Philosophies of Education, Curriculum, Goals & Standards
PHILOSOPHIES OFEDUCATIONCURRICULUM DEFINEDGOALS AND STANDARDSTCHR 6011
Philosophy of Education Behind every school is aset of related beliefs—aphilosophy of education—that influences what andhow students are taught. A philosophy of educationanswers questions aboutthe purpose of schooling,a teacher’s role, whatshould be taught, and howlearning should occur.
Major Philosophies of Education Essentialism: teaches the essential elements ofacademic and moral knowledge. “Get back tobasics.” “Teach core curriculum.” Perennialism: focuses on universal truths that havestood the test of time. Urge students to read GreatBooks and know concepts that underlie humanknowledge. Curriculum is constant. Progressivism: lessons must be relevant tostudents. Curriculum is built around experiences,interests, and needs of students and isinterdisciplinary and integrative.
Major philosophies of education,cont. Social reconstructionism: followers separated fromprogressivism because they wanted more directattention to societal ills. Want to combine study andsocial action and believe that education shouldameliorate social problems. Curriculum is on trendsand issues of national and international interests. Existentialism: free will is critical; individuals shapetheir own futures. Students control their educationand assume responsibility for their actions.
Constructivism Originated from cognitivepsychology (Lev Vygotsky) Based on the idea that peopleconstruct their own understandingof the world Constructivist teachers gaugestudents’ prior knowledge andthen orchestrate classroomexperiences to push students tohigher levels of understanding.
Behaviorism Originated with B. F.Skinner. Rewards motivate studentsto learn material even ifthey don’t fully understandits value. Behavior modification is asystem of graduallylessening extrinsic rewards.
So what? When an educator holds a particular philosophy, theguiding principles of the philosophy are translatedinto the school and classroom. How they are interpreted is decided by the state, thelocal community, the school board, the schoolsystem, the school, and the individual teacher. When these philosophical views work in tandem,students learn. So how do we decide what students should learn?
What is Curriculum? Root word is “currere” meaning “to run”—as in“running course” Defined as all those experiences students havewhile engaged in the process of schooling
1. What educational purposes should the schoolseek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can beprovided that are likely to attain thesepurposes? 3. How can these educational experiences beeffectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether thesepurposes are being attained?Curriculum expert Ralph Tylerasked these questions in 1947—they still stand as the goldstandard!
Elements of Curriculum Formal curriculum Informal curriculum Hidden curriculum Integratedcurriculum
Formal curriculum Includes the standardsubjects (reading, writing,arithmetic, for example) Instructional procedures State and local guidelinesand policies define theformal curriculum for whatshould be taught.
Informal curriculum Classroom and school rules Has to do with teacher-student relationships(affect; expectations) Discipline policy Extracurricular programs Dress codes Language usage Guidelines for behavior outside of school butfor school activities
What’s the connection between theformal and informal curriculum? Does the informal curriculum determine theeffectiveness of the formal curriculum? Does the informal curriculum determine studentachievement? Does the formal curriculum totally define theschool? Does the formal curriculum “stay” with the studentas long or longer than the informal curriculum?
Hidden curriculum Defined as what we teach but never actuallysay Often thought to be the same as informal—butis different Has to do with the “distribution of power”—howstudents are viewed by self and others; self-worth Influences not only what and how they learn,but later stations in life Perpetuates inequality
Integrated curriculum Interrelatedness between subject/curriculumareas Integration of: Students’ past experiences Students and school space (classroom media center,cafeteria, hallways) Students’ interests with subject matter Variation of age groups Lives of teachers with each other and with lives ofstudents Students’ home lives and their school lives
Spiral Curriculum Curriculum in whichstudents repeat thestudy of a subject atdifferent grade levels,each time at a higherlevel of difficulty andin greater depth.
Other curriculum types Electronic curriculum: learning that occurs whilesearching for information on the Internet; studentsneed critical-learning skills to determine thequality of information within this curriculum. Tested curriculum: body of information on whichstudents will be tested. Teachers who put moreemphasis on tested curriculum may overlook thewritten/formal curriculum. Null curriculum: materials or subjects that areNOT being taught.
What is a goal? It gives us asense ofdirection. It is a generalexpression of ourcommon values. It’s writtenbroadly enoughto be acceptableto large numbersof people.
Goal development process Ralph Tyler set the standard for establishinggoals. He named 5 critical components that havebeen used since 1934!1. Subject matter mastery2. Societal concerns3. Student needs and interests4. Schools’ educational philosophy and priorities5. What is known about instruction and research
Who has set the goals for NorthCarolina’s schools? How long hasNorth Carolina hadits goals? Have these goalschanged? Why? What makes thegoals “good” or“bad”?
Common Core Standards http://www.governor.state.nc.us/NewsItems/PressReleaseDetail.aspx?newsItemID=1156 http://www.corestandards.org/
Common Core The Common Core State Standards Initiative hasbeen a state-led effort coordinated by two nationalgroups: National Governors Association Center forBest Practices AND the Council of Chief StateSchool Officers. New academic core standards were developedand experts across the nation worked to provideclarity and consistency in standards for schoolsacross state lines. These standards have been accepted for use inNorth Carolina beginning in 2012, replacing theNorth Carolina Standard Course of Study.
Common Core We need standards to ensure that all students,no matter where they live, are prepared forsuccess in postsecondary education and theworkforce. Common standards will help ensure thatstudents are receiving a high quality educationconsistently, from school to school and state tostate. Common standards will provide a greateropportunity to share experiences and bestpractices within and across states that willimprove our ability to best serve the needs ofstudents.
Common Standards(from website) Standards do not tell teachers how to teach, but they dohelp teachers figure out the knowledge and skills theirstudents should have so that teachers can build the bestlessons and environments for their classrooms. Standards help students and parents by setting clear andrealistic goals for success. Standards are a first step in providing our young peoplewith a high-quality education that will prepare them forsuccess in college and work. Of course, standards are not the only thing that isneeded for our children’s success, but they provide anaccessible roadmap for our teachers, parents, andstudents.
More about the standards Are aligned with college and work expectations Are clear, understandable and consistent Include rigorous content and application ofknowledge through high-order skills Build upon strengths and lessons of current statestandards Are informed by other top performing countries, sothat all students are prepared to succeed in ourglobal economy and society Are evidence-based