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Evaluating Basins for Salmon Conservation across the North Pacific: Abundance, Diversity and Threats
 

Evaluating Basins for Salmon Conservation across the North Pacific: Abundance, Diversity and Threats

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    Evaluating Basins for Salmon Conservation across the North Pacific: Abundance, Diversity and Threats Evaluating Basins for Salmon Conservation across the North Pacific: Abundance, Diversity and Threats Presentation Transcript

    • Evaluating Basins for Salmon Conservation across the North Pacific: Abundance, Diversity and Threats Matthew Goslin – Ecotrust Malin Pinsky – Wild Salmon Center, Stanford Dane Springmeyer – Wild Salmon Center Jon Bonkoski – Ecotrust Presented at American Association of Geographers, April 2007 Society for Conservation GIS, June 2007
    • Background
      • The State of the Salmon program:
      • “ Knowledge across borders”
      • a joint program of
      • Ecotrust:
      • “ Building a conservation economy”
      • The Wild Salmon Center:
      • “ Dedicated to conserving the most important places for salmon across the North Pacific”
    • Current Wild Salmon Center Program Areas
    • Pacific Salmon Conservation Assessment (PSCA)
      • Prioritizing investments in North Pacific salmon conservation
        • An Outcome:
          • Design North Pacific Network of salmon conservation rivers
        • A Tool:
          • Explore patterns in salmon abundance and relationships to landscape characteristics and threats
          • Available for others to use and explore data
        • A Process:
          • Collaborative
          • Transparent
          • Continual improvement
    • Assessment Criteria
      • Hatchery Influence
      • Landscape SuitabilityThreats
        • Dams, Urban & Agricultural Development
      Abundance Species and Life History Richness Conservation Value
    • Study Area and Watershed Units
      • Key issue – uniform scale and data quality across region
      • 915 watershed units evaluated
        • Current range of anadromous Pacific salmon
        • Excluded areas in far north (Arctic) and far south (Honshu) with limited salmon presence and/or unavailable data
      • Hydro1k level5 catchments (USGS 2003)
        • Derived from 1km resolution global DEMs
        • Size range 92 – 35,000 km2; average 4,300 km2
        • Edited to correct egregious errors in boundaries using Digital Chart of the World hydrography for reference
    • Hydro1k Units
    • PSCA Study Area and Historic Range of Salmon
    • North Pacific Salmon Species Assessed
      • Oncorhynchus spp.
        • median, max for hydro1k catchments
      • Chinook (King) – O. tshawytscha
        • 3,500 median; 109,000 max
      • Chum – O. keta
        • 26,000 median; 5,000,000 max
      • Coho – O. kisutch
        • 10,000 median; 1,100,000 max
      • Pink – O. gorbuscha
        • 57,000 median; 18,000,000 max
      • Sockeye – O. nerka
        • 19,000 median; 9,900,000 max
      • Steelhead – O. mykiss
        • 1,000 median; 41,000 max
    • Estimating Abundance
        • Compiled from agency reports, published literature, expert judgment
        • Typically took annual average over the most recent 4 yrs of data (2001-2005), but where recent data was unavailable went back to earliest available post-1960
        • Attempted to exclude hatchery fish, intent to include wild only
        • Direct measures include catch, escapement (number of returning adult spawners), harvest rate etc.
        • Total adult abundance
          • = catch * % wild + escapement * %wild
          • = catch / harvest rate * %wild
          • = escapement * % wild / (1 – harvest rate )
        • Most widely available data are maps of salmon distribution with occupied stream length the most common metric
    • Estimating Abundance: Geographic Methods
      • Allocate abundance measured over multiple catchments and apportioned to individual catchments by relative occupied stream length within each catchment
      • Expand abundance measured within a portion of a watershed to the full catchment using occupied stream length
      • Extrapolate abundance into catchments with no data using regional linear models relating abundance to occupied stream length
    • Methods of Estimating Abundance for Coho
    • Chinook Abundance
    • Chum Abundance
    • Coho Abundance
    • Pink Abundance
    • Sockeye Abundance
    • Steelhead Abundance
    • Species and Life History Richness
      • Life history richness defined as the number of distinct migration timings for a given salmon species within a given watershed (e.g. fall, winter, spring, summer or even/odd years)
