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Summary of elements of a       Method
Parrolistic approach
Grammar-translation    approach
Instruction in the nativelanguage       of     thelearnersThere is little use of thetarget language forcommunicationThere ...
A typical exercise totranslate   sentencesfrom the Tlge into themother         tongue(viceversa)Inability to use the Lgefo...
Directapproac   h
No use of the mothertongue is permitted(i.e,teacher does not need toknow the student’s nativelanguage)Lesson     begin    ...
Grammar is     learnedinductivelyLiterary texts are readfor pleasure and areanalyzedgrammatically.The target must be anati...
Readingapproach
Only    the   grammaruseful    for  readingcomprehension        istaught.Vocabulary is controlledat    first(based     onf...
Readingcomprehension     isthe only languageskill emphasized.Teacher does notneed to have a goodoral proficiency inthe tar...
Total Physical Response
coordination of speech andaction.language through physical(motor) activity.Several traditions:   Developmental   psycholog...
According to Asher adultsecond language learningis parallel to child firstlanguage acquisiton.CommandsPhysicalResponse   ...
APPROACH:THE THEORY OF     LANGUAGE AND LEARNING• Grammar based• Skillful use of imperativeGrammatical  structure and voc...
Audiolingualis      m
Lessons begins withdialoguesMimicry        andmemorization    areused, based on theassumption     thatlanguage is habitfor...
Skills are sequenced: listening, speaking-reading,writing postponed. Pronunciation is stressed from thebeginingLanguage is...
Communicative approach
“There is no single text or authority on    it, nor any single model that isuniversally accepted as authoritative.”    (Ri...
Critiques of      CLTCA is deemed a success if the teacher understands the student.errors resulting from an influence fr...
Communicative ApproachCommun        The communicative approach or        Communicative           Language        Teaching ...
• Meaning is paramount• Dialogs, if used center around communicative  functions and are not normally memorized.• Contextua...
CLTNon-communicative activities       Communicative activitiesNo communicative desire           A desire to communicateNo ...
Krashen´theory        (languageacquisition)“Acquisition   refers  to   theunconscious developmnet of thetarget language sy...
CLT: At the level of procedure• Mechanical, meaningful, and communicative practice. Mechanical practice:He _____________ ...
CLT: At the level of procedure• Some types of activitiesInformation gaps (Activity 2)Information gathering (Activity 1)...
Task-basedInstruction
tasks for hundreds ofyears.Old tasks: piece oftranslation often from aliterary source.New tasks: projects forproducing pos...
Jane Willis, the traditionalPPP (presentation,practice, production)lesson is reversed.In A Framework forTask-BasedLearning...
Intermediate levels andbeyond, but manyteachers question itsusefulness at lowerlevels.Change in the traditionalteachers ro...
Meaningful tasks using thetarget language:       visiting the doctor       conducting aninterview       calling customerse...
Content-based Instruction (CBI-
Content-based Instruction (CBI)                       (Davies, 2003)
(Shang, 2006)
Met’s Analysis (2004)Content-Driven                            Language-DrivenContent is taught in L2.                  Co...
content            Language    Sheltered   Theme-based    method      method
Clil  Content and   Language   Integrated    Learning      CLIL
Reflective format
Session• Communication• Content• Culture• Cognition
Content and Language Integrated Learning         Educational      approach with dual            focus  Language           ...
A successful CLIL lesson shouldcombine elements of the following:Content         Progression in knowledge, skills and     ...
Lesson planDialoguing• 4cs aims  – Content: sources – material  – Communication: language development  – Culture: othernes...
Improved approaches presentation 2012
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  1. 1. Summary of elements of a Method
  2. 2. Parrolistic approach
  3. 3. Grammar-translation approach
  4. 4. Instruction in the nativelanguage of thelearnersThere is little use of thetarget language forcommunicationThere is early readingof difficult texts
  5. 5. A typical exercise totranslate sentencesfrom the Tlge into themother tongue(viceversa)Inability to use the Lgefor communicationTeacher does not haveto be able to use thetarget Lge.
  6. 6. Directapproac h
  7. 7. No use of the mothertongue is permitted(i.e,teacher does not need toknow the student’s nativelanguage)Lesson begin withdialogues and anecdotesin modern conversationalstyle.Actions and pictures are
  8. 8. Grammar is learnedinductivelyLiterary texts are readfor pleasure and areanalyzedgrammatically.The target must be anative speaker or havenative-like proficiency
  9. 9. Readingapproach
  10. 10. Only the grammaruseful for readingcomprehension istaught.Vocabulary is controlledat first(based onfrequency andusefulness) and henexpanded.Translation is oncemore a respectable
  11. 11. Readingcomprehension isthe only languageskill emphasized.Teacher does notneed to have a goodoral proficiency inthe target language.
