Life-Cycle Assessment of Salmon Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Northeast Pacific

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Life-Cycle Assessment of Salmon Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Northeast Pacific

  1. 1. Life-Cycle Assessment of Salmon Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Northeast Pacific A Presentation for LCM2007 Zurich, Switzerland August 2007 Credit: American Rivers <ul><li>Sarah Kruse 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Astrid Scholz 1 , Ulf Sonesson 2 , </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Tyedmers 3 , Nathan Ayer 3 , </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Flysjö 2 , and Nathan Pelletier 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotrust </li></ul><ul><li>SIK-Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Dalhousie University </li></ul>
  2. 2. Project Overview <ul><li>LCA of major salmon fishing & farming systems globally </li></ul><ul><li>Complimented by ecological and socio-economic dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: North-East Pacific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 2005 to March 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: North-East Atlantic and Chile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 2007 to December 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Project Overview Source: Bjørndal et al. 2003 BC, wild 21,000 MT
  4. 4. Methodological Issues <ul><li>Functional unit: mass of salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs to salmon feed and salmon processing co-products allocated based on energy content or mass </li></ul><ul><li>Effort invested in ecological and socio-economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Focus today on results of conventional LCA </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming potential </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone depletion potential </li></ul><ul><li>Acidification potential </li></ul>
  5. 5. LCA of Salmon Fishing <ul><li>Alaskan: </li></ul><ul><li>Purse Seine </li></ul><ul><li>Drift Gillnet </li></ul><ul><li>Troll </li></ul><ul><li>Fillets: </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen </li></ul><ul><li>Smoked </li></ul>Fish in Wild Landing & Sale Storage & Wholesale Home Preparation Retail Fishing Processing & Packaging Transport link
  6. 6. LCA of Salmon Farming Also modeled alternative feeds … and grow-out systems Storage & Wholesale Home Preparation Retail Processing & Packaging <ul><li>Fillets: </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen </li></ul><ul><li>Smoked </li></ul>Transport Link Fish in wild Reduction fisheries Agriculture Hatchery & Grow-out Processing Processing Feed Milling
  7. 7. Results – Farming Systems <ul><li>Within conventional farming system, feed provision is key </li></ul>Relative contributions to GHG emissions per live tonne of farmed Atlantic salmon produced in BC to the dock (total emissions 2.1 t CO 2 eq./tonne)
  8. 8. Results – Farming Systems <ul><li>Within conventional farming system, animal-derived inputs contribute disproportionately </li></ul>Percent Contribution Relative contribution by mass and GHG emissions per tonne of farmed salmon feed milled to the gate
  9. 9. Results – Farming Systems <ul><li>Alternative culture systems address some issues of local ecological concern but may contribute to global challenges </li></ul>DFO, n.d. Future SEA systems, n.d. Agrimarine, n.d.
  10. 10. Results – Farming Systems <ul><li>Alternative culture systems address some issues of local ecological concern but may contribute to global challenges </li></ul>GHG emissions per live weight tonne of salmon produced in conventional net pen and alternative containment systems to the farm gate GHG Emissions (kg CO 2 eq./tonne) BC electricity mix
  11. 11. Results – Farming Systems <ul><li>Alternative culture systems address some issues of local ecological concern but may contribute to global challenges </li></ul>GHG emissions per live weight tonne of salmon produced in conventional net pen and alternative containment systems GHG Emissions (kg CO 2 eq./tonne) BC electricity mix Canadian elect.mix
  12. 12. Results – Fishing Systems <ul><li>Within fisheries, fuel use while fishing is key </li></ul>GHG Emissions (kg CO 2 eq./tonne) GHG emissions from Alaskan troll, drift gillnet and purse seine fisheries for salmon up to the dock
  13. 13. Results – Location Matters GHG Emissions (kg CO 2 equiv.) Wild Alaska Purse Seine Sockeye Farmed BC Atlantic Cradle-to-Fork GHG Emissions to Deliver a 225 gram fillet to Consumer in San Francisco
  14. 14. Results: Contributions to O 3 Depletion O 3 Depleting Emissions (kg CFC-11 eq.) Wild Alaska Purse Seine Sockeye Farmed BC Atlantic Cradle-to-Fork Ozone Depleting Emissions to Deliver a 225 gram fillet to Consumer in San Francisco
  15. 15. Results: Contribution to Acidification Wild Alaska Purse Seine Sockeye Farmed BC Atlantic Cradle-to-Fork Acidifying Emissions to Deliver a 225 gram fillet to Consumer in San Francisco Acidifying Emissions (g SO 2 equiv.)
  16. 16. Results – Novel Use of LCA Data <ul><li>Can calculate the integrated “food miles” and associated emission intensity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Results – Novel Use of LCA Data <ul><li>Can calculate the integrated “food miles” and associated emission intensity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Results – Novel Use of LCA <ul><li>Food miles and associated emissions </li></ul>Integrated transport distance and resulting GHG emissions associated with delivery of 225 gm salmon fillet to San Francisco Feed Related
  19. 19. Summary of Findings <ul><li>How salmon are “produced” is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Up to the dock: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In farming, feeds are key—large scope for improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-based systems can exacerbate some global concerns in addressing local issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In fishing, fuel input is key—hard to improve on purse seining but trolling… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where salmon are “produced” can be important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects source of primary energy for electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport mode matters—potentially more than “food miles”, and is driven in part by product form and production locale </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lenfest Ocean Program </li></ul><ul><li>Project team </li></ul><ul><li>Consultants N. Kasperczyk, M. Gorny, J. Ford, N. Arsenault </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotrust communications and design staff </li></ul><ul><li>Countless generous data sources </li></ul>

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