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  1. 1. Assessment, testing and evaluation Enrique Arias Castaño
  2. 2. What is evaluation? <ul><li>Evaluation is the process of determining significance or worth, usually by careful appraisal and study. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is the analysis and comparison of actual progress vs. prior plans, oriented toward improving plans for future implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of a continuing management process consisting of planning, implementation, and evaluation; ideally with each following the other in a continuous cycle until successful completion of the activity. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is evaluation? 2 <ul><li>Evaluation is the process of determining the worth or value of something. This involves assigning values to the thing or person being evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Function  Here are some functions of evaluation:  </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the question &quot;How well did we do?&quot; (Qualitative evaluation) </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the question &quot;How much did we do? (Quantitative evaluation) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Kinds  Here are some kinds of evaluations:  </li></ul><ul><li>Internal evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>External evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Formative evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Summative evaluation </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is qualitative evaluation? <ul><li>Qualitative evaluation is an assessment process that answers the question, &quot;How well did we do?“ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples  Here are some examples of qualitative evaluations in several areas of literacy:  </li></ul><ul><li>Content, quality, and relevance of a program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was learned? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the learners using their new knowledge? If so, how? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and achievements of the learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the learners think about the classes, the teachers, and the materials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they think the literacy classes made a difference in their lives? If yes, what kind of difference? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection, training, attitude, and ability of teachers and other literacy personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the teachers do a good job of communicating the new information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did they respect and support the learners? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is qualitative evaluation? 2 <ul><li>Quality of resources (including literacy materials) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do people in the community like the materials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they think the materials accurately portray the local culture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they think the materials are appropriate for each group of learners? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the materials communicate information they want to learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of strategies and activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do people in the community think the literacy program is successful? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they think the teachers and writers are trained properly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which activities do they think are good? Which activities do they think are not good? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs in relation to what was achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do people in the community think the results of the literacy program are worth the cost and energy that were necessary to get the program started and to keep it going? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is quantitative evaluation? <ul><li>Quantitative evaluation is an assessment process that answers the question, &quot;How much did we do?“ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples  Here are some examples of quantitative evaluations in several areas of literacy:  </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of students, classes, and materials produced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many people were in the target group? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many started the course? How many completed the course? How many dropped out? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many schools were started? How many are still operating? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many books were produced? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What is quantitative evaluation? 2 <ul><li>Student performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading, writing, and numeracy skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In relation to number of students, books, and teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program costs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What is formative evaluation? <ul><li>Formative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the process (Bhola 1990). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples <ul><li>Here are some examples of formative evaluation:  </li></ul><ul><li>Testing the arrangement of lessons in a primer before its publication </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting continuous feedback from participants in a program in order to revise the program as needed </li></ul>
  11. 11. Steps <ul><li>Follow these steps to do formative training evaluation:  </li></ul><ul><li>Observe trainee behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Have informal talks about the training activity with the trainees. </li></ul><ul><li>Give short tests to trainees. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is pretraining evaluation? <ul><li>Pretraining evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program before the program activities begin. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is summative evaluation? <ul><li>Summative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities. The focus is on the outcome (Bhola 1990). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples  Here are some examples of summative evaluation:  </li></ul><ul><li>Determining attitudes and achievement related to using a primer after it has been used in a training course </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data on the impact of a program operating in a community for a period of time </li></ul>
  14. 14. Steps <ul><li>Follow these steps to do summative training evaluation:  </li></ul><ul><li>Have the trainees conduct demonstration lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Have others observe trainees' behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Give comprehensive tests to the trainees. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather impressions of trainers and trainees through questionnaires and interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you meet the training objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you need to improve and modify some areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should you conduct the training activity again? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you help the trainees attain further training? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Methods of evaluation and testing <ul><li>Choosing a method that you can use for evaluation and testing depends on factors such as the following:  </li></ul><ul><li>What you are evaluating or testing. </li></ul><ul><li>The purposes of the evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>The resources available. </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors unique to each situation and culture. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>According to Bhola, &quot;evaluation is a process of judging the merit or worth of something.&quot; Evaluation is not a single occurrence, but gives information for planning purposes, as well as adjustments or revisions that may be needed in a literacy program.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some types of testing done during the planning, development, and implementation phases of a literacy program include the following:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base-line survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement and attitude testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Evaluation Pre-training Evaluation Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation
  18. 18. Evaluation Assessment Testing
  19. 19. Assessment Types of assessment: Peer-assessment: Classmates’ conceptual evaluation Self-assessment: autonomous evaluation HETERO-assessment: teachers’ evaluation
  20. 20. Tests <ul><li>Any procedure for measuring ability, knowledge, or performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACHIEVEMENT TEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLOZE TEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISCRETE-POINT TEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE APTITUDE TEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLACEMENT TEST (diagnostic test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROFICIENCY TEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROGRESS TEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOEFL TEST </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Characteristics of testing <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability relates to the consistency of an assessment. A reliable assessment is one which consistently achieves the same results with the same (or similar) cohort of students. Various factors affect reliability – including ambiguous questions, too many options within a question paper, vague marking instructions and poorly trained markers. Traditionally, the reliability of an assessment is based on the following: </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>A valid assessment is one which measures what it is intended to measure. For example, it would not be valid to assess driving skills through a written test alone. A more valid way of assessing driving skills would be through a combination of tests that help determine what a driver knows, such as through a written test of driving knowledge, and what a driver is able to do, such as through a performance assessment of actual driving. Teachers frequently complain that some examinations do not properly assess the syllabus upon which the examination is based; they are, effectively, questioning the validity of the exam. </li></ul>