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Evaluation

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Testing compilation information

Testing compilation information

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  • 1. Assessment, testing and evaluation Enrique Arias Castaño
  • 2. What is evaluation?
    • Evaluation is the process of determining significance or worth, usually by careful appraisal and study.
    • Evaluation is the analysis and comparison of actual progress vs. prior plans, oriented toward improving plans for future implementation.
    • It is part of a continuing management process consisting of planning, implementation, and evaluation; ideally with each following the other in a continuous cycle until successful completion of the activity.
  • 3. What is evaluation? 2
    • Evaluation is the process of determining the worth or value of something. This involves assigning values to the thing or person being evaluated.
    • Function  Here are some functions of evaluation: 
    • Answers the question "How well did we do?" (Qualitative evaluation)
    • Answers the question "How much did we do? (Quantitative evaluation)
  • 4.
    • Kinds  Here are some kinds of evaluations: 
    • Internal evaluation
    • External evaluation
    • Preliminary evaluation
    • Formative evaluation
    • Summative evaluation
  • 5. What is qualitative evaluation?
    • Qualitative evaluation is an assessment process that answers the question, "How well did we do?“
    • Examples  Here are some examples of qualitative evaluations in several areas of literacy: 
    • Content, quality, and relevance of a program
      • What was learned?
      • Are the learners using their new knowledge? If so, how?
    • Attitudes and achievements of the learners
      • What do the learners think about the classes, the teachers, and the materials?
      • Do they think the literacy classes made a difference in their lives? If yes, what kind of difference?
    • Selection, training, attitude, and ability of teachers and other literacy personnel
      • Did the teachers do a good job of communicating the new information?
      • Did they respect and support the learners?
  • 6. What is qualitative evaluation? 2
    • Quality of resources (including literacy materials)
      • Do people in the community like the materials?
      • Do they think the materials accurately portray the local culture?
      • Do they think the materials are appropriate for each group of learners?
      • Do the materials communicate information they want to learn?
    • Efficiency of strategies and activities
      • Do people in the community think the literacy program is successful?
      • Do they think the teachers and writers are trained properly?
      • Which activities do they think are good? Which activities do they think are not good?
    • Costs in relation to what was achieved
      • Do people in the community think the results of the literacy program are worth the cost and energy that were necessary to get the program started and to keep it going?
  • 7. What is quantitative evaluation?
    • Quantitative evaluation is an assessment process that answers the question, "How much did we do?“
    • Examples  Here are some examples of quantitative evaluations in several areas of literacy: 
    • Numbers of students, classes, and materials produced
      • How many people were in the target group?
      • How many started the course? How many completed the course? How many dropped out?
      • How many schools were started? How many are still operating?
      • How many books were produced?
  • 8. What is quantitative evaluation? 2
    • Student performance
      • Test scores
      • Reading, writing, and numeracy skills
    • Costs
      • In relation to number of students, books, and teachers
      • Program costs
  • 9. What is formative evaluation?
    • Formative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the process (Bhola 1990).
  • 10. Examples
    • Here are some examples of formative evaluation: 
    • Testing the arrangement of lessons in a primer before its publication
    • Collecting continuous feedback from participants in a program in order to revise the program as needed
  • 11. Steps
    • Follow these steps to do formative training evaluation: 
    • Observe trainee behavior.
    • Have informal talks about the training activity with the trainees.
    • Give short tests to trainees.
  • 12. What is pretraining evaluation?
    • Pretraining evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program before the program activities begin.
  • 13. What is summative evaluation?
    • Summative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities. The focus is on the outcome (Bhola 1990).
    • Examples  Here are some examples of summative evaluation: 
    • Determining attitudes and achievement related to using a primer after it has been used in a training course
    • Collecting data on the impact of a program operating in a community for a period of time
  • 14. Steps
    • Follow these steps to do summative training evaluation: 
    • Have the trainees conduct demonstration lessons.
    • Have others observe trainees' behavior.
    • Give comprehensive tests to the trainees.
    • Gather impressions of trainers and trainees through questionnaires and interviews.
    • Answer the following questions:
      • Did you meet the training objectives?
      • Will you need to improve and modify some areas?
      • Should you conduct the training activity again?
      • How can you help the trainees attain further training?
  • 15. Methods of evaluation and testing
    • Choosing a method that you can use for evaluation and testing depends on factors such as the following: 
    • What you are evaluating or testing.
    • The purposes of the evaluation.
    • The resources available.
    • Other factors unique to each situation and culture.
  • 16.
    • According to Bhola, "evaluation is a process of judging the merit or worth of something." Evaluation is not a single occurrence, but gives information for planning purposes, as well as adjustments or revisions that may be needed in a literacy program. 
    • Some types of testing done during the planning, development, and implementation phases of a literacy program include the following: 
        • Needs assessment
        • Base-line survey
        • Learner assessment
        • Achievement and attitude testing
        • Curriculum evaluation
        • Personnel evaluation
        • Impact evaluation
  • 17. Types of Evaluation Pre-training Evaluation Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation
  • 18. Evaluation Assessment Testing
  • 19. Assessment Types of assessment: Peer-assessment: Classmates’ conceptual evaluation Self-assessment: autonomous evaluation HETERO-assessment: teachers’ evaluation
  • 20. Tests
    • Any procedure for measuring ability, knowledge, or performance:
      • ACHIEVEMENT TEST
      • CLOZE TEST
      • DISCRETE-POINT TEST
      • LANGUAGE APTITUDE TEST
      • PLACEMENT TEST (diagnostic test)
      • PROFICIENCY TEST
      • PROGRESS TEST
      • TOEFL TEST
  • 21. Characteristics of testing
    • Reliability
    • Reliability relates to the consistency of an assessment. A reliable assessment is one which consistently achieves the same results with the same (or similar) cohort of students. Various factors affect reliability – including ambiguous questions, too many options within a question paper, vague marking instructions and poorly trained markers. Traditionally, the reliability of an assessment is based on the following:
  • 22.
    • Validity
    • A valid assessment is one which measures what it is intended to measure. For example, it would not be valid to assess driving skills through a written test alone. A more valid way of assessing driving skills would be through a combination of tests that help determine what a driver knows, such as through a written test of driving knowledge, and what a driver is able to do, such as through a performance assessment of actual driving. Teachers frequently complain that some examinations do not properly assess the syllabus upon which the examination is based; they are, effectively, questioning the validity of the exam.