Literacy

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This is a presentation of two approaches to literacy, with some statistical numbers of Colombia

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Literacy

  1. 1. APPROACHES TO LITERACY Enrique Arias Castaño
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Illiteracy embodies a language and a set of practices that underscore the need for developing a radical theory of literacy that takes seriously the task of uncovering how particular forms of social and moral regulation produce a culture of ignorance of stupidity crucial to the silencing of all potencially critical voices” </li></ul><ul><li>Aronowitz </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Functional literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Critical literacy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Functional literacy <ul><li>Develops skills (writing – reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses issues of social purposes in contexts of use </li></ul><ul><li>Defines the uses of reading and writing to achieve social purposes in contexts of use </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches participants to achieve their social objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts means of communication as something given and natural </li></ul><ul><li>Admits the natural status of dominant institutions and social discourses </li></ul><ul><li>Helps individuals function within a given society in order to participate and achieve their own goals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Critical literacy <ul><li>Questions the natural status of dominant institutions and discourses </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with finding out how something works </li></ul><ul><li>Looks below the surface of things and events, asking questions such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does this exist/happen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is its purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose interests does it serve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose interests does it frustate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it operate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need it operate like this or could it be done differently and better? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives powerful tools for developing critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Conceives language as a powerful social practice </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a critical awareness of social purpose and whose interests are being served by it </li></ul><ul><li>Regards critical reflection as a dimension that must be complemented with action </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Literacy/Illiteracy <ul><li>They function as a way of labelling and grading people. It also categorizes people into educational haves and have-nots </li></ul><ul><li>Being in the have-not group creates what Freire calls “a culture of silence” </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy implies a form of political and intellectual ignorance as well as a possible instance of class, gender, racial, or cultural resistance. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Models of literacy/illiteracy <ul><li>From Freire’s point of view: “reading the world always precedes reading the word” </li></ul><ul><li>Skills development model </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic model </li></ul><ul><li>Personal empowerment model </li></ul><ul><li>Social empowerment model </li></ul><ul><li>Functional model </li></ul><ul><li>Critical model </li></ul>
  9. 9. Literacy from a cross-disciplinary perspective Literacy theory Research practice language education anthropology sociology history psychology Literacy is a socio-political construct as much as a linguistic one
  10. 10. A theory of language in context Language as text as social process language language as social practice
  11. 11. “ Literacy was a double edged sword” Gramsci <ul><li>Critical literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological construct : </li></ul><ul><li>it is rooted in a spirit of critique. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables people to participate in the undersatanding and transformation of their society </li></ul><ul><li>It develops forms of counterhegemonic education around the political project of creating a society of intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>Social movement : </li></ul><ul><li>It is tied to the material and political conditions necessary to develop and organize teachers, community workers, and others both within and outside of schools. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes an active part in the struggle for creating the conditions necessary to make people literate </li></ul>Self and social empowerment Perpetuation of relations of repression and domination
  12. 12. The freireian model of emancipatory literacy <ul><li>Dialectical relationship between Human beings – world </li></ul><ul><li>Language - transformative agency </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy means a self and socially constituted agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is part of the process of becoming self-critical about the historically constructed nature of one’s experience. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Critical pedagogy <ul><li>Student’s voice must be heard </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to be introduced to a language of empowerment and radical ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should provide students with the opportunity to interrogate different languages or ideological discourses </li></ul><ul><li>Critical educators are also learners </li></ul><ul><li>Students and teachers can dialogue and struggle together in order to make their respective positions heard out/inside the classrooms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Percentage of illiteracy in Colombia
  15. 15. according to the real performance of literate people in our country, what might have been the conceptions of literacy inherent in the implemented literacy programs in the latest years?
  16. 16. Statitics from Unicef: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/colombia_statistics.html Education Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, male 98 Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, female 98 Number per 100 population, 2006, phones 64 Number per 100 population, 2006, Internet users 14 Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 117 Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 115 Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 89 Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 88 Primary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 90 Primary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 92 Survival rate to last primary grade (%); 2000–2007*, admin. data 82 Survival rate to last primary grade (%); 2000–2007*, survey data 89 Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 78 Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 87 Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 62 Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 69 Secondary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 64 Secondary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 72

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