1. Settlement Change Revision and Review 47 slides but still only 20 minutes…
2. Urbanization Urbanization is a increase in the % of people living in urban areas
3. Why does urbanization happen? <ul><li>Two main reasons; </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of natural increase in urban areas (the new urban dwellers who have migrated from the countryside often keep their traditional attitudes to birth) </li></ul>
4. Where is urbanization most rapid? <ul><li>Currently urbanization is most rapid in LEDCs </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of mega-cities such as Rio in south America, Shanghai and Mumbai in Asia and Lagos in Africa are evidence of this </li></ul>
5. LEDC City Case Study Rio de Janeiro Remember the No.59 Bus
6. Rural to Urban Migration North East Brazil to Rio de Janeiro
7. Why do people migrate? <ul><li>PUSH </li></ul>PULL Lack of high quality well paid jobs in the rural areas Division of land among sons leading to smaller and smaller plots for subsistence The bright lights and fast life – Copacabana beach Better paid jobs with opportunities for development and promotion Moving to join friends and family who are already in Rio Drought, deforestation and other environmental pressure making agriculture difficult
8. Brazilian States’ Human Development Index
9. What are the impacts of rapid urban growth for cities like Rio? <ul><li>Size of city increases (Rio; 1950 = 2.3m, 2007 = 7m+) </li></ul><ul><li>Population structure of the city changes - youthful </li></ul><ul><li>Housing pressures (growth of favelas such as Rocinha) </li></ul><ul><li>Employment pressures; un- and under-employment </li></ul><ul><li>Transport – congestion and pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation and Health (sewage, waste disposal, disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Services (schools and Hospitals) </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems (crime, Rio murder capitol of world) </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-urbanisation and urban sprawl (Barra) </li></ul>
10. Rocinha 750 favelas in Rio. But new ones still being established. 20% of Rio’s pop live in favelas. 33% of world’s urban pop live in spontaneous settlements.
11. Streets in a Rocinha
12. Housing in Rocinha 2001 Census – pop 60,000 But over 100,000 legally registered electricity meters. Estimated pop 200,000. Rocinha started 1940s, Every neighbourhood required domestic servants and labourers who lived in nearby favelas. No policing of these areas. 1950s drought in NE brazil led to rural to urban migration, 1960s construction boom in Rio attracted workers. Favelas integral part of Rio. Older favelas located centrally. Rio’s first favela established in 1888 by government troops (ex slaves) who returned to Rio after defeating a Royalist uprising in NE Brazil. They were given no housing on their return and camped on Morro Providencia
13. 1995 Favela Barrio Plan. Accept that favelas exist and try to normalise and integrate them through provision of sewage, water and rubbish collection. Electricity companies had been supplying favelas since 1970s. High demand, easier to set up, residents use bills as proof of residency and ownership. Recent focus on speeding up legalisation process. Property value doubles after legalisation. Tax paid but also possibility to realise the value of the asset.
14. With large barriers to entry to the formal sector such as lack of access to credit and bureaucracy, most enterprises are in the informal sector.
15. What are the sustainable solutions ? <ul><li>Forced evictions of squatter settlements – To clear land for formal development </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost housing – Very basic breeze block housing constructed. People re-housed in them. City of God </li></ul><ul><li>Site and Service – Land is cleared and building plots prepared with water and electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Help Scheme – Existing settlements provided with water, sewage and rubbish collection. Building materials provided for residents to upgrade their homes (Favela Barrio Plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Development – To reduce rural to urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing policing - to stop new squatter settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Raise taxes - on the rich to pay for improving housing for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Local initiatives – such as Afro-Reggae using music and culture to keep kids away from crime and drugs </li></ul>Think of the advantages and disadvantages of each possibility What other options are there? What about traffic, pollution and other issues – how can these be addressed?
16. MEDC City Case Study Bratislava Although rapid urbanisation was a major processes before 1950 in MEDCs (it started with the industrial revolution back in around 1800) cities like Bratislava are ever changing and dynamic places offering both challenges and opportunities.
17. Going right back to the beginning… <ul><li>You should be able to explain; </li></ul><ul><li>Why Bratislava is where it is? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Bratislava grew into the most important city in Slovakia? </li></ul><ul><li>This can be explained by understanding settlement site and situation . </li></ul>
18. Site and Situation <ul><li>Site describes the point at which a settlement is located, it describes the land it is build on. Factors such as relief, soil, water supply and other resources were important in choosing the sites of early settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation describes where the settlement is located in relation to the surrounding features such as other settlements, mountains, rivers and communications (roads, etc.). It is the situation of a settlement that determines whether it will grow from a small village into a large town or city. </li></ul>
21. Urban Zones As a city grows and expands it often ends up being divided into different zones . Each zone has distinctive characteristics and land use.
