130515-MidEast-GettingResearchPublished
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130515-MidEast-GettingResearchPublished 130515-MidEast-GettingResearchPublished Presentation Transcript

  • Warren Raye, PhDSenior EditorEdanz GroupAuthor Academy—getting yourresearch published‫أ‬‫رش‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫ات‬‫لكيفية‬‫نشر‬‫م‬‫قالتك‬
  • Customer ServiceIntroductionAbout me …Senior Editor
  • Customer ServiceIntroductionToday’s presentation• Academic publishing• Before you start …• Manuscript structure• Reader expectations• Peer review
  • Academic publishingAdopt a winning strategyPublication recordWin gamesFootballer ResearcherPreparationCommunicationKnowledgeTacticsPhysical fitnessTeam membersRules of the gameOppositionUnderstandingManuscriptSubmission processPublished literatureResults
  • Academic publishing You must publish inEnglish• The international language of research• Other researchers want to hear from you!• Become a more effective communicator• Funding• International reputation• Career advancement‫ان‬‫االنكليزية‬‫ھي‬‫لغة‬‫العلم‬‫الدولية‬‫يكون‬‫بحثك‬ً‫ال‬‫مكتم‬‫عندما‬‫يكون‬‫قد‬‫تم‬‫نشره‬
  • Academic publishingResults novel?Topic relevant?The processAccepted—publication!EditorManuscript +cover letterPeer reviewRevisionRejectNew experimentsImprove readabilityAdd information
  • Academic publishing• 3–12 months …• Depends on– Manuscript type– Availability of peer reviewers– Fast tracking– Number of revisions• How well you address reviewer commentsPublishing timeline
  • Academic publishingWhat dojournal editors want?What dojournal editors want?High quality researchGood designWell executedHigh quality researchGood designWell executedOriginal and novelOriginal and novelInteresting tojournal’s readershipInteresting tojournal’s readershipClear and conciseEnglishClear and conciseEnglishAsk yourself
  • Academic publishingWhat dojournal editors want?What dojournal editors want?High quality researchGood designWell executedHigh quality researchGood designWell executedOriginal and novelOriginal and novelInteresting tojournal’s readershipInteresting tojournal’s readershipClear and conciseEnglishClear and conciseEnglishAsk yourself‫إن‬‫محرري‬‫الدوريات‬‫يريدون‬ً‫ا‬‫دائم‬‫مادة‬‫علمية‬‫قيمة‬
  • Academic publishingPublication ethics• Multiple submissions• Plagiarism• Author list– Who?– First & last authors– Corresponding author• Data fabrication andfalsification• Conflicts of interest– Financial– Personal– Intellectualْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫يتصرف‬ً‫ا‬‫بعيد‬‫عن‬‫آداب‬‫المھنة‬‫سينكشف‬‫أمره‬
  • Before you start … Reading improves yourwritingHow?What to doArgumentstructureStructure & styleGet new ideasJournal qualityWhat not to do‫أن‬‫تكون‬ً‫ا‬‫قارئ‬ً‫ا‬‫جيد‬‫يساعدك‬‫لتكون‬ً‫ا‬‫كاتب‬ً‫ا‬‫جيد‬
  • Before you start …Make time to read• At least …– 20–30 min each day– 60 min, once a week• Discuss with colleagues– Journal clubRead often
  • Before you start …How to read an article• Start to finish?• Section by section?• Where is the relevant information?• Be efficient
  • Before you start …Title and Abstract firstStrategies for reading
  • Before you start …Self-assess knowledge of topicTitle and Abstract firstStrategies for reading
  • Before you start …Self-assess knowledge of topicTitle and Abstract firstStrategies for readingHave you read similar papers?Familiar with the terminology?Do you understand the relevanceof the hypothesis?
  • Before you start …Last paragraph of Introduction for aimsSelf-assess knowledge of topicTitle and Abstract firstStrategies for reading
  • Before you start …Last paragraph of Introduction for aimsFigures & Tables, then ResultsSelf-assess knowledge of topicTitle and Abstract firstStrategies for reading
  • Before you start …Last paragraph of Introduction for aimsFigures & Tables, then ResultsDiscussion for interpretationSelf-assess knowledge of topicTitle and Abstract firstStrategies for reading
  • Before you start …Last paragraph of Introduction for aimsFigures & Tables, then ResultsDiscussion for interpretationSelf-assess knowledge of topicTitle and Abstract firstRefer to Introduction andMethods if necessaryStrategies for reading
  • Before you start …Journal selection
  • Before you start …Factors to consider• Aims & scope• Prestige• Impact factor• Target audience• Open access• Publishing frequency• Indexing status• Publication typeWhich factor is most important to you?What is your publication goal?
