20140114 Edanz Kushu Session 3

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20140114 Edanz Kushu Session 3

  1. 1. Kyushu University Library Seminar Session 3 – Writing Your Manuscript Kyushu University 14 January 2014 Jeffrey Robens, PhD Senior Editor
  2. 2. Seminar series Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Session 5 Literature searching Effective writing Research marketing Publication process Suggesting reviewers Reading strategies Common mistakes Flow of information Journal selection Peer review Cover letters Revisions Paper Presentations Abstracts and management titles
  3. 3. Today’s presentation Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Session 5 Literature searching Effective writing Research marketing Publication process Suggesting reviewers Reading strategies Common mistakes Flow of information Journal selection Peer review Cover letters Revisions Paper Presentations Abstracts and management titles
  4. 4. Section 1 Manuscript structure
  5. 5. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Introduction General introduction Current state of the field Problem in the field Aims Specific aims
  6. 6. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Introduction – flow of information Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women. Despite smoking prevention and cessation programs and advances in early detection, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is only 16% with current therapies. Although lung cancer incidence rates have recently declined in the United States, more lung cancer is now diagnosed when considered together in former- and never-smokers than in current smokers. Thus, even if all of the national anti-smoking campaign goals are met, lung cancer will remain a major public health problem for decades. New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. General introduction One potential therapeutic target for lung cancer is the Wnt signaling pathway. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway in mammals consists of a family of secreted lipid-modified Wnt protein ligands that bind to a family of 7-pass transmembrane Frizzled (Fzd) receptors, as reviewed. In brief, in the absence of ligand, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), in complex with axin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), constitutively phosphorylates β-catenin, the primary Wnt signaling effector, targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction. Ligand binding engages a pathway involving Dishevelled (Dvl) that inhibits GSK3, allowing β-catenin to accumulate in a hypophosphorylated form. This stabilized form of β-catenin can translocate to the nucleus, where it activates target gene transcription by complexing with T cell factor (TCF) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF). In addition to key mediators of embryonic development, these target genes include critical growth-regulators such as myc and cyclin D1. Aberrant Wnt signaling due to mutations in β-catenin or APC drives deregulated growth in both familial and non-hereditary colorectal cancers. However, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), the most common type of lung cancer, rarely harbor APC or β-catenin mutations. Rather, aberrant Wnt activity in lung cancer is linked to increased expression of upstream Wnt signaling effectors such as Dvl or decreased expression of Wnt antagonists such as Wnt-inhibitory factor 1 (Wif-1). Secondary introduction Effective pharmacological inhibitors of the Wnt pathway have only recently become available. Screens for small-molecule antagonists of the Wnt pathway found two enzymes to be key mediators of Wnt signaling. These are poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzymes, tankyrase (TNKS) 1 and TNKS2, which attach poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) onto substrate proteins. Their roles in regulating telomerase function and mitotic spindle formation are known, but their role in PARsylating axin so as to maintain the optimal level for canonical Wnt signaling has only recently been recognized. The compounds identified in these screens, XAV939, IWR-1 exo, and IWR-1 endo, act by specifically inhibiting the PARP activity of TNKS1 and TNKS2. IWR-exo is a stereoisomer of IWR-1 endo with ~14-fold lower EC50. PARP inhibition is a tractable pharmacological target in vivo, as antagonists of other PARP homologs exert antineoplastic responses in breast and ovarian cancer, as reviewed. This study explored the hypothesis that inhibition of TNKS by pharmacological or genetic means would inhibit lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo in clinically-relevant transgenic mouse models of lung cancer that were previously developed, as reviewed. Objectives Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012; 13: 211.
  7. 7. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing the Introduction Beginning should demonstrate relevance/interest Interest Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women. Despite smoking prevention and cessation programs and advances in early detection, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is only 16% with current therapies. Although lung cancer incidence rates have recently declined in the United States, more lung cancer is now diagnosed when considered together in former- and never-smokers than in current smokers. Thus, even if all of the national anti-smoking campaign goals are met, lung cancer will remain a major public health problem for decades. New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. Directly related to the Aims and Scope Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012; 13: 211.
  8. 8. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Aims and Scope BMC Cancer BMC Cancer is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on all aspects of cancer research, including the pathophysiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancers. The journal welcomes submissions concerning molecular and cellular biology, genetics, epidemiology, and clinical trials.
