How to Write For and
Publish in Academic Journals
!
Amanda!Hindle!
Senior!Editor!
Edanz!Group!
28!October!2013!
Today’s presentation …
"
! "Quali(es"of"a"well.wri0en"ar(cle"
! "Logical"flow"of"informa(on"
c"
! "Increasing"readability"
...
Section 1

Essen%al(quali%es(of(a((
well/wri1en(ar%cle(
Writing a manuscript –
4 common myths
My(manuscript(is(a(wri1en(record(of(my(findings(
My(findings(speak(for(themselves,(eve...
Writing a manuscript –
4 common myths
Your(manuscript(is(to(communicate(your(findings(
My(manuscript(is(a(wri1en(record(of(...
Qualities of a
well-written article
Relevant!topic!

Hypothesis!addresses!important!
knowledge!gap!in!the!field!

Significan...
Section 2

Logical(flow(of(
informa%on(
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Manuscript flow

Introduc%on(

Methods(
Results(

Discussion(

General"...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Introduction
General!introducEon!
Current!state!of!the!
field!

Knowledg...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Introduction

Wong"and"Lam."Asian"Journal"of"Gambling"Issues"and"Public...
Why!is!this!study!interesEng?!
What!has!been!studied!
previously?!
What!are!the!gaps!in!the!
knowledge?!

What!are!your!aims?!
How!are!you!going!to!
answer!them?!
Building"context"

Literature reviews

Why(conduct(one?(
! Provides"background"on"the"current"state"of"
knowledge"on"a"sub...
Building"context"

Literature reviews

Comprehensive"
essay"

Argument"in"favor"
of"your"research"

Literature"Review"

Co...
Building"context"

Before starting

! Assess"primary"research"ques(on""
! Suppor(ng"informa(on""
! Measurable"variables?"
...
Building"context"

"

Organizing your review

Organize"ar(cles"into"groups
Priori(ze"cita(ons

"
"

Develop"an"outline

Co...
Building"context"

Building context

What"were"the"earlier"studies?
How"did"this"lead"to"more"recent"studies?
How"is"your"...
Building"context"

Literature reviews
Building"context"

Literature reviews

What"were"the"earlier"studies?"
Building"context"

Literature reviews

What"were"the"earlier"studies?"

How"did"this"lead"to"more"recent"studies?"
Building"context"

Literature reviews

How"is"your"study"different?
Building"context"

Literature reviews

What"is"your"hypothesis?
Building"context"

Using footnotes &
endnotes

! "Essen(al"informa(on"or"supplementary?"
"
Footnote"

Bo0om"of"page"

Endn...
Building"context"

Using footnotes &
endnotes

Footnotes"

Endnotes"

Easy"reference"

Less"distrac(ng"

More"integrated"
...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Methods

What!sources!were!used?!

Timing!of!analysis?!

What!analyses!...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Methods
Appropriate"sta(s(cal"
tests"
Level"of"significance"

Data"anony...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Results
What"did"you"find?"
Appropriate"comparisons?"
Results"sta(s(call...
Customer"Service"
Using"direct"
quotes"

Why use direct quotes?

!  Support"claims"

Samuelson"et"al."Lang"Policy"2010;"9:...
Customer"Service"
Using"direct"
quotes"

Why use direct quotes?

!  Support"claims"
!  Illustrate"ideas"

Anjum"et"al."
Co...
Customer"Service"
Using"direct"
quotes"

Why use direct quotes?
Jacobs"et"al."Cult"Med"Psychiatry"2011;"35:3.25."

!  Supp...
Customer"Service"
Using"direct"
quotes"

Why use direct quotes?

!  Support"claims"
!  Illustrate"ideas"
!  Show"experienc...
Customer"Service"
Using"direct"
quotes"

Incorporating quotes
Avoid"excess"text"

General(rules(

Indent"or"use"italics"
I...
Customer"Service"
Using"direct"
quotes"

Benefits to the reader

!  Using"quotes"allows"the"reader"to:"
"
Examine"data"col...
Publisher""
Using"
subheadings"
Adapta(ons"

Using subheadings

!  Important"to"structure"and"readability"
Be"descrip(ve"
...
Publisher""
Using"
subheadings"
Adapta(ons"

Create consistency

!  Organize"your"ideas"consistently"and"link"
them"to"the...
Publisher""
Using"
subheadings"
Adapta(ons"

Create consistency

Our"objec(ve"is"to"demonstrate"indigenous"
human" ecologi...
Publisher""
Using"
subheadings"
Adapta(ons"

