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Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
Chapter 2  current issues
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Chapter 2 current issues

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  • 1. Chapter 2 – Current Issues in Earth and Environmental Science Why is the Earth in trouble?
  • 2. <ul><li>I. Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. What is Earth Science? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition – the study of the Earth, its history, its changes, and its place in the universe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3.  
  • 4. <ul><li>2. Branches of Earth Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Geology – Earth’s origin, history, and structure </li></ul></ul>
  • 5.  
  • 6. b. Meteorology – Earth’s atmosphere, weather, and climate
  • 7.  
  • 8. c. Oceanography - Earth’s oceans, including physical features, life forms, and natural resources
  • 9.  
  • 10. d. Astronomy – the position, composition, size, and other characteristics of the planets, stars, and objects in space
  • 11.  
  • 12. <ul><li>B. What is Environmental Science? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition – the study of the environments in which organisms live and how they interact </li></ul></ul>
  • 13.  
  • 14. 2. An integrated science that includes elements of biology, chemistry, and physics 3. Incorporates the impact of human activities , both planned and unplanned, on the environment
  • 15. <ul><li>II. History of Human Influence on the Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Hunter-Gatherer Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Humans lived as hunter-gatherers from the time of their appearance on Earth (60,000-90,000 years ago) until about 12,000 years ago </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16.  
  • 17. <ul><li>2. Ways of life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Nomadic – moved around to find enough food for survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Used earth wisdom – expert knowledge of natural surroundings (which animals and plants can be eaten or used as medicines, where to find water, how to predict the weather) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Used sunlight, fire, and muscle power for sources of energy </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>B. Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Occurred about 10,000-12,000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Ways of Life: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Settled into communities and had larger families; eventually urbanization ( development of cities ) became practical – led to the first surge in human population growth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 19.  
  • 20. b. Cultivated plants and domesticated animals for human use Ex. wheat, rice, cows, horses c. Cleared vast amounts of land and used more non-renewable resources
  • 21.  
  • 22. <ul><li>C. Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Began in the mid 1700’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Ways of life: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Human population grew exponentially </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Production, commerce, trade, and distribution of goods all expanded rapidly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Became heavily dependent on non-renewable resources and fossil fuels, resulting in increased air, water, and land pollution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 23.  
  • 24. <ul><li>III. Current Environmental Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Resource Consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Renewable vs. Non-renewable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Renewable resources are those that are inexhaustible on a human time scale; ex. solar energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 25.  
  • 26. b. Non-renewable resources exist in a fixed quantity and can be exhausted; ex. fossil fuels, metals
  • 27.  
  • 28. c. Potentially renewable resources can be replenished, as long as they are not used at a rate higher than the rate of replenishment; ex. trees, fertile soil, fresh water
  • 29.  
  • 30. <ul><ul><ul><li>2. The Tragedy of the Commons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Common property resources are those that are owned by no one (or jointly owned by all users) but are available to all users free of charge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Despite its reception as revolutionary, Hardin’s tragedy was not a new concept: its intellectual roots trace back to Aristotle who noted that &quot;what is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it&quot;
  • 31.  
  • 32. <ul><ul><ul><li>b. Examples include clean air, the open ocean, and public lands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. The cumulative effect of many people exploiting a common property resource will eventually exhaust or ruin it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 33. 3. More people = less resources - An increase in the human population leads to the use of more natural resources, however, the quantity of these non-renewable resources is not increasing
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. 4. Results in damage to the Earth from extraction and processing - Natural resources must be obtained by mining the earth or seas , and vast quantities of energy must be used to process these resources and convert them to useful products
  • 38.  
  • 39. <ul><ul><ul><li>B. Pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Definition – any addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 40. <ul><li>2. More people = more pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Air pollution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants can be added to the atmosphere from automobiles, industry, power plants , and other source </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ii. Air pollutants can lead to other problems such as ozone depletion, acid precipitation, and climate change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. <ul><li>b. Water pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. Pollutants may be added to our water from direct sources such as industries or animal waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii. Land pollution can become water pollution as it runs off into our water or infiltrates into our groundwater </li></ul></ul>
  • 44.  
  • 45. <ul><li>c. Land pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. Pollutants may be added to our land directly (ie. pesticides ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii. People produce large amounts of waste , much of it hazardous, which may be considered pollution </li></ul></ul>
  • 46.  
  • 47. <ul><li>C. Biodiversity loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Biodiversity – the variety of different species on Earth, the genetic variability of those species, and the variety of ecosystems in which they exist </li></ul></ul>
  • 48.  
  • 49. <ul><li>2. More people = less biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. With human population growth, more land is needed for development and agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. The main reason for loss of biodiversity is habitat loss or degradation </li></ul></ul>
  • 50.  
  • 51. <ul><li>IV. Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Definition – the ability of a system to survive and function over a specified period of time </li></ul></ul>
  • 52. B. Our goal is to become a “ sustainable society ” – one that manages its economy and population size without exceeding the Earth’s ability to absorb environmental impact, replenish resources, and sustain humans and other forms of life indefinitely
  • 53.  
  • 54. C. We can use Earth and Environmental science to learn more about how nature sustains itself and how to mimic these processes in human cultures

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