  • Before you start …Timing• Choose your target journal:– After you have decided you have enough resultsfor a publication– After a decision has been made on how high toaim—high, medium or low impact– Before writing the Title, Abstract, Introductionor Discussion sections
  • Before you start …New findingsEvaluating significance:novelty• How new are my results compared withthose already published?Medium to highimpactLow to mediumimpactIncrementaladvancesConceptualadvances
  • Before you start … Evaluating significance:relevance• How relevant is my work?Applications for aspecific field?Applications for aspecific field?Applications acrossmany fields?Applications acrossmany fields?
  • Before you start … Evaluating significance:relevance• Are your findings specific to a geographicalregion or ethnic population?Global?Regional?
  • Before you start … Evaluating significance:appeal• Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’?• Examples:– OLEDs– Cloud computing– Food irradiation– Medical devices– Higgs boson– Green aviation– Stem cells– Global warming
  • Before you start …Edanz Journal Selectoredanzediting.com/journal_selectoredanzediting.com/journal_selector
  • Before you start …Insert yourproposedabstractHow to use
  • Before you start …Refine your resultsRecommendedjournalsAdvancedmatching
  • Before you start …Make a decisionSemanticmatching termsJournalinformationSimilarpublishedarticles
  • Before you start …Visit journal websites
  • Manuscript structureYou need to tell a storyBeginning Middle End• Must be easy to read and easy to understand
  • Manuscript structureIMRaD• Introduction• Methods• Results• and• DiscussionAssertionEvidenceAffirmation‫ال‬‫تكتب‬‫مقالك‬‫بنفس‬‫الرتابة‬‫التي‬‫تظھر‬‫بھا‬‫في‬‫المدونة‬
  • Manuscript structureTitleAbstractIntroductionDiscussionMethodsResultsThe ‘write’ order• For maximum clarity and consistency:After selecting target journalDuring your researchWrite last
  • Manuscript structureFirst impressions countYour abstractImportance ofyour resultsValidity ofconclusionsRelevance ofyour aimsJudge yourwriting styleLikely the only partthat will be read‫الم‬‫قدمة‬ ‫ھي‬‫أھم‬‫أجزاء‬‫ورقة‬‫الع‬ a ‫مل‬‫التي‬‫تطرحھا‬
  • Manuscript structureAbstract• Concise– Less than the specified word count• Problem(s) addressed (10%)• Objectives/hypotheses (20%)• Techniques (10%)• Your most important results (40%)• Concluding statement (20%)‫الم‬‫قدمة‬‫يجب‬‫أن‬‫تتوفر‬‫فيھ‬‫ا‬ ‫ال‬‫شروط‬‫ا‬‫لتاليه‬
  • Manuscript structureSample abstractSeo et al. Biomaterials 2012, 34:1764‒1771.Securing robust cell adhesion between cells and biomaterials is one of key considerationsfor tissue engineering. However, the cell adhesion investigation by the biophysical effectssuch as topography or rigidity of substrates has only been recently reported. In this study,we examined the spatial property of focal adhesions by changing the height ofmicropatterns in two kinds of microtopography (grid and post) and the stiffness of thesubstrates. We found that the focal adhesion localization is highly regulated bytopographical variation (height) of gird micropattens but not the rigidity of substrates orthe function of actin cytoskeleton, although the latters strongly influence the focal adhesionsize or area. In detail, the change of the height of the grid micropatterns results in theswitching of focal adhesion sites; as the height increases, the localization of focal adhesionis switched from top to bottom areas. This study demonstrates that the localization of focaladhesion on well-defined micropatterned substrates is critically determined by thetopographical variation in the micropatterns.The switching of focal adhesion maturation sites and actin filament activationfor MSCs by topography of well-defined micropatterned surfaces
  • Manuscript structureSample abstractIn this study, we examined the spatial property of focal adhesions by changing the height ofmicropatterns in two kinds of microtopography (grid and post) and the stiffness of thesubstrates.We found that the focal adhesion localization is highly regulated by topographical variation(height) of gird micropattens but not the rigidity of substrates or the function of actincytoskeleton, although the latters strongly influence the focal adhesion size or area. Indetail, the change of the height of the grid micropatterns results in the switching of focaladhesion sites; as the height increases, the localization of focal adhesion is switched fromtop to bottom areas.Securing robust cell adhesion between cells and biomaterials is one of key considerationsfor tissue engineering. However, the cell adhesion investigation by the biophysical effectssuch as topography or rigidity of substrates has only been recently reported.This study demonstrates that the localization of focal adhesion on well-definedmicropatterned substrates is critically determined by the topographical variation in themicropatterns.BackgroundBackgroundAims/MethodsAims/MethodsImportantresultsImportantresultsConclusionConclusionSeo et al. Biomaterials 2012, 34:1764‒1771.