Logical organization

!  Help"organize"informa(on"logically"

"
Publisher""
Using"
subheadings"
Adapta(ons"

Logical organization

Abstract" Recent" research" has" shown" that" rapid"
ju...
Publisher""
Using"
subheadings"
Adapta(ons"

"

Logical organization

Abstract" Recent" research" has" shown" that" rapid"...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Discussion
Summary"of"findings"

Relevance"of"
findings"

Implica(ons"for...
Coverage"and"
Manuscript"
Staffing"Plan"
structure"

Discussion

! Avoid"just"resta(ng"results"
! Answer"the"research"ques(o...
LimitaEons!
FollowSon!studies!
Appropriate!conclusion?!

Addressed!your!aims?!
ImplicaEons!
Lewis"et"al."PNAS!2012;109:68–...
Section 3

Abstracts(
Publisher""
Abstracts"
Adapta(ons"

Who’s hungry?

First(impressions(are(
important!(
Publisher""
Abstracts"
Adapta(ons"

Important points

Relevance"of""
your"aims"

Importance"of"
your"results"

Validity"of...
Publisher""
Abstracts"
Adapta(ons"

General guide

Background!

Why"the"study"was"done"(20%)"

Aims!

Your"hypothesis"(10%...
Publisher""
Abstracts"
Adapta(ons"

Unstructured abstract

Social!selecEon!and!peer!influence!in!an!online!social!network!
...
Publisher""
Abstracts"
Adapta(ons"

Unstructured abstract

Disentangling"the"effects"of"selec(on"and"influence"is"one"of"soc...
Publisher""
Abstracts"
Adapta(ons"

Things to avoid

References"

Abbrevia(ons"

Do!not!
include…!
Jargon/slang"

Numbers"...
Publish"Faster"

Help your readers
understand

If"you"can’t"explain"something"simply,"you"
don’t"understand"it"well. "
" "...
Publish"Faster"

Online resources

!  Springer"Author"Academy"
h0p://www.springer.com/authors/journal
+authors/journal+aut...
Thank you!
!
e.weibo.com/liwenbianji"

blog.sciencenet.cn/u/liwenbianji"
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How to Write For and Publish in Academic Journals by Edanz Senior Editor Amanda Hindle