  12. 12. Total Physical Response
  13. 13. coordination of speech andaction.language through physical(motor) activity.Several traditions: Developmental psychology Learning theory Humanictic pedagogy Language teaching procedures
  14. 14. According to Asher adultsecond language learningis parallel to child firstlanguage acquisiton.CommandsPhysicalResponse VerbalResponseThe less stress the morelearning
  15. 15. APPROACH:THE THEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING• Grammar based• Skillful use of imperativeGrammatical structure and vocabulary• The more intensively and the more often the trace, the stronger memory association will be.
  16. 16. Audiolingualis m
  17. 17. Lessons begins withdialoguesMimicry andmemorization areused, based on theassumption thatlanguage is habitformationGrammaticalstructures aresequenced and rules
  18. 18. Skills are sequenced: listening, speaking-reading,writing postponed. Pronunciation is stressed from thebeginingLanguage is often manipulated without regard tomeaning or context.Teacher must be proficient only in the structures,vocabulary, etc. That s/he is teaching since learningactivities and materials carefully controlled
  19. 19. Communicative approach
  20. 20. “There is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that isuniversally accepted as authoritative.” (Richards, J & Rodgers T. 1999)
  21. 21. Critiques of CLTCA is deemed a success if the teacher understands the student.errors resulting from an influence from their first language.AccentSimulations
  22. 22. Communicative ApproachCommun The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach but also a shift in emphasis on how to teach!
  23. 23. • Meaning is paramount• Dialogs, if used center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized.• Contextualization is a basic premise.• Language learning is learning to communicate.• Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.• Any tecnique which helps the learners is accepted – varying accordins to their age, interest, etc.• Communicative competence is the desired goal.
  24. 24. CLTNon-communicative activities Communicative activitiesNo communicative desire A desire to communicateNo communicative purpose A communicative purposeForm not content Content not formOne language item only Variety of languageTeacher intervention No teacher interventionMaterials control No materials control The communication continuum
  25. 25. Krashen´theory (languageacquisition)“Acquisition refers to theunconscious developmnet of thetarget language system as resultof uisng the language for realCOMMUNICATION”
  26. 26. CLT: At the level of procedure• Mechanical, meaningful, and communicative practice. Mechanical practice:He _____________ (is/are) a soldier. Meaningful practice:On the weekend, I’m going to_________________ in the morning.I’m going to _____________ in the afternoon, butI’m not going to __________. Communicative practice:Ask your classmate about three things he considers when selecting a movie.• Task 2: Identify these types of practice in your coursebook
  27. 27. CLT: At the level of procedure• Some types of activitiesInformation gaps (Activity 2)Information gathering (Activity 1)Role-playsOpinion sharing
  28. 28. Task-basedInstruction
  29. 29. tasks for hundreds ofyears.Old tasks: piece oftranslation often from aliterary source.New tasks: projects forproducing posters,brochures, pamphlets,oral presentations, radioplays, videos, websitesand dramaticperformances.
  30. 30. Jane Willis, the traditionalPPP (presentation,practice, production)lesson is reversed.In A Framework forTask-BasedLearning, Jane Willispresents a three stageprocess: Pre-task - Introduction to the topic and task. Task cycle - Task planning and report Language focus -
  31. 31. Intermediate levels andbeyond, but manyteachers question itsusefulness at lowerlevels.Change in the traditionalteachers role. The teacher is anobserver during the taskphase and becomes alanguage informant onlyduring the language
  32. 32. Meaningful tasks using thetarget language: visiting the doctor conducting aninterview calling customerservices for help. Assessment isprimarily based on taskoutcome (ie: the appropriatecompletion of tasks) ratherthan simply accuracy oflanguage forms. This makesTBLL especially popular fordeveloping target language
  33. 33. Content-based Instruction (CBI-
  34. 34. Content-based Instruction (CBI) (Davies, 2003)
  35. 35. (Shang, 2006)
  36. 36. Met’s Analysis (2004)Content-Driven Language-DrivenContent is taught in L2. Content is used to learn L2.Content learning is priority. Language learning is priority.Language learning is secondary. Content learning is incidental.Content objectives determined by Language objectives determined bycourse goals or curriculum. L2 course goals or curriculum.Teachers must select language Students evaluated on content to beobjectives. integrated.Students evaluated on content Students evaluated on languagemastery. skills/proficiency.
  37. 37. content Language Sheltered Theme-based method method
  38. 38. Clil Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL
  39. 39. Reflective format
  40. 40. Session• Communication• Content• Culture• Cognition
  41. 41. Content and Language Integrated Learning Educational approach with dual focus Language Subject Study + Study Integration
  42. 42. A successful CLIL lesson shouldcombine elements of the following:Content Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum.Communication Using language to learn whilst learning to use language.Cognition Developing thinking skills which link concept formation, understanding and language.Culture Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen awareness of otherness and self.
  43. 43. Lesson planDialoguing• 4cs aims – Content: sources – material – Communication: language development – Culture: otherness? – Cognitive: Bloom-s taxonomy – remember – understand – apply – analyse – evaluate - create
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