  • Manuscript structureIntroductionWhat problem was studied?The answer to this question should be inyour IntroductionBeginning Middle End‫؟‬ ‫دراستھا‬ ‫تمت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الحالة‬ ‫نوعية‬ ‫ما‬
  • Manuscript structureIntroduction Beginning• Sufficient background information• Comprehensive literature review• Cite previous publications– Review articles– Original articles• What is the problem?
  • Manuscript structureIntroduction Middle• Rationale– The reason(s) for doing this work?– Why is it important the problem is addressed?• Explain how you addressed the problem• Do not state results from your work
  • Manuscript structureIntroduction End• Clearly and explicitly state specificaims of your study
  • Manuscript structureMethods• Logical order• New methods must be described insufficient detail that they can bereproduced• Established methods can be referenced– Save yourself time and effort‫كيف‬‫تناولت‬‫البحث‬ ‫موضوع‬ ‫الذي‬‫قمت‬‫بدراسته‬‫؟‬
  • Manuscript structureResults• Past tense to describe your results• Do not explain the results• Avoid duplicating data among figures,tables and text‫ما‬‫ھي‬‫النتائج‬‫التي‬‫توصلت‬‫إليھا‬‫؟‬
  • Manuscript structureDisplay items• Present data quickly and efficiently• Keep it simple—use separate panels– Related data in panels• Label all parts of figures• Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’‫ان‬‫اللوائح‬‫واالرقام‬‫ھي‬‫وسائل‬‫مؤثرة‬ً‫ا‬‫جد‬‫عند‬‫تبادل‬‫اآلراء‬‫واالفكار‬‫والمعلومات‬
  • Manuscript structureWhat do your findings mean?The answer to this question should be inyour DiscussionBeginning Middle EndDiscussion‫ماذا‬‫تعني‬‫لك‬‫النتائج‬‫التي‬‫توصلت‬‫لھا‬‫؟‬
  • Manuscript structureDiscussion Beginning• Avoid just restating results• Answer the research question(s) posed• Emphasize your major finding(s) first• State your major conclusion– Based on results presented
  • Manuscript structureDiscussion Middle• Interpret your results– Compare with other studies• Same or different?• Explain unexpected results• Describe limitations– How could the study be improved?
  • Manuscript structureDiscussion End• Restate major conclusion(s)– In summary … or In conclusion …• Possible applications and implications• Suggest future work
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Reader expectations• Information is easier tounderstand when placedwhere most readersexpect to find it• Good writers are aware ofthese expectationsGopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Your reader should …Understand your logicimmediatelyUnderstand your logicimmediatelyNot have to read slowlyNot have to read slowlyOnly have to read onceOnly have to read once
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectationsSubjectVerb1. Verb placement• Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjectsSentence.Subject and verb far apart = poor readabilitySubjectGopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectationsSubjectHelp your reader• Readers want verbs to closely follow subjectsSentence.SubjectVerbGopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Avoid reader confusion• Readers become confused if subject and verbare separated by too much contentThe smallest ORF, a 105-nucleotide reading frame foundin the third intron of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptorβ2 subunit gene, was found to be expressed in responseto long-term treatment with 1 µM cytochalasin D.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectationsThe smallest ORF, a 105-nucleotide reading frame found in the third intron ofthe nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene, was found to be expressedin response to long-term treatment with 1 µM cytochalasin D.The smallest ORF was found to be expressed in response to long-term treatment with 1 μM cytochalasin D. This ORF is a 105-nucleotide reading frame found in the third intron of the nicotinicacetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene.We found the smallest ORF was expressed in response to long-term treatment with 1 μM cytochalasin D. This ORF …Avoid reader confusion
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Which voice?• Active or passive?– Blood samples were collected from 256 patients.– We collected blood from 256 patients.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations 2. Active voice• Sentences written in the active voice are:simpledirectcleareasy to readSubjectVerbActive
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Active voice is preferred“Use the active voice when it is less wordy and moredirect than the passive”. (3rd ed., pg. 42)“Use the active voice when it is less wordy and moredirect than the passive”. (3rd ed., pg. 42)“Use the active voice rather than the passive voice…”.www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/effective-verb-use.aspx“Use the active voice rather than the passive voice…”.www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/effective-verb-use.aspx“As a matter of style, passive voice is typically, but notalways, inferior to active voice”. (15th ed., pg. 177)“As a matter of style, passive voice is typically, but notalways, inferior to active voice”. (15th ed., pg. 177)“In general, authors should use the active voice…”.(10th ed., pg. 320)“In general, authors should use the active voice…”.(10th ed., pg. 320)“Nature journals prefer authors towrite in the active voice…”.www.nature.com/authors/author_resources/how_write.html“Nature journals prefer authors towrite in the active voice…”.www.nature.com/authors/author_resources/how_write.htmlACS Style GuideACS Style GuideAPA StyleAPA StyleChicago StyleGuideChicago StyleGuideAMA Manual ofStyleAMA Manual ofStyleNatureNature
