Instruction in the nativelanguage of thelearnersThere is little use of thetarget language forcommunicationThere is early readingof difficult texts
A typical exercise totranslate sentencesfrom the Tlge into themother tongue(viceversa)Inability to use the Lgefor communicationTeacher does not haveto be able to use thetarget Lge.
No use of the mothertongue is permitted(i.e,teacher does not need toknow the student’s nativelanguage)Lesson begin withdialogues and anecdotesin modern conversationalstyle.Actions and pictures are
Grammar is learnedinductivelyLiterary texts are readfor pleasure and areanalyzedgrammatically.The target must be anative speaker or havenative-like proficiency
Only the grammaruseful for readingcomprehension istaught.Vocabulary is controlledat first(based onfrequency andusefulness) and henexpanded.Translation is oncemore a respectable
Readingcomprehension isthe only languageskill emphasized.Teacher does notneed to have a goodoral proficiency inthe target language.
Total Physical Response
coordination of speech andaction.language through physical(motor) activity.Several traditions: Developmental psychology Learning theory Humanictic pedagogy Language teaching procedures
According to Asher adultsecond language learningis parallel to child firstlanguage acquisiton.CommandsPhysicalResponse VerbalResponseThe less stress the morelearning
APPROACH:THE THEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING• Grammar based• Skillful use of imperativeGrammatical structure and vocabulary• The more intensively and the more often the trace, the stronger memory association will be.
Lessons begins withdialoguesMimicry andmemorization areused, based on theassumption thatlanguage is habitformationGrammaticalstructures aresequenced and rules
Skills are sequenced: listening, speaking-reading,writing postponed. Pronunciation is stressed from thebeginingLanguage is often manipulated without regard tomeaning or context.Teacher must be proficient only in the structures,vocabulary, etc. That s/he is teaching since learningactivities and materials carefully controlled
“There is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that isuniversally accepted as authoritative.” (Richards, J & Rodgers T. 1999)
Critiques of CLTCA is deemed a success if the teacher understands the student.errors resulting from an influence from their first language.AccentSimulations
Communicative ApproachCommun The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach but also a shift in emphasis on how to teach!
• Meaning is paramount• Dialogs, if used center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized.• Contextualization is a basic premise.• Language learning is learning to communicate.• Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.• Any tecnique which helps the learners is accepted – varying accordins to their age, interest, etc.• Communicative competence is the desired goal.
CLTNon-communicative activities Communicative activitiesNo communicative desire A desire to communicateNo communicative purpose A communicative purposeForm not content Content not formOne language item only Variety of languageTeacher intervention No teacher interventionMaterials control No materials control The communication continuum
Krashen´theory (languageacquisition)“Acquisition refers to theunconscious developmnet of thetarget language system as resultof uisng the language for realCOMMUNICATION”
CLT: At the level of procedure• Mechanical, meaningful, and communicative practice. Mechanical practice:He _____________ (is/are) a soldier. Meaningful practice:On the weekend, I’m going to_________________ in the morning.I’m going to _____________ in the afternoon, butI’m not going to __________. Communicative practice:Ask your classmate about three things he considers when selecting a movie.• Task 2: Identify these types of practice in your coursebook
CLT: At the level of procedure• Some types of activitiesInformation gaps (Activity 2)Information gathering (Activity 1)Role-playsOpinion sharing
tasks for hundreds ofyears.Old tasks: piece oftranslation often from aliterary source.New tasks: projects forproducing posters,brochures, pamphlets,oral presentations, radioplays, videos, websitesand dramaticperformances.
Jane Willis, the traditionalPPP (presentation,practice, production)lesson is reversed.In A Framework forTask-BasedLearning, Jane Willispresents a three stageprocess: Pre-task - Introduction to the topic and task. Task cycle - Task planning and report Language focus -
Intermediate levels andbeyond, but manyteachers question itsusefulness at lowerlevels.Change in the traditionalteachers role. The teacher is anobserver during the taskphase and becomes alanguage informant onlyduring the language
Meaningful tasks using thetarget language: visiting the doctor conducting aninterview calling customerservices for help. Assessment isprimarily based on taskoutcome (ie: the appropriatecompletion of tasks) ratherthan simply accuracy oflanguage forms. This makesTBLL especially popular fordeveloping target language
Content-based Instruction (CBI-
Content-based Instruction (CBI) (Davies, 2003)
Met’s Analysis (2004)Content-Driven Language-DrivenContent is taught in L2. Content is used to learn L2.Content learning is priority. Language learning is priority.Language learning is secondary. Content learning is incidental.Content objectives determined by Language objectives determined bycourse goals or curriculum. L2 course goals or curriculum.Teachers must select language Students evaluated on content to beobjectives. integrated.Students evaluated on content Students evaluated on languagemastery. skills/proficiency.
content Language Sheltered Theme-based method method
Clil Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL
Content and Language Integrated Learning Educational approach with dual focus Language Subject Study + Study Integration
A successful CLIL lesson shouldcombine elements of the following:Content Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum.Communication Using language to learn whilst learning to use language.Cognition Developing thinking skills which link concept formation, understanding and language.Culture Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen awareness of otherness and self.