c. The ratio of the period of rotation squared “ T” of any two planets revolving about the sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their mean distance “R” from the sun.
E. Late 1700’s – Issac Newton – Developed Law of Inertia (an object’s motion will not change unless the object is acted upon by an outside force). Also, orbits are a result of a planet’s tendency to move in a straight line ( direction ), and the gravity of the sun and other celestial bodies (ex: moon).
b. The side of the planet tilted away from the sun, is receiving less direct sunlight and shorter days (winter). c. During the period of revolution where the earth is not tilted towards or away from sun are autumn and spring.
d. Any planet that is tilted on its axis will have seasons . e. These changes of the seasons are marked by specific dates: i. Summer solstice (June 20/21) – the sun appears at its highest point in the sky. Longest day of the year ii. Winter solstice (December 21/22) – the N. Hemisphere is at full tilt away from sun. Shortest day of the year.
iii. Autumnal equinox – (day and night equal) September 22/23 iv. Vernal equinox – (day and night equal) March 20/21
1. How is the earth positioned relative to the sun during the summer in the Northern Hemisphere? (you can draw this)
The earth is tilted toward the sun.
2. Why is it necessary that we have an extra day every four years? (hint: think about the period of revolution for the earth) Because is takes 365.26 days for the earth to orbit the sun.
3. Describe how living conditions on earth might change if the earth’s axis were straight up and down instead of tilted. There would not be a change of seasons.
4. What two factors dictate the elliptical orbit pattern of all the planets? What would happen to the orbit of the planets if the sun were to shrink? Inertia and gravity The force of gravity would be less therefore the orbit would increase.
C. Slowly changes over time and completely reverses the field after a period of time. D. Importance of the magnetic field: a. Is important for navigation around the planet. b. Shields earth from cosmic radiation
E. Field creates the magnetosphere – area of space that is affected by the magnetic field. Begins 1000km in earth’s atmosphere and extends 64,000km into space on side facing sun and millions of kilometers into space on side of earth facing away from the sun (due to solar wind , blowing the sphere out into space)
B. 384,403km away from earth. This was determined when astronauts placed a small mirror on the moon and a laser was bounced off the mirror from earth. The time to travel to the moon was timed and used to determine the distance, based on the speed of light .
G. The Moon appears to move west across the sky (because of the rotation of the earth) but actually moves eastward (retrograde rotation). You can observe the moon relative to stars and you will observe the eastward motion of the earth.
V. Outcome of movements of earth, moon and sun A. Phases of the moon - The phases are the result of what sunlight is reflected by the moon.
2. Lunar Eclipse – When the earth is between the sun and the full moon , causing the earth’s shadow to fall on the moon (looks dark and coppery color, due to the bending of light waves). Label the bodies below: sun, moon, earth
d. Full moon and new moons result in higher tides ( spring tides ) because the moon and sun are in direct line with the earth, increasing the gravitational pull . First quarter and last quarter of the moon phases are the high tides that are lower than usual (neap tides) because the moon and sun are at 90o with the earth, there is less gravitational pull