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations• Readers focus on information at the end of asentence..take-home informationSubjectVerb3. Stress positionGopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Stress positionThe dog sat when her mistress offered a treat.The dog sat when a treat was offered by her mistress.When the mistress offered her a treat, the dog sat.• Readers, without thinking, concentrate on theend of a sentence.Gopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectationsTopic position.Stress positionSubjectVerb• Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a storyabout whoever shows up first4. Topic positionGopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Topic position• Linkage and contextThe family went into the courtyard to see the newpuppy. The dog sat when her owner offered a treat.Everyone was so excited they broke into applause.However, as the courtyard was situated right next tomy bedroom, the sound woke me from my sleep.idea ideaideaideaTopic linksentenceGopen and Swan, American Scientist 1990, 78:550‒558.
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations 5. Short sentencesReading once…4% of readers can understand a 27-word sentence75% of readers can understand a 17-word sentencePinner and Pinner (1998) Communication SkillsReading once…4% of readers can understand a 27-word sentence75% of readers can understand a 17-word sentencePinner and Pinner (1998) Communication SkillsGoals to aim for:One idea per sentenceMaximum 25 words per sentenceLess than four 30-word sentences in the manuscriptGoals to aim for:One idea per sentenceMaximum 25 words per sentenceLess than four 30-word sentences in the manuscript
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectations Simple is best• Simple language is best• Makes your work more relevant• Minimizes confusion—maximizesunderstanding• More people will understand your work– More citations!
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanReaderexpectationsHelp your readersunderstand“If you can’t explain something simply,you don’t understand it well.”– Albert Einstein• Write to express not impress• Consider your audience – theirnative language may not beEnglish
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanCover lettersFirst impression forjournal editorsFirst impression forjournal editorsSignificanceRelevanceSignificanceRelevanceLevel ofEnglishLevel ofEnglishWhy your workis importantWhy your workis importantCover letters
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanCover letters The purpose of coverletters• Introduces manuscript to journal editor• A guide for the editor• ‘Sells’ your work
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanCover lettersDear Editor-in-Chief,I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detectcircoviruses in Australian bird species” by Raye et al. We would like tohave the manuscript considered for publication in Virology MethodsOnline.Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Sincerely yours,Warren Raye, PhDBad exampleNot personalNot personalToo shortToo shortNo information aboutthe manuscriptNo information aboutthe manuscript‫تجنب‬‫العمومية‬
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanCover lettersProvide detailsGeneralguidelinesGeneralguidelinesManuscript title/publication typeManuscript title/publication typeCorrespondingauthor detailsCorrespondingauthor detailsBackground,rationale, resultsBackground,rationale, resultsAddress editorpersonallyAddress editorpersonallyWhy are yourfindings important?Why are yourfindings important?ReviewerrecommendationsReviewerrecommendations
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanCover lettersAlways include“Must-have”statements“Must-have”statementsNot currently underconsideration byother journalsNot currently underconsideration byother journalsSource offundingSource offundingAuthors agree onmanuscript/journalAuthors agree onmanuscript/journalOriginal andunpublishedOriginal andunpublishedNo conflicts ofinterestNo conflicts ofinterestAuthorshipcontributionsAuthorshipcontributions
  • Coverage andStaffing PlanCover lettersDear Dr Graeber,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neurogenetics.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion ofthe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role ofthese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’sdisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to amore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, weperformed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtainedfrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-likeinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusionsobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-likestructure.We believe our findings will be of particular interest to the readership of Neurogenetics, which includes researchers andclinicians studying the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we feel that yourjournal provides the most suitable platform for the dissemination of our work to the research community.Please address all correspondence to….Give thebackground tothe researchWhat wasdone and whatwas foundInterest tojournal’s readersA good cover letter‫عليك‬‫تحديد‬‫الفكرة‬