  9. 9. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing the Introduction Clearly state an interesting problem in the field Interesting target One potential therapeutic target for lung cancer is the Wnt signaling pathway… Effective pharmacological inhibitors of the Wnt pathway have only recently become available… The compounds identified in these screens…act by specifically inhibiting the PARP activity of TNKS1 and TNKS2... PARP inhibition is a tractable pharmacological target in vivo, as antagonists of other PARP homologs exert antineoplastic responses in breast and ovarian cancer… Why interesting to study Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012; 13: 211.
  10. 10. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing the Introduction Your aims should directly address this problem New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. This study explored the hypothesis that inhibition of TNKS by pharmacological or genetic means would inhibit lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo… Wang et al. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst. 2008; 81: 203−218.
  11. 11. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Methods Experimental Design What was used Samples or participants Materials How it was done General methods Specific techniques (discuss controls) How it was analyzed Data analysis Quantification methods Statistical tests
  12. 12. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Results Logical presentation 1. Initial observation 2. Characterization 3. Application Example: 1. New gene expressed in the heart 2. Regulation of gene expression, when it is expressed, function of the produced protein 3. Role of the gene in heart development
  13. 13. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Results Logical presentation 1. Initial observation 2. Characterization 3. Application Subsections Each subsection corresponds to one figure Factual description What you found, not what it means
  14. 14. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Display items Present large amount of data quickly and efficiently Usually the first thing readers will look at Figures, graphs & tables Keep it simple: use separate panels if necessary Must be able to stand alone: clear labels and figure legends
  15. 15. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Figures Clear figure legend Kindlin-2 knockdown and focal adhesion localization. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy with anti-β1 integrin and anti-paxillin on C2C12 cells transfected with RNAi and then changed to differentiation media for 2 days. Control cells show linear staining consistent with localization to costameres (arrows), as well as punctate focal contact staining (arrowheads). Focal contact proteins in the kindlin-2 RNAi cells fail to form linear structures and instead are concentrated in unusual appearing puncta (*). (Scale bar = 20 μM). Title of the experiment Brief methodology Key findings Clear indicators Dowling et al. (2008) BMC Cell Biol 9:36.
  16. 16. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Table formatting Clear and concise table caption Data aligned and formatted Abbreviations defined Muñoz et al. New Engl J Med. 2003;348:518−527.
  17. 17. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Graphs 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 ng/ml 35 15 Drug A 15 10 10 5 Drug B 5 0 0 1h 2h 3h 4h 5h 6h 0 0 1h 2h 3h  Use high contrasting colors  Clearly label axes  Clear legends 4h 5h 6h
  18. 18. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Graphs 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1h Drug B 2h 3h 4h Drug A 5h 6h NEVER use 3-D graphs for 2-D data
  19. 19. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Graph types Bar graphs Compares a single variable among groups Line graphs Shows a series of data over time, shows trends Scatter plots Shows correlation between variables Box plots Compare distribution of data among groups
  20. 20. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Bar graphs CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis Statistical significance Measured variable Groups Figure 7 Adoptive transfer of B6 but not Cxcr5-/- CD4+ T cells rescues T cell localization and protection in Cxcr5-/-Mtb-infected mice... (B) The average size of B cell lymphoid follicles in FFPE lung sections on day 50 using the morphometric tool of the Zeiss Axioplan microscope… *** P = 0.0005. Slight et al. J Clin Invest. 2013;doi:10.1172/JCI65728.
  21. 21. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Error bars CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis Error bars may represent standard deviation (SD) or the standard error of the mean (SEM). SD = variability in the data SEM = accuracy of the estimated mean Figure 7 Adoptive transfer of B6 but not Cxcr5-/- CD4+ T cells rescues T cell localization and protection in Cxcr5-/-Mtb-infected mice... The data points represent the mean (SD) of values from 4–6 mice. SEM = SD/√sample size SEM is always smaller than the SD Slight et al. J Clin Invest. 2013;doi:10.1172/JCI65728.
  22. 22. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Line graphs – Trends Groups Measured variable Time Figure 2 Improvement of B-cell function by Stem Cell Educator therapy. (A) Fasting C-peptide levels of T1D participants over 24 weeks… Zhao et al. BMC Med. 2012;10:3.