22. The Central Business District (CBD)
23. Bratislava CBD
24. Inner City Housing (UK)
25. Inner city housing – Bratislava Nove Mesto
26. Bratislava inner city housing – Petrzalka
27. Inner City Industry (UK)
28. Inner City Industry (BA Riverside)
29. Inner City Industry - Slovnaft
30. Suburban Housing (Anywhere)
31. Suburban housing – Lamac Bratislava
32. Suburban Housing - Lamac
33. Rural Urban Fringe (Anywhere)
34. Rural Urban Fringe – Zahorska Bystrica
35. Old and New – Zahorska Bystrica
36. Urban Land-use Models The different urban zones can be modeled and general patterns identified that might be common to all cities
37. MEDC Urban Land Use Model Key A The Central Business District. B The Zone of Transition. C Inner city. D Suburbs. E Urban rural fringe Burgess concentric zone model. What are the similarities and differences with Bratislava’s urban morphology
38. Bratislava Urban Zones
39. LEDC city land use model Rio de Janeiro LEDC City Land Use Model How does this compare with Rio’s urban land use zones?
40. Rio Urban Zones
41. Urban Change Challenges and opportunities in an MEDC city - Bratislava
42. Inner City Decline and Regeneration <ul><li>Inner City Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the buildings are old, disused and decaying (many Panelak in Petrzelka) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas become run down and lack basic services such as schools and shops </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of crime and general disorder increase as a result </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lack of open green space and parks </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic levels are high leading to congestion and pollution (train station area) </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest and poorest members of society left within the inner city area as younger and wealthy move out to the suburbs ( suburbanization ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inner City Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>But the inner city is a prime location – close to shops, offices and businesses within the CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Thus there are many opportunities for renovation (there are numerous renovated Panelak within Ruzinov and Petrzalk) and regeneration (Aupark are, Eurovea) </li></ul><ul><li>As the inner city improves people return – especially younger, often middle class, single people – this process is called re-urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Such development is consider to be “ brown-field ” growth – where land that has previously be used is used again. </li></ul>
43. Urban Sprawl and Growth on the Rural-Urban Fringe <ul><li>Benefits of the Fringe </li></ul><ul><li>Land is plentiful and much cheaper than other areas of the city </li></ul><ul><li>The environment is clean and levels of traffic and pollution lower </li></ul><ul><li>It is accessible for people from the suburbs and those who live further away in satellite villages (such as Borinka) </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the rural urban fringe is often the favoured location for new developments such as housing projects (Zahorska Bystrica), shopping facilities (Ikea, Avion) and business parks </li></ul><ul><li>Such growth is considered as “ green-field ” development </li></ul><ul><li>Issues on the Fringe </li></ul><ul><li>Growth on the rural urban fringe is associated with urban sprawl – the spreading of urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding countryside is taken and areas of forest and other natural environments are lost (e.g. on Koliba moving into the Mala Karpaty NP) </li></ul><ul><li>There is competition for land with farmers who are often forced to move </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of traffic and pollution rise within the area, especially associated with people commuting into the CBD for work </li></ul>
44. Rural to urban migration Natural change Counter-urbanisation Re-urbanisation Suburbanisation Urbanisation Urban Processes and Change Bratislava Case Study Rio de Janeiro Case Study
45. Settlement Patterns Rural settlements often form distinctive shapes or patterns ; these can be easily identified on detailed topographical map – 1:25,000 and 1:50,000.
46. Settlement Hierarchy <ul><li>Settlement hierarchy is when settlements within an area or country (e.g. the Bratislava region) are ranked in order of importance based on population size, number and range of services and size of sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere of influence is the area served by a settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Functions are what a settlement does, what is it’s main purpose e.g. tourism, industry, administrative centre, port etc. </li></ul><ul><li>High order services/goods have a high threshold population and large range examples include furniture, cars, electrical items such as TVs, financial expertise etc. These are comparison goods and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Low order services/goods have a low threshold population and small range examples include bread, a newspaper, hairdressing. These are convenience goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Range means the distance somebody is prepared to travel for a particular good or service </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold population is the minimum number of people needed to justify (or support) the provision of a particular good or service. </li></ul>