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20131028 Edanz Xi'an

  1. 1. How to Write For and Publish in Academic Journals ! Amanda!Hindle! Senior!Editor! Edanz!Group! 28!October!2013!
  2. 2. Today’s presentation … " ! "Quali(es"of"a"well.wri0en"ar(cle" ! "Logical"flow"of"informa(on" c" ! "Increasing"readability" ! "Wri(ng"abstracts"
  3. 3. Section 1 Essen%al(quali%es(of(a(( well/wri1en(ar%cle(
  4. 4. Writing a manuscript – 4 common myths My(manuscript(is(a(wri1en(record(of(my(findings( My(findings(speak(for(themselves,(even(if(the( manuscript(is(wri1en(poorly( S" Complex(words(makes(my(wri%ng(more(impressive( Good(English(means(only(grammar(and(spelling(
  5. 5. Writing a manuscript – 4 common myths Your(manuscript(is(to(communicate(your(findings( My(manuscript(is(a(wri1en(record(of(my(findings( You(need(a(well/wri1en(manuscript(to(effec%vely( My(findings(speak(for(themselves,(even(if(the( manuscript(is(wri1en(poorly( communicate(your(findings( S" Complex(words(makes(your(wri%ng(( Complex(words(makes(my(wri%ng(more(impressive( more(difficult(to(understand( Good(English(means(clear(English( Good(English(means(only(grammar(and(spelling( with(high(readability(
  6. 6. Qualities of a well-written article Relevant!topic! Hypothesis!addresses!important! knowledge!gap!in!the!field! Significant!results! Findings!strongly!support! hypothesis! S" Logical!flow!of! informaEon! Ideas!clearly!presented!in! logical!manner! High!readability! Clearly!wriLen!English!
  7. 7. Section 2 Logical(flow(of( informa%on(
  8. 8. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Manuscript flow Introduc%on( Methods( Results( Discussion( General" background"to" specific"aims" Specific"findings" Summary"of" findings"to"general" implica(ons"
  9. 9. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Introduction General!introducEon! Current!state!of!the! field! Knowledge!gap! Aims" Specific!aims! "
  10. 10. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Introduction Wong"and"Lam."Asian"Journal"of"Gambling"Issues"and"Public"Health"2013;"3:7"
  11. 11. Why!is!this!study!interesEng?!
  12. 12. What!has!been!studied! previously?!
  13. 13. What!are!the!gaps!in!the! knowledge?! What!are!your!aims?!
  14. 14. How!are!you!going!to! answer!them?!
  15. 15. Building"context" Literature reviews Why(conduct(one?( ! Provides"background"on"the"current"state"of" knowledge"on"a"subject" ! Cri(cal"analysis"of"exis(ng"research" ! Gives"your"research"context" ! Iden(fies"areas"for"future"study" "
  16. 16. Building"context" Literature reviews Comprehensive" essay" Argument"in"favor" of"your"research" Literature"Review" Complete"annotated" bibliography"
  17. 17. Building"context" Before starting ! Assess"primary"research"ques(on"" ! Suppor(ng"informa(on"" ! Measurable"variables?" ! Iden(fy"relevant"sources,"experts,"databases" "
  18. 18. Building"context" " Organizing your review Organize"ar(cles"into"groups Priori(ze"cita(ons " " Develop"an"outline Combine"sources"and" develop"discussion
  19. 19. Building"context" Building context What"were"the"earlier"studies? How"did"this"lead"to"more"recent"studies? How"is"your"manuscript"different? What"is"your"hypothesis? "
  20. 20. Building"context" Literature reviews
  21. 21. Building"context" Literature reviews What"were"the"earlier"studies?"
  22. 22. Building"context" Literature reviews What"were"the"earlier"studies?" How"did"this"lead"to"more"recent"studies?"
  23. 23. Building"context" Literature reviews How"is"your"study"different?
  24. 24. Building"context" Literature reviews What"is"your"hypothesis?
  25. 25. Building"context" Using footnotes & endnotes ! "Essen(al"informa(on"or"supplementary?" " Footnote" Bo0om"of"page" Endnote" End"of"manuscript" "
  26. 26. Building"context" Using footnotes & endnotes Footnotes" Endnotes" Easy"reference" Less"distrac(ng" More"integrated" Allow"narra(ve"flow" Sources"immediate" All"sources"at"the"end" Take"up"page"space" Don’t"clu0er"page"
  27. 27. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Methods What!sources!were!used?! Timing!of!analysis?! What!analyses!were! conducted!on!what!samples?! Details!! Grenier"G,"Xue"L."Int"Migra(on"&"Integra(on"2011;"12:275.303."
  28. 28. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Methods Appropriate"sta(s(cal" tests" Level"of"significance" Data"anonymized" Kristjanson"P"et"al."Food"Security"2012;"4:381.397."
  29. 29. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Results What"did"you"find?" Appropriate"comparisons?" Results"sta(s(cally"significant?" Data"duplicated"among"figures,"tables" and"text?" "
  30. 30. Customer"Service" Using"direct" quotes" Why use direct quotes? !  Support"claims" Samuelson"et"al."Lang"Policy"2010;"9:191.215."