  23. 23. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Scatter plots – Correlation r = correlation coefficient R2 = coefficient of determination Variable 1 Trend line Variable 2 Figure 3 Expression of query and non-query genes in uniform and disturbed flow pattern regions of rat aorta... (d) Correlation between ZFP36 and TNF mRNA expression (n = 26)… Maleki et al. J Mol Med. 2013;91:129−139.
  24. 24. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Box plots – Distributions Maximum 75% Median 25% Minimum Figure 2 Dual luciferase reporter assays. The ratios of Firefly luciferase activity (signal S) to Renilla luciferase (control C) are displayed using box and whisker plots… Hijikata et al. Hum Genetics. 2012;131:675−682.
  25. 25. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Discussion Summary of findings Relevance of findings Implications for the field
  26. 26. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Discussion – flow of information GPER is an E2 binding, G-protein coupled membrane receptor that was reported to be overexpressed in breast endometrial, ovarian and thyroid cancers. The results presented here extend these observations to show that different types of lung cancers including adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinomas express higher GPER than normal lung tissue. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that GPER is overexpressed in lung tumors and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines relative to normal lung and immortalized normal lung cell lines, although the expression of GPER transcript in HPL1D cells is higher than HBECs. GPER has been postulated to be involved in E2-activation of EGFR. Filardo’s group showed a link between GPER expression and tumor progression and increased tumor size in breast cancer patients. Recently, GPER overexpression was reported to be independent of ERα expression in breast cancer patient samples, indicating the importance of GPER in ERα negative tumors. GPER and EGFR expression were correlated in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Further, overexpression of GPER in advanced stage endometrial adenocarcinoma correlated with poor survival. Other studies also suggest increased GPER in breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers correlates with disease severity and reduced survival. These results are in agreement with studies demonstrating association of GPER overexpression in other cancers, although the scoring patterns and correlation of expression levels to disease state may vary among these studies. A limitation of our study is that the average GPER staining scores among different lung cancer grades (I (10 cases), II (30 cases), III (16 cases)) were not significantly different. One other limitation of the current study is that we cannot conclude at this time whether GPER overexpression is cause or consequence of cancer. It is also possible that overexpression of GPER in lung cancers may reflect a defense mechanism to counteract excessive proliferation. Indeed, a recent report by Krakstad et al. showed that loss of GPER in ERα-positive endometrial cancers is associated with poor prognosis. Another study showed that the GPER agonist G-1 inhibited E2-induced uterine epithelial cell proliferation in mice by repressing MAPK activation, indicating that GPER effects are tissue specific. Because our studies were performed on commercial TMAs, the results cannot be extrapolated to correlate GPER expression levels to disease outcomes. Clearly, this is a next logical step in light of the novel findings. We observed no differences in GPER expression between adenocarcinoma cell lines or tumors from male and female patients, similar to the previous findings of no difference in ERα or ERβ expression in NSCLC cells and tumors based on gender. In Western blots, rather than rely on one GPER antibody in our study, we used 3 different commercial antibodies to determine the correlation between mRNA and protein levels. It is indeed evident from our Western blot data that GPER appears to have different MW forms, likely due to glycosylation, dimerization, and interaction with other membrane proteins, and levels in the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. More trivial explanations for the different staining patterns of GPER in Western blots may be due to differential purity/affinity of the three GPER antibodies as well as their capacity to bind to secondary antibodies. It will be important to determine the nature of these forms by proteomic analysis and gene sequencing to evaluate their biological significance. Mechanism-based studies showed that GPER transactivates EGFR in breast cancer cells as well as in thyroid, endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase (gefitinib) and ER (fulvestrant, ICI 182,780) were reported to synergize their anti-proliferative effects in NSCLC . Given the importance of EGFR signaling as a therapeutic target in lung cancer, further examination of the effect of EGF, heregulin, and amphiregulin on GPER expression and function in lung cancer may provide new insights into resistance to EGFR inhibitors and or how estrogens stimulate lung cancer. In conclusion, the data presented in this manuscript demonstrate that GPER expression is higher in lung tumors compared to normal lung tissue. While it is not yet clear that elevated GPER expression is a cause of or consequence from lung cancer progression. Functional analysis of the effect of GPER expression will facilitate further delineation of the role of GPER in lung cancer. Summary Major conclusion Relevance Previous studies Limitations Unexpected results Conclusions Major conclusion Implications Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012;12:624.