  • Academic publishingResults novel?Topic relevant?The processAccepted—publication!EditorManuscript +cover letterPeer reviewRevisionRejectNew experimentsImprove readabilityAdd information
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewPublication pathFind newjournalDecisionletterRejectedRespond tocommentsRevisemanuscriptResubmit
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewEditor decisionsFindings wellcommunicated?ReviewercommentsDecision letterLevel of revisionsneeded?Reviewers inagreement?RejectWill beconsideredMajor/minor revisionsAcceptRareSignificant flaws
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewPoint-by-pointRevisionRevisionRespond to everycommentRespond to everycommentRefer to line and page numbersUse a different color fontHighlight the textEasy to seechangesEasy to seechangesPolite &professionalPolite &professional
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewRevision• Conduct additional experiments andanalyses as suggested– If this is impossible, you must explain why• You can disagree with reviewers• Comply with deadlines
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewHow to disagreeThe Reviewer has completely misunderstood our paper. ThisReviewer is a poor choice for our manuscript. Please send ourmanuscript to another Reviewer.The Reviewer’s comment is important in time-resolved systems.However, our model is concerned with steady-state dynamics;therefore, the fast femtosecond lifetimes are negligible. We haveclarified this misunderstanding by adding two sentences in therevised manuscript on page 3, lines 2–7.Poor responseBetter responseImpoliteJustification
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewPoint-by-point responsesReviewer comment: Some additional fluorescence data arerequired to determine the intrinsic radiative singlet decays.Response: In accordance with your suggestion, we haveprovided the fluorescence spectra in the SupportingInformation. Our time-resolved measurements obtained theintrinsic radiative rates in accordance with the Smith model[Smith et al, 2011]. We have added two sentences (page 3,lines 5–10) to explain our analysis and Smith’s model (Ref.15, page 3, line 8).Changes madeLocation ofchanges in revisedmanuscript
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewRevised manuscript“…The steady-state fluorescence spectra shown in Figure 4,show vibronic structure. Re-adsorption effects arenegligible by using solutions with ODs less than 0.1. Theradiative and non-radiative lifetimes are independent of theinitial intensity of the emitted light. The fluorescence time-resolved spectra are given in the Supporting Information(Figures S2 and S3). The fluorescence decay rates areanalyzed based on Smith’s model [15]. In this model theeffects of photon scattering from aggregated polymers insolution are minimized.”12345678910
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer review Understanding reviewercomments“The English needs to be improved”“Your writing is difficult to understand”• Grammar & spelling• Long, complex sentences and paragraphs• Gaps in the logic• Poor manuscript organization• Too much information
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewThe grammar and spelling is correct in my manuscript’‘The authors conclude that the quantum yieldincreases; however, they do not give thefluorescence rates for the individual polymers.That is one of my concerns about thismethodology.’Unclear commentsWhat is the Reviewer asking?What should the author do?
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewThe grammar and spelling is correct in my manuscript’‘The authors conclude that the quantum yieldincreases; however, they do not give thefluorescence rates for the individual polymers.That is one of my concerns about thismethodology.’Unclear comments‘Why didn’t the authors provide the fluorescence rates?’
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer reviewThe grammar and spelling is correct in my manuscript’‘The authors conclude that the quantum yieldincreases; however, they do not give thefluorescence rates for the individual polymers.That is one of my concerns about thismethodology.’Unclear commentsThe authors should provide the fluorescence ratesORJustify why the rates have not been given
  • PublisherAdaptationsPeer review Conflicting reviewercommentsReviewer 1: Please provide additional absorption spectra for theindividual dendrimers.Reviewer 2: I do not think that the absorption spectra for theindividual dendrimers are necessary; however, the authorsshould provide the transmission curves for the device.Agree with aReviewerJustify reason Contact Editor
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  • Thank youGood luck!ً‫ا‬‫شكر‬،ً‫ا‬‫وحظ‬ً‫ا‬‫سعيد‬
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