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9 Urban Models Ledc
 

9 Urban Models Ledc

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    9 Urban Models Ledc 9 Urban Models Ledc Presentation Transcript

    • LEDC urban models
    • Rural to urban migration
    • Natural increase
    • Urban Housing Stakeholders Darwell 2007 Supply and demand in the formal housing market. Individuals and Property developers. Private Informal Public Urban poor and new migrants. Informal housing market, operating extra-legally. Availability of land. National govt, local govt, city authorities, urban planners, NGOs, charities.
    • Urban Housing Stakeholders Darwell 2007 Private Informal Public Supply and demand in the formal housing market. Individuals and Property developers. Urban poor and new migrants. Informal housing market, operating extra-legally. Availability of land. National govt, local govt, city authorities, urban planners, NGOs, charities. Top down or bottom up Legal ownership access to capital Profit v social housing
    • Urban Housing Stakeholders Darwell 2007 Private Informal Public Supply and demand in the formal housing market. Individuals and Property developers. Urban poor and new migrants. Informal housing market, operating extra-legally. Availability of land. National govt, local govt, city authorities, urban planners, NGOs, charities. Top down or bottom up Legal ownership access to capital Profit v social housing Residents associations Normalisation programmes and micro loans Affordable housing
    • Basic urban model for an LEDC city. Higher cost housing and higher class residential areas located centrally. Historical core of colonial city. Rapid urban growth expanding the peripheral areas.
    • Urban growth is too rapid for planners and for the city to provide basic urban infrastructure, housing and services. Peripheral areas characterised by poor quality housing and spontaneous settlements as immigrants attempt to satisfy their basic needs of housing and employment through the informal economy.
    • Turner’s Model Fits the profile of a traditional rural to urban migrant. For a young male bridgeheader location near employment is the only priority. They are prepared to live in overcrowded central tenaments or squatter settlements often with extended families. Successful bridgeheaders need to establish themselves and consolidate their status. They seek more space and permanence and become consolidators often building their own home or paying for a more permanent residence, coinciding with starting their own families. Tenure and ownership priority. As an established inhabitant of the city the status seeker will then seek to improve their dwelling and demand more urban services such as health care and education. Amenities priority. Changing Priorities of the urban poor in LEDC cities
    • Turner’s model can be linked to a intra-urban movement of migrants
    • Case study – Shanghai
    • Migrants are attracted to areas with employment opportunities. Proximity to employment the main criteria for migrants when deciding where to locate.
    • Turner's main conclusions were:
      • “ Uncontrolled urban settlement is a manifestation of normal urban growth under the exceptional conditions of rapid urbanisation.
      • Autonomous urban settlement is the product of the difference between the nature of the popular demand for dwellings and those supplied by institutionalised society.
      • The institutional control of urban settlement depends on the encouragement and support of popular initiative through the government servicing of local resources.”
      • Autonomous urban settlements give evidence of improvement over time and organisation by the inhabitants.
      • ‘ Uncontrolled Urban Settlements: Problems and Policies’ in Gerald Breese (ed.), 1972 The City in Newly Developing Countries , Ch 35 p.507.
      • Changes from Turners model
      • Continued rapid urban growth
      • Central locations too full, expensive, inaccessible.
      • No employment opportunities in formal sector.
      • Main criteria becomes simply to be near extended family or kinship groups.
      • Available cheap land on outskirts.
      • As a result of these changes new migrants to mega cities are forced to locate in peripheral spontaneous settlements or tenements, far from central employment opportunities, with the informal sector as the main employment possibility.
    • Problems of the informal economy Low profit No money No investment Low output
      • Relocation and re-housing problems
      • Availability of land
      • Distance from employment for residents
      • Cost of projects
      • Poor standard of housing
      • Lack of urban services provided
      • Social fabric of spontaneous settlement broken up
      • Pointless as residents of spontaneous settlements have already built their dwellings
      • Alternative is to upgrade existing spontaneous settlements and integrate them into the city. Favela Bairro project.
    •  
    • http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/ Very useful website… http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/world/2006/urbanisation/default.stm http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu11ee/uu11ee00.htm#Contents