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Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay
Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay
Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay
Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay
Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay
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Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay

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  • 1. An Introduction to Referencing A reference is required if you: paraphrase (use someone else's ideas in your own words) summarise (use a brief account of someone else's ideas) quote (use someone else's exact words) copy (use someone else's figures, tables or structure) References enhance your writing and assist your reader by: showing the breadth of your research strengthening your academic argument showing the reader the source of your information allowing the reader to consult your sources independently allowing the reader to verify your data (University of Liverpool) Failure to reference correctly other people’s work is plagiarism. In the Extended Essays students are required to include a bibliography in alphabetical order only including references they have cited in the text. There are two recommended methods for citing references in the text both have there advantages and disadvantages. Harvard System This system requires a citation with the name of the author and date of publication. This is then referenced using an alphabetical bibliography. The Harvard System is used in many universities but it does not work very well if you are citing URLs. Numbered Referencing with Footnotes or Endnotes This system requires a citation with just a number. This is then referenced using footnotes or endnotes. To comply with Extended Essay guidelines an alphabetical bibliography is also needed. Microsoft Word or similar software has features designed to help with this system. URLs can be easily cited in the text. Additional information can be added in the footnotes or endnotes. Whatever system you choose to use, you must be consistent with the format of your referencing. Citations in the text using Harvard System The author and date of publication should be quoted. Page numbers should be included. (Goudie, A. 1990, p.34) (Skidmore, T. Smith, P. 1992) (Graham. 1995, p.107 cited in Goldstein 2003) (Geog Bloke 2007) (Smuts, D. 1987) If the citation is for an organisation or the author is unknown.
  • 2. (Economist, 2007) (UNHCR, 2007) When citing a webpage where the author is not given either give the URL up to the first / or the title of the webpage, date of publication or last update; (BBC News Special Reports – Aids Debate, 2004) (www.unhcr.org, 2007) Citations in the text using Numbered System using Microsoft Word INSERT MENU > REFERENCE > FOOTNOTE Using this feature a superscript number1 will automatically be inserted in yo text and you will then be able ur to type the reference either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or the end of the document (endnote) INSERT MENU > REFERENCE > CAPTION INSERT MENU > REFERENCE > INDEX AND TABLES Using this feature you can number your figures and create a table of figures. Footnotes and Endnotes using Number System You must reference your sources in full in your footnotes using the same system as in your alphabetical bibliography. If you are referencing the same source as in the preceding footnote you can shorten the reference using Ibid which means “in the same place”. 1. GOUDIE, A. 1990. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment. Oxford: Blackwell, page 45 2. Ibid., page 56 3. Ibid., page 133 If you are referencing the same source as in a previous footnote you can shorten the reference using Op. Cit. 1. GOUDIE, A. 1990. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment. Oxford: Blackwell, page 45 2. SKIDMORE, T. SMITH, P. 1992. Modern Latin America. Oxford: OUP 3. GOUDIE, Op. Cit. page 133
  • 3. References in an Alphabetical Bibliography for Harvard and Numbered System examples for books… GOUDIE, A. 1990. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment. Oxford: Blackwell SKIDMORE, T. SMITH, P. 1992. Modern Latin America. Oxford: OUP GOLDSTEIN, D.M. 2003. Laughter out of Place. California: UCP examples for journals, magazines and newspapers… ECONOMIST, 2007. China’s Booming Economy, Economist Magazine, 6 October 2007 PETERS, T. 2007. Coming in from the Cold, Teaching Geography, 4, p.12-15 example for organisation reports… UNHCR, 1999. Global Refugee Crisis. Report dated October 1999 example for interviews… SMUTS, D. 1987. Interview with the author on 4 August 1987. Cape Town. [recording in possession of author] examples for email and Internet references… PRITCHARD, S. Your request for Information about Climate Change Models. [online]. Message to: Author. 18 February 2005. [Accessed 3 March 2005]. Personal communication BBC. 2004. The Aids Debate. [online]. [Accessed 28 October 2007]. Available from World Wide Web : http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/talking_point/special/aids/default.stm UNHCR 2007. Chad/Dafur Engergency. [online]. [Accessed 16 September 2007]. Available from World Wide Web : http://www.unhcr.org/chad.html WIKIPEDIA. 2007. Socrates [online]. [Accessed 23 January 2007]. Available from World Wide Web : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Socrates&action=history (Do not overuse Wikipedia if you want to be taken seriously!!!) For more guidence… UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL. 2007 Referencing – A guide for University of Liverpool Online Students [online]. [Accessed 03 November 2007]. Available from the World Wide Web : http://www.liv.ac.uk/library/ohecampus/ref.htm
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