carefully read author guidelines for details • Hint: search for ‘English’ or ‘spelling’ http://www.bmj.com/about-bmj/resources-authors/house-style http://www.rsc.org/images/Author_guidelines_tcm18-186308.pdf
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes UK vs. US English Use the setting in Microsoft Word to ensure you are using the correct format Click here to change the language settings quickly
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes UK vs. US English… and Oxford English http://www.nature.com/nature/authors/gta/#a4 UK English Oxford English US English Analyse Analyse Analyze Behaviour Behaviour Behavior Centre Centre Center Modelling Modelling Modeling Haematology Haematology Hematology Realise Realize Realize
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes  Compared with is for comparing similar things  Compared to is for comparing different things This year’s graduation rates were compared to those from last year. This year’s graduation rates were compared with those from last year. Comparisons
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Use between for comparisons of two groups Use among for more than two groups ‘Between’ or ‘among’? … the only difference between the original molecule and the new molecule is ... … significant differences were observed in the values among the five molecules.
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Respectively Used to refer to two or more corresponding lists The two values were 143 and 21, respectively. The two values were 143 and 21. The values for group A and B were 143 and 21, respectively.
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Oxygen detector flow Nitrogen detector flow Hydrogen detector flow 85 mL/min 7 mL/min 4 mL/min Respectively – example Oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen detector flows were set at 85, 7 and 4 mL/min, respectively. 15 words The oxygen detector flow was set at 85 mL/min, the nitrogen detector flow was set at 7 mL/min, and the hydrogen detector flow was set at 4 mL/min. 28 words
  • Customer ServiceCommon mistakes Data is plural Data is the plural form of datum The data was analyzed... This data suggests… The data were analyzed… These data suggest…
  • Common mistakes Exercises
  • A new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university was contrived. This program had three stages; to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students, once the number of local students increased, recruit students nationally, and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we find that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • A new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university was contrived. This program had three stages; to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students, once the number of local students increased, recruit students nationally, and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we find that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph. Passive voice Complex words
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages; to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students, once the number of local students increased, recruit students nationally, and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we find that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages; to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students, once the number of local students increased, recruit students nationally, and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we find that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph. Colon/semicolon usage 1 2 3 4 Parallel structure
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we find that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we find that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph. Verb tense Respectively
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase between the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph. Between/among
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase among the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase among the three schools. One of the many potential possibilities was that the students in school C were wealthier compared to schools A and B; therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph. Too long (43 words) Unnecessary words Compare with
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase among the three schools. One possibility was that the students in school C were wealthier compared with those in schools A and B. Therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase among the three schools. One possibility was that the students in school C were wealthier compared with those in schools A and B. Therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, this data suggests that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first in order to more quickly aggrandize university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph. Data is plural Unnecessary words Complex words
  • We developed a new program to increase the enrollment of students at the university. This program had three stages: to recruit at regional schools to first increase the enrollment of local students; once the number of local students increased, to recruit students nationally; and finally to recruit students internationally. In the first stage, we found that recruiting students from schools A, B, and C augmented their enrollment by 5, 9, and 22%, respectively. It was not clear why school C had a much larger increase among the three schools. One possibility was that the students in school C were wealthier compared with those in schools A and B. Therefore, they may have had more financial resources to pay the tuition fees at our university, which increased by 32% this year. Together, these data suggest that schools from wealthier areas should be targeted first to more quickly increase university enrollment. Common mistakes exercises Identify all the mistakes you can find in this paragraph.
  • Journal selection Section 5
  • Journal selection Journal selection Traditional model Open Access model Indexing status Popular appeal Publication frequency Society membership Target audience Publishing language Impact factor
  • Journal selection Publication model Open Access membership programs Funding/grants Open Access option Submit manuscript Peer review Accepted Open Access Authors may pay (Article processing charge (APC) 1,000-5,000 USD) Traditional Subscription based (Readers/institutes pay subscription fee) Copyright Creative Common Licenses Author retains copyright No length constraints Rapid publication times More readers, more citations
  • Journal selection Hybrid model Subscription-based journals that offer Open Access
  • Journal selection Publication model Is it a reputable OA journal? Beware of predatory publishers Directory of Open Access Journals http://doaj.org/ Critical analysis : scholarlyoa.com Follow Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines
  • Journal selection Your target journal in minutes Text Click www.edanzediting.co.jp/journal_selector
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  • Journal selection Read regularly Research ideasJournals Improve your writing Published Literature • Aims and Scope • Topics • Layout • Structure • Styles • Phrases • Data • Scientific flow • Argument structure • Field develops • Implications of research • Applications • Established researchers Select reviewers
  • Journal selection Which papers to read Identify appropriate journals Established researchers • Researchers’ websites • Collaborators Journal websites Email alerts Identify appropriate articles Top cited/popular = Good science + well-written
  • Journal selection Journal club • Different groups, same department • 4–6 Journals • Each member reviews 1 or 2 journals • Select 1 article per week 8–12 people Discuss literature Critically examine manuscripts Identify good manuscripts
  • Journal selection Structure/Format Examples on blog Discussion points Start and run a journal club Guidelines on critiquing research Implications/ applications Journal club
  • Journal selection React to published literature Modify research question + Tell scientific community something new React Different Same Your results vs. published results Change focus Change target audience Highlight differences High impact Creates discussion Influenced by published literature Grant proposals Work in progress Writing a manuscript
  • Journal selection Advancing your career Peer reviewer • Publishing 2–3 manuscripts in the same journal • Meet journal editors at conferences • Write a good peer review report Critically examine manuscripts Guest Editor
  • Journal selection Exercises
  • Research 1. One research hypothesis: • Multiple target audiences • Different avenues for future work 2. Novel research is a reaction to the current developments
  • Start with hypothesis 1. Hypothesis: Claude Monet is the founder of Modern Art French Impressionist
  • Results: Evidence Art in 19th Century • Studio • Portraits of noblemen • Painting took months/years • Pigments/solvents • Dark pigments/whole canvas covered • Fine brush strokes • Capture detail/reality Claude Monet • Outside • Landscape/Common people • Painting took hours/days • Tubes of paint • Light colors/white spaces • Quick brush stokes • Capture natural light/use of color theory
  • Discussion points and Target audience Physicists/ Engineers Designers Chemists University lecturers General public Curators
  • Target audience… not only Artists! University lecturers Chemists Curators Physicists/ Engineers General public Designers
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