      • Migration timing is genetically linked and represents distinct life history strategies that are adaptations to local conditions and flow timing.
    • Life History Richness for Chinook
    • Species and Life History Richness
    • Integrating Abundance and Richness into a Conservation Value Index
      • How you choose to calculate your index determines what it shows you!
      Option 1 scales the abundance of each species in each watershed by the maximum abundance possible for that species across the N. Pacific, equalizing species Where A i,j is abundance of species j in watershed i , p is total number of species, T is total number of watersheds, R is life history richness and maxNP is the maximum value across the North Pacific Option 2 divides abundance of each species in each watershed by the total abundance for that species acroos the N. Pacific, giving rare species more weight
    • Conservation Value derived from Life History Richness and Abundance Scaled by North Pacific Maximum per Species
    • Conservation Value derived from Life History Richness and Abundance Scaled by North Pacific Total per Species
    • Pacific Salmon Ecoregions: distinguished by major marine features and basins
    • Potential Priority Watersheds: Watersheds with High-Ranking Conservation Values Distributed across Salmon Ecoregions
    • Assessing Landscape Suitability and Threats
        • Data Sources:
        • Agricultural and Urban Land Areas
          • Global Landuse Landcover (USGS)
        • Dams
          • State of the Salmon Dams Inventory
        • Hatcheries
          • State of the Salmon Hatcheries Inventory
      • Threats can be incorporated into the Conservation Value Index as negative terms or...
      • Relationships can be explored between the Conservation Value and the threat indices as explanatory variables
    • Pacific Salmon Hatcheries
    • Hatcheries by Catchment
    • Landscape Suitability Indices: Urban Land Use
    • Landscape Suitability Indices: Agriculture
    • Dams within Pacific Salmon Basins
    • Modeling Dam Impacts on Fish Passage through a Stream Network Using ArcGIS Network Analyst and the TRACE ACCUMULATE function, stream networks are traced upstream starting from the basin’s outlet. “Impedance” values that are associated with dams and represent a reduction in stream passability for migrating salmon are accumulated through the network.
    • Modeling Dam Impacts on Fish Passage through a Stream Network Stream passability declines as a percent of its previous passability. Each passable dam encountered reduces passability by 10% of the pre-dam passability. Cumulative impedance represents cumulative reduction in stream passability. Impassable dams reduce passability to 0 and impedance becomes 1. ( 1 - .73) = .27 (.81 - .81 * .1) = .73 .81 ( 1 - .81) = .19 (.90 - .90 * .1 ) = .81 .90 ( 1 - .90) = .10 (1.0 - 1.0 * .1) = .90 1.00 Post-dam Pre-dam Cumulative Impedance Passability
    • Impedance to Fish Passage: Columbia, Snake and Sacramento River mainstems
    • Impedance to Fish Passage through Stream Networks: Pacific Northwest and Northern California
    • Calculating a Dam Impact Index for Watersheds from Traced Stream Networks
      • For each watershed the dam index is calculated as
      • Examples:
      • A watershed with 10% of streams above an impassable dam will have dam index = .10
      • 2) A watershed with 100% of streams above one passable dam will also have dam index = .10
    • Dam Impact (Impedance) Index by Watershed: Pacific Northwest and California
    • Index of Dam Impacts on Fish Passage
    • Combined Landscape Threat Index: derived from PCA of Dams, Ag and Urban Indices
    • Conservation Value Versus Threats and Potential Conservation Strategies Restoration-oriented, Reactive Strategy Protection-oriented, Proactive Strategy Threat Value
    • Future Direction
      • Complete hatchery database and design impact analysis for hatcheries
      • Expand analysis of dam impacts to include downstream effects
      • Explore relationships between abundance or conservation value and threats further
      • Continue to explore and decide how to incorporate threat indices into conservation value index
    • Acknowledgements
      • Malin Pinsky, Dane Springmeyer, David Colbeck (WSC)
      • Jon Bonkoski (Ecotrust)
      • Scientific Advisory Team:
        • Xan Augerot, Paul McElhany, Gordon Reeves, Kelly Burnett, Peter Moyle, Jeff Rodgers, Karl English, Greg Ruggerone, Jack Stanford, Rob Ahrens, Peter Moyle, Randall Peterman
      • Russian Advisors:
        • Sergei Zolotukhin, Anatoly Semenchenko