  27. 27. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Discussion – flow of information Beginning should state the major conclusion of the study Re-introduction GPER is an E2 binding, G-protein coupled membrane receptor that was reported to be overexpressed in breast, endometrial, ovarian and thyroid cancers. The results presented here extend these observations to show that different types of lung cancers including adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell Conclusion carcinomas express higher GPER than normal lung tissue. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that GPER is overexpressed in lung tumors and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines relative to normal lung and immortalized normal lung cell lines, although the expression of GPER transcript in HPL1D cells is higher than HBECs. Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012;12:624.
  28. 28. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Discussion – flow of information End should summarize your conclusion and clearly state the implications Re-state conclusion Implications In conclusion, the data presented in this manuscript demonstrate that GPER expression is higher in lung tumors compared to normal lung tissue. While it is not yet clear that elevated GPER expression is a cause of or consequence from lung cancer progression. Functional analysis of the effect of GPER expression will facilitate further delineation of the role of GPER in lung cancer. Future directions Rao Jala et al. BMC Cancer 2012;12:624.
  29. 29. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Linking your ideas General background Introduction Current state of the field Problems in the field Objectives Methods Results Methodology Results and figures Summary of findings Discussion Relevance of findings Implications for the field Logically link your ideas throughout your manuscript
  30. 30. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Linking your ideas Introduction New ways to treat or prevent lung cancer are therefore needed. Problem This study explored the hypothesis that inhibition of TNKS…would inhibit lung cancer growth… Objectives Discussion Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of TNKS1 and TNKS2…reduces lung cancer proliferation... Conclusion Busch et al. BMC Cancer. 2012;13:211.
  31. 31. Who’s hungry? First impressions are important!
  32. 32. Section 2 Titles and abstracts
  33. 33. Case Reports Effective titles Important points Avoid Summarize key finding Contains keywords Less than 20 words Questions Abbreviations “New” or “novel” Your title should be a concise summary of your most important finding
  34. 34. Case Reports Abstracts Relevance of your aims Importance of your results Validity of your conclusions First impression of your paper Judge your writing style Probably only part that will be read
  35. 35. Case Reports Sections of an abstract Concise summary of your research Background Why the study was done (20%) Aims Your hypothesis (10%) Methods Techniques (10%) Results Most important findings (40%) Conclusion Conclusion/implications (20%)
  36. 36. Case Reports Unstructured abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  37. 37. Case Reports Unstructured abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. Background We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. Methods We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Results Conclusion Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  38. 38. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing your abstract Write the results section first  Key findings that directly support your aims  Will be interesting to the readers We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  39. 39. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing your abstract Write the background section second  Explain why this study needed to be done Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. Problem Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  40. 40. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing your abstract Write the methods section third  General techniques used to obtain the presented results We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  41. 41. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Writing your abstract Write the conclusion section last  Major conclusion that answers the problem  Implications for the readers However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. Conclusion Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Implications Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  42. 42. Case Reports Writing your abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  43. 43. Case Reports Writing your abstract Our understanding of the mechanisms by which ducts and lobules develop is derived from model organisms and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models wherein mammalian epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form multicellular spheres with a hollow central lumen. However, the mechanophysical properties associated with epithelial morphogenesis are poorly understood. We performed multidimensional live-cell imaging analysis to track the morphogenetic process starting from a single cell to the development of a multicellular, spherical structure composed of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a hollow lumen. We report that in addition to actively maintaining apicobasal polarity, the structures underwent rotational motions at rates of 15–20 μm/h and the structures rotated 360° every 4 h during the early phase of morphogenesis. Rotational motion was independent of the cell cycle, but was blocked by loss of the epithelial polarity proteins Scribble or Pard3, or by inhibition of dynein-based microtubule motors. Interestingly, none of the structures derived from human cancer underwent rotational motion. We found a direct relationship between rotational motion and assembly of endogenous basement membrane matrix around the 3D structures, and that structures that failed to rotate were defective in weaving exogenous laminin matrix. Dissolution of basement membrane around mature, nonrotating acini restored rotational movement and the ability to assemble exogenous laminin. Thus, coordinated rotational movement is a unique mechanophysical process observed during normal 3D morphogenesis that regulates laminin matrix assembly and is lost in cancer-derived epithelial cells. Background Methods Results Conclusions Wang et al. PNAS. 2013; 110: 163‒168.