  31. 31. Customer"Service" Using"direct" quotes" Why use direct quotes? !  Support"claims" !  Illustrate"ideas" Anjum"et"al." Conflict"and" Health"2012;"6:1."
  32. 32. Customer"Service" Using"direct" quotes" Why use direct quotes? Jacobs"et"al."Cult"Med"Psychiatry"2011;"35:3.25." !  Support"claims" !  Illustrate"ideas" !  Show"experience"
  33. 33. Customer"Service" Using"direct" quotes" Why use direct quotes? !  Support"claims" !  Illustrate"ideas" !  Show"experience" !  Draw"emo(on"or"response"from"your" reader" Abdullah"et"al."BMC"Interna(onal"Health"and"Human"Rights"2012;"12:32."
  34. 34. Customer"Service" Using"direct" quotes" Incorporating quotes Avoid"excess"text" General(rules( Indent"or"use"italics" Integrate"quote"into" text"
  35. 35. Customer"Service" Using"direct" quotes" Benefits to the reader !  Using"quotes"allows"the"reader"to:" " Examine"data"collected"directly" Understand"the"findings" Evaluate"the"credibility"of"the" claims"
  36. 36. Publisher"" Using" subheadings" Adapta(ons" Using subheadings !  Important"to"structure"and"readability" Be"descrip(ve" Separate"ideas" General(rules( Create"logical" flow" Link"to"study" aims" "
  37. 37. Publisher"" Using" subheadings" Adapta(ons" Create consistency !  Organize"your"ideas"consistently"and"link" them"to"the"aims"of"your"study" Our" objec(ve" is" to" demonstrate" indigenous" human" ecological" knowledge" related" to" medicinal" plants." Ajer" describing" the" research" approach," we" examine" indigenous" knowledge" of" plant" diversity," plant" use" categories"with"respect"to"health"sovereignty,"the"no(on" that"food"is"medicine,"seasonal"availability"and"storage"of" plants," and" conclude" with" sugges(ons" for" further" research" on" medicinal" plants" in" the" Pamir" Mountains" of" Afghanistan"and"Tajikistan." Kassam"et"al."Hum"Ecol" 2010;"38:817.829."
  38. 38. Publisher"" Using" subheadings" Adapta(ons" Create consistency Our"objec(ve"is"to"demonstrate"indigenous" human" ecological" knowledge" related" to" medicinal" plants." Ajer" describing" the" research"approach,"we"examine"indigenous" knowledge" of" plant" diversity," plant" use" categories" with" respect" to" health" sovereignty," the" no(on" that" food" is" medicine," seasonal" availability" and" storage" of"plants,"and"conclude"with"sugges(ons"for" further"research"on"medicinal"plants"in"the" Pamir" Mountains" of" Afghanistan" and" Tajikistan." Methods" Results" Conclusion" Kassam"et"al."Hum"Ecol" 2010;"38:817.829."
  39. 39. Publisher"" Using" subheadings" Adapta(ons" Logical organization !  Help"organize"informa(on"logically" "
  40. 40. Publisher"" Using" subheadings" Adapta(ons" Logical organization Abstract" Recent" research" has" shown" that" rapid" judgments"about"the"personality"traits"of"poli(cal" candidates,"based"solely"on"their"appearance,"can" predict" their" electoral" success." This" suggests" that" voters"rely"heavily"on"appearances"when"choosing" which" candidate" to" elect." Here" we" review" this" literature" and" examine" the" determinants" of" the" rela(onship" between" appearance.based" trait" inferences"and"vo(ng."We"also"reanalyze"previous" data" to" show" that" facial" competence" is" a" highly" robust" and" specific" predictor" of" poli(cal" preferences." Finally," we" introduce" a" computer" model" of" face.based" competence" judgments," which"we"use"to"derive"some"of"the"facial"features" associated"with"these"judgments."" " Introduc(on" Trait"Inferences"from"Appearance" Trait"Inferences"in"the"Poli(cal" Domain! The"Predic(ve"Power"of"Facial" Competence"Judgments" Facial"Determinants"of"Competence" Inferences" Appearance"Effects"in"the"Real" World"
  41. 41. Publisher"" Using" subheadings" Adapta(ons" " Logical organization Abstract" Recent" research" has" shown" that" rapid" judgments"about"the"personality"traits"of"poli(cal" candidates,"based"solely"on"their"appearance,"can" predict" their" electoral" success." This" suggests" that" voters"rely"heavily"on"appearances"when"choosing" which" candidate" to" elect." Here" we" review" this" literature" and" examine" the" determinants" of" the" rela(onship" between" appearance.based" trait" inferences"and"vo(ng."We"also"reanalyze"previous" data" to" show" that" facial" competence" is" a" highly" robust" and" specific" predictor" of" poli(cal" preferences." Finally," we" introduce" a" computer" model" of" face.based" competence" judgments," which"we"use"to"derive"some"of"the"facial"features" associated"with"these"judgments."" Introduc(on" Trait"Inferences"from"Appearance" Trait"Inferences"in"the"Poli(cal" Domain! Inferences"of" Competence"and" Elec(on"Outcomes" Replica(ons"and" Extensions" The"Predic(ve"Power"of"Facial" Competence"Judgments"
