20140626 Edanz Kyushu Session 4

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20140626 Edanz Kyushu Session 4

  1. 1. Jeffrey Robens, PhD Senior Research Consultant Education Group Leader Kyushu University Department of Agriculture Session 4 – Ethics Kyushu University 26 June 2014
  2. 2. Seminar series June 5 Effective presentations June 12 Reviewing the literature June 19 Academic publishing June 26 Research and publication ethics July 3 Effective writing July 10 Manuscript structure July 17 Communicating with journals July 24 Peer review and revisions
  3. 3. Today’s presentation June 5 Effective presentations June 12 Reviewing the literature June 19 Academic publishing June 26 Research and publication ethics July 3 Effective writing July 10 Manuscript structure July 17 Communicating with journals July 24 Peer review and revisions
  4. 4. Research ethics Section 1
  5. 5. Research ethics Ethical treatment of animals Housing Kept in humane conditions • Not over-crowded • Enough food and water • Climate controlled Experiments Avoid unnecessary suffering • Given anesthesia when possible • Not subjected to unnecessary pain
  6. 6. Research ethics Ethical treatment of humans Informed consent Participants in a study need to be informed of the: • Study objectives • Potential benefits or risks involved • Confidentiality This is usually written informed consent Templates: http://www.who.int/rpc/research_ethics/informed_consent/en/
  7. 7. Research ethics Data manipulation Never Fabricate data Move data on a graph Alter images Hide bad results
  8. 8. Research ethics Altering images What kind of changes can be made to images? Overall brightness and contrast, as long as it does not obscure or remove information from the original image Rossner and Yamada. J Cell Biol. 2004; 166: 11–15. You cannot: • Enhance brightness/contrast of only part of an image • Cannot crop out/remove ‘unwanted’ artefacts
  9. 9. Research ethics Reusing images Can you reuse images/data? In the same paper? In a follow-up paper? In a review article? Can you use the control image from Figure 1 in Figure 3? Can you use data published in one paper in a new research paper? Can you use a published image in a review article you are writing? NO! NO! Yes
  10. 10. Research ethics Reusing images You can use a published image in a review article… Subscription article • You have to request permission from publisher • Cite the original source Open access article • You have to request permission from corresponding author • Cite the original source
  11. 11. Research ethics ‘Salami publishing’ You cannot divide one larger paper into two or more smaller ones • Makes readers think that these are two independent studies • Relevant information from one paper not available to reader of other paper • Interferes with the critical evaluation of the study One larger paper will have more impact for the field (and more citations!)
  12. 12. Multiple submission Section 2
  13. 13. Coverage and Staffing Plan Multiple submission You can only submit your manuscript to one journal at a time Never submit to multiple journals hoping your manuscript is accepted somewhere
  14. 14. Coverage and Staffing Plan Multiple submission You can only submit to another journal if: Submitting to a new journal You have been rejected from the first journal All authors agree to formally withdraw the submission from the first journal
  15. 15. Activities
  16. 16. Submission activity You have just submitted your abstract to a conference, but now you want to also submit your manuscript to a journal. What should you do? 1. Withdraw your abstract from the conference first, and then submit to the journal. 2. First attend the conference, and then submit to the journal (it’s okay after the conference is over). 3. Freely submit to both…the conference is not the same as a journal, right?
  17. 17. Authorship Section 3
  18. 18. Authorship Why is authorship important? Gives credit to those who deserve it! But also determines who is responsible/ accountable for the work being published
  19. 19. Authorship Four criteria for authorship 1. Significantly involved in study design, data collection/analysis 2. Writing and revising the manuscript 3. Approval of final version 4. Responsible for the content (accuracy and integrity) http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and- responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html
  20. 20. Authorship Who can be an author? During your study, have had help from 4 people: Supervisor Collaborator Technician Post-doc Study design, data analysis, writing paper Provided materials, reviewed paper Data collection, reviewed paper Study design, data collection/analysis, writing paper
  21. 21. Authorship Who can be an author? During your study, have had help from 4 people: Supervisor Collaborator Technician Post-doc Study design, data analysis, writing paper Provided materials, reviewed paper Data collection, reviewed paper Study design, data collection/analysis, writing paper
  22. 22. Authorship Who cannot be an author? Those who only: • provided materials • helped with data collection • revised/edited the paper Collaborators* Technicians Colleagues *Collaborators who actively participated in the study (the design, data collection/analysis, and writing of the paper) do qualify as an author
  23. 23. Authorship Acknowledgements Nugraha et al. Biomaterials. 2011; 32: 6982–6994. Thank those who have made positive contributions Funding agencies
  24. 24. Authorship Gift/ghost authorship Making someone an author when they do not deserve it (friends, colleagues, etc.) Gift authorship • Try to make paper more prestigious by adding a ‘big name’ • Adding the department head to every paper from their department • Thanking someone for a contributed material Not making someone an author when they do deserve it Ghost authorship • Hide conflict of interest (e.g., company employee) • If someone did not conduct the study, but wrote the paper (e.g., ‘ghost writer’)
  25. 25. Authorship Authorship contributions Some journals require you to state what each author contributed to the study in your manuscript http://www.pnas.org/site/authors/ journal.xhtml Vedula et al. PNAS. 2012; 109: 12974–12979. First and senior authors contributed at every stage