  44. 44. Manuscript structure exercises Which is a better way to begin the first paragraph of an Introduction? Online social networks are rapidly changing the way human beings interact. Over a billion people belong to Facebook, the world's largest online social network, and over half of them log in daily. Yet, no research has examined how interacting with Facebook influences subjective well-being over time. Subjective well-being is often studied in the behavioral sciences. Many experiences can change a person’s subjective well-being, including social online networks like Facebook. Currently, however, there are no studies that have examined how Facebook may influence subjective well-being over time.
  45. 45. Manuscript structure exercises Which is a better way to begin the first paragraph of an Introduction? Online social networks are rapidly changing the way human beings interact. Over a billion people belong to Facebook, the world's largest online social network, and over half of them log in daily. Yet, no research has examined how interacting with Facebook influences subjective well-being over time.  Establishes the relevance of studying social networks  Emphasizes how many people use Facebook  Emphasizes how frequently people use Facebook
  46. 46. Manuscript structure exercises Which is a better way to begin the first paragraph of an Introduction? Subjective well-being is often studied in the behavioral sciences. Many experiences can change a person’s subjective well-being, including social online networks like Facebook. Currently, however, there are no studies that have examined how Facebook may influence subjective well-being over time. Subjective well-being not defined, why important? Facebook is only one factor of many, why important? Relationship between well-being and Facebook unclear
  47. 47. Manuscript structure exercises Which is a better way to begin the first paragraph of a Discussion? The results presented here suggest that Facebook may be a unique form of social network interaction. Previous research has shown that people use online networks when they are worried or sad, which were not predictors of Facebook use. The perception of isolation has been shown to be a strong determinant of Internet activity. Therefore it is likely that different online activities may be related to distinct moods. Within a relatively short timespan, Facebook has revolutionized the way people interact. Yet, whether using Facebook predicts changes in subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue by performing lagged analyses on experience sampled data. These analyses indicated that Facebook use predicts declines in the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment to moment and how satisfied they are with their lives.
  48. 48. Manuscript structure exercises Which is a better way to begin the first paragraph of a Discussion? The results presented here suggest that Facebook may be a unique form of social network interaction. Previous research has shown that people use online networks when they are worried or sad, which were not predictors of Facebook use. The perception of isolation has been shown to be a strong determinant of Internet activity. Therefore it is likely that different online activities may be related to distinct moods. Conclusion or key findings not described Discusses results from other studies first
  49. 49. Manuscript structure exercises Which is a better way to begin the first paragraph of a Discussion? Within a relatively short timespan, Facebook has revolutionized the way people interact. Yet, whether using Facebook predicts changes in subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue by performing lagged analyses on experience sampled data. These analyses indicated that Facebook use predicts declines in the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment to moment and how satisfied they are with their lives.  Re-introduces relevance of the topic  Re-introduces problem in the field  Summarizes main conclusion
  50. 50. Abstract exercise Activity : Your colleague has written an abstract and has asked you to review it for them. How would you recommend improving this abstract?
  51. 51. Abstract exercise How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquakeexperienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
  52. 52. Abstract exercise How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquakeexperienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food Unnecessary information consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
  53. 53. Abstract exercise How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquakeexperienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food Unnecessary information consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
  54. 54. Abstract exercise How is this related to mice? A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011. In the present study, the effects of this earthquake on laboratory mice behavior were investigated. “Earthquakeexperienced” mice displayed a marked increase in food Unnecessary information consumption without gaining body weight. The food was purchased from a company based in New Zealand. The mice also displayed enhanced anxiety. How was this measured? Maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed quicker acquisition of the task compared with that of earthquake-naive mice. Stress hormone levels, which were measured three times, were elevated compared with the naive mice. This indicated that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. No conclusions
  55. 55. Any questions? Thank you! Jeffrey Robens: jrobens@edanzgroup.com edanzediting.co.jp/kyushu_201401 Download and further reading @JournalAdvisor Follow us on Twitter facebook.com/JournalAdvisor Like us on Facebook

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