  42. 42. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Discussion Summary"of"findings" Relevance"of" findings" Implica(ons"for"" the"field" "
  43. 43. Coverage"and" Manuscript" Staffing"Plan" structure" Discussion ! Avoid"just"resta(ng"results" ! Answer"the"research"ques(on(s)"posed" ! Emphasize"the"major"finding(s)"first" ! State"your"major"conclusion" ! Based"on"results"presented" "
  44. 44. LimitaEons! FollowSon!studies! Appropriate!conclusion?! Addressed!your!aims?! ImplicaEons! Lewis"et"al."PNAS!2012;109:68–72."
  45. 45. Section 3 Abstracts(
  46. 46. Publisher"" Abstracts" Adapta(ons" Who’s hungry? First(impressions(are( important!(
  47. 47. Publisher"" Abstracts" Adapta(ons" Important points Relevance"of"" your"aims" Importance"of" your"results" Validity"of" your" conclusions" First!impression! of!your!paper! Judge"your" wri(ng"style" Probably"only"part" that"will"be"read" "
  48. 48. Publisher"" Abstracts" Adapta(ons" General guide Background! Why"the"study"was"done"(20%)" Aims! Your"hypothesis"(10%)" Methods! Techniques"or"analysis"(10%)" Results! Most"important"findings"(40%)" Conclusion! Conclusion"&"implica(ons"(20%)"
  49. 49. Publisher"" Abstracts" Adapta(ons" Unstructured abstract Social!selecEon!and!peer!influence!in!an!online!social!network! Disentangling" the" effects" of" selec(on" and" influence" is" one" of" social" science’s" greatest"unsolved"puzzles:"Do"people"befriend"others"who"are"similar"to"them,"or" do" they" become" more" similar" to" their" friends" over" (me?" Recent" advances" in" stochas(c" actor.based" modeling," combined" with" self.reported" data" on" a" popular" online"social"network"site,"allow"us"to"address"this"ques(on"with"a"greater"degree" of" precision" than" has" heretofore" been" possible." Using" data" on" the" Facebook" ac(vity" of" a" cohort" of" college" students" over" 4" years," we" find" that" students" who" share"certain"tastes"in"music"and"in"movies,"but"not"in"books,"are"significantly"likely" to" befriend" one" another." Meanwhile," we" find" li0le" evidence" for" the" diffusion" of" tastes" among" Facebook" friends—except" for" tastes" in" classical/jazz" music." These" findings" shed" light" on" the" mechanisms" responsible" for" observed" network" homogeneity;" provide" a" sta(s(cally" rigorous" assessment" of" the" coevolu(on" of" cultural"tastes"and"social"rela(onships;"and"suggest"important"qualifica(ons"to"our" understanding"of"both"homophily"and"contagion"as"generic"social"processes." Lewis"et"al."PNAS!2012;109:68–72."
  50. 50. Publisher"" Abstracts" Adapta(ons" Unstructured abstract Disentangling"the"effects"of"selec(on"and"influence"is"one"of"social"science’s" greatest"unsolved"puzzles:"Do"people"befriend"others"who"are"similar"to"them," or"do"they"become"more"similar"to"their"friends"over"(me?"Recent"advances"in" stochas(c"actor.based"modeling,"combined"with"self.reported"data"on"a"popular" online"social"network"site,"allow"us"to"address"this"ques(on"with"a"greater" degree"of"precision"than"has"heretofore"been"possible."" Background! Aims! Using"data"on"the"Facebook"ac(vity"of"a"cohort"of"college"students"over"4"years,"" Techniques! we"find"that"students"who"share"certain"tastes"in"music"and"in"movies,"but"not" in"books,"are"significantly"likely"to"befriend"one"another."Meanwhile,"we"find" li0le"evidence"for"the"diffusion"of"tastes"among"Facebook"friends—except"for" tastes"in"classical/jazz"music."" Important! results! These"findings"shed"light"on"the"mechanisms"responsible"for"observed"network" homogeneity;"provide"a"sta(s(cally"rigorous"assessment"of"the"coevolu(on"of" cultural"tastes"and"social"rela(onships;"and"suggest"important"qualifica(ons"to" our"understanding"of"both"homophily"and"contagion"as"generic"social"processes." Conclusion!
  51. 51. Publisher"" Abstracts" Adapta(ons" Things to avoid References" Abbrevia(ons" Do!not! include…! Jargon/slang" Numbers"&" sta(s(cs"
  52. 52. Publish"Faster" Help your readers understand If"you"can’t"explain"something"simply,"you" don’t"understand"it"well. " " " " "."Albert"Einstein" " " " ! Express"complex"ideas"simply( "
  53. 53. Publish"Faster" Online resources !  Springer"Author"Academy" h0p://www.springer.com/authors/journal +authors/journal+authors+academy? SGWID=0.1726414.0.0.0" " !  Purdue"Online"Wri(ng"Lab" h0p://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/" " !  Social"Science"Research"Network" h0p://www.ssrn.com/"
  54. 54. Thank you! ! e.weibo.com/liwenbianji" blog.sciencenet.cn/u/liwenbianji"
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