  26. 26. Authorship Authorship order Senior authorFirst author Co-authors Did most of the work Wrote most of the paper Did some of the work Wrote some of the paper Did some of the work Wrote some of the paper (approved final)
  27. 27. Authorship Co-first authors How does this affect you? Jeffrey Robens*, Andrew Jackson*, Michael Pack, Melanie de Souza, Sean Mathai, William Yajima, Thomas da Costa *These authors contributed equally to this work Citations/reputation (Robens et al., 2014) Andrew Jackson? How much did you contribute? You did not do most of the work, but only half of it
  28. 28. Activities
  29. 29. Authorship activity 1 You have finished your research project. Because the post-doc in your lab needs publications, he offers to write the manuscript for you. Can he be an author? 1. No! He didn’t do any of the research! 2. Yes. Although he didn’t do the research, he will contribute to data interpretation and writing of the manuscript; 2/3 criteria is enough for co-authorship. 3. Yes. But because he wrote the paper, he should be the first author.
  30. 30. Authorship activity 2 You performed the experiments and wrote the paper. However, the paper was submitted after graduation. The revisions were done by the new student in the lab—can they be a co-author on your paper? 1. Yes. Although they were not involved in the first stage, they were involved in the research and writing during the second stage. That is sufficient. 2. No! They had nothing to do with the original project—an acknowledgement is enough.
  31. 31. Conflicts of interest Section 4
  32. 32. Conflicts of interest Professional, financial, or personal relationships that may bias your research  Declare any conflicts of interest to the journal  Disclose all sources of funding  Disclose all personal and financial relationships  Declaration of the role of the study sponsor: • study design • collection, analysis, and interpretation of data • writing of the manuscript
  33. 33. Conflicts of interest Example You are doing research on a new drug and… • Your brother works at the drug company • The drug company funded the research • You own stock in the drug company • You own stock in a competing drug company
  34. 34. Conflicts of interest Conflict of Interest form
  35. 35. Activities
  36. 36. Conflicts of interest activity You are an active member of an animal rights group and just finished writing a review of slaughterhouses in Japan. Do you have any conflicts of interest? 1. No! My personal beliefs have nothing to do with my professional evaluation of slaughterhouses. 2. No! Conflicts of interest are only related to financial gain. 3. Yes. My personal beliefs may bias my evaluation of slaughterhouses, so I should disclose them.
  37. 37. Plagiarism Section 5
  38. 38. Customer Service Plagiarism Makes readers think others’ words or ideas are your own Plagiarism Copying published text Stating ideas of someone else without citing the source
  39. 39. Customer Service Plagiarism Copying text into your manuscript that you have written and published before Self-plagiarism Violates copyright Makes readers think you are presenting something new
  40. 40. Customer Service Plagiarism Proper citations You should usually cite primary research articles • Cite review articles only in the Introduction regarding general topics (for further reading) • Cite primary articles regarding specific information/results If you read about an interesting study in a review article: • Do not cite that review article • Read the original study (additional information?) • Read the entire paper, not just the abstract!
  41. 41. Customer Service Plagiarism Expressing published ideas using different words Paraphrasing Tips on paraphrasing: 1. Write about the text a couple hours later without looking at the source 2. Verbally explain ideas to a colleague 3. Summarize in a flowchart (e.g., methods)
  42. 42. Customer Service Plagiarism Good paraphrasing 24. Llovet at al. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 378 –390. “This trial shows that sorafenib improves overall survival by nearly 3 months in patients with advanced liver cancer.” Sorafenib improves survival by almost 3 months in patients with advanced liver cancer.24 Sorafenib has been shown to improve the survival of liver cancer patients. 24 Too similar!
  43. 43. Activities
  44. 44. Paraphrasing activity 1 Please choose which sentence below is the best paraphrase for this sentence: “After application of the oil-based cream, we observed a 78% reduction in rashes caused by plants, but no reduction in those caused by animals.” 1 2 3
  45. 45. Paraphrasing activity 1 Please choose which sentence below is the best paraphrase for this sentence: “After application of the oil-based cream, we observed a 78% reduction in rashes caused by plants, but no reduction in those caused by animals.” 1. Oil-based creams have been found to be more effective in reducing rashes caused by plants than those caused by animals (Robens et al., 2013). Best!
  46. 46. Paraphrasing activity 1 Please choose which sentence below is the best paraphrase for this sentence: “After application of the oil-based cream, we observed a 78% reduction in rashes caused by plants, but no reduction in those caused by animals.” 2. After application of oil-based creams, Robens et al. (2013) found a 78% decrease in rashes that were caused by plants. However, they did not see a decrease in rashes caused by animals. Too similar
  47. 47. Paraphrasing activity 1 Please choose which sentence below is the best paraphrase for this sentence: “After application of the oil-based cream, we observed a 78% reduction in rashes caused by plants, but no reduction in those caused by animals.” 3. Rashes caused by plants are easier to treat than rashes caused by animals (Robens et al., 2013). Not accurate
  48. 48. Paraphrasing activity 2 You would like to use the following text in your manuscript. Properly paraphrase this sentence to avoid plagiarism. “We found that students that preferred team sports, such as baseball and basketball, scored 6.9% higher on entrance exams than students who preferred video games.” Students that prefer team sports rather than video games scored higher on entrance exams.
  49. 49. Thank you! Any questions? Follow us on Twitter @JournalAdvisor Like us on Facebook facebook.com/EdanzEditing Download and further reading edanzediting.co.jp/kyushu_140626 Jeffrey Robens: jrobens@edanzgroup.com

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