Peatlands, carbon and climate change


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Peatlands, carbon and climate change

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  • im Folgenden will ich am konkreten Beispiel die Herangehensweise zeigen
  • im Folgenden will ich am konkreten Beispiel die Herangehensweise zeigen
  • This picture shows the location of a peat dome in the flood plain in between two lowland rivers. A substantial part of the peat dome is located above river water surface. These forms of peatlands are called bogs, they are oligotrophic (poor in nutrients) and rain water fed. The peat lies like a gigantic drop a water on the lowland plain, held together by the dead organic material and protected by a blanket of living forest that maintains a humid micro-climate and prevents direct solar impact.
  • First click: Some relatively minor emissions are derived from peatlands in arctic and sub-arctic zones Second click: More substantial emissions are derived from peatlands in the temperate zones and tropical zones of the Americas Third click: The most substantial emissions, covering over 70% of global peat-based emissions are from SE Asia.
  • Most concentrated land-use related CO2 emissions in the world Greater
  • Peatlands, carbon and climate change

    1. 1. UN-FCCC Bonn meeting June 2009 Peatlands, carbon and climate change [email_address]
    2. 2. Countries with most peat <ul><li>World wide 400 million ha </li></ul><ul><li>3% of global land area </li></ul><ul><li>40% of all wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>In all climate zones </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Peatlands occur everywhere … from the tundra … </li></ul></ul>Yakutia, Russian Federation
    4. 4. the tropics… Berbak National Park, Indonesia
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>… from the mountains … </li></ul></ul>Kyrgystan
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Over permafrost </li></ul></ul>NWT, Canada
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Under grasslands … </li></ul></ul>Sichuan, China
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>… along the rivers … </li></ul></ul>Kyrgystan Ruaha River Tanzania
    9. 9. Archangelsk, RF <ul><ul><li>… to the sea … </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><ul><li>… to the end of the Earth… </li></ul></ul>Tierra del Fuego Argentina
    11. 11. But peatlands are overlooked… <ul><li>Unfamiliarity </li></ul><ul><li>Large diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peatland habitat diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>climate conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial heterogeneity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thickness, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>landuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><li>Variability of parameters over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-use </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Mineral Soil Peat: Organic matter accumulated over thousands of years, storing concentrated carbon in thick layers Peat dome What are peatlands? River River < 1m > 3m Tropical peat swamp forest Organic carbon The peat bog is rain water fed
    13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Peatlands are water </li></ul></ul>Flow Country, Scotland
    14. 14. Peat, carbon and climate change <ul><li>Globally peatlands store 550 Giga ton (Gt) Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to 30% of terrestrial carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twice the carbon stored in forest biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of all carbon in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global emissions 2 - 3 Gt CO2 / yr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 30 - 40% of LULUCF </li></ul></ul>Peatlands store large amounts of carbon Peatland degradation leads to GHG emissions which contribute to global warming
    15. 15. <ul><li>C-sink: ~ 250 Mt “CO 2 ” a -1 </li></ul><ul><li>C-source: ~ 10 Mt CH 4 a -1 = ~ 250 Mt CO 2 -eq </li></ul><ul><li>100 y time horizon </li></ul>In longer-term peatlands are climate cooling
    16. 16. Kalimantan, Indonesia Drainage: emissions of up to 100 t CO 2 -eq ha -1 y -1 … that continue for many decades
    17. 17. Hotspots of CO 2 emissions from drained peat <ul><li>SE Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>5-8% of global emissions </li></ul><ul><li>world’s main source area of peat emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 0.5% of land surface 9-15% of global emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ half from Annex 1 countries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. SE Asian peatland emissions disproportionately high <ul><li>6% of global </li></ul><ul><li>peat area </li></ul><ul><li>50-70% of global peat emissions </li></ul><ul><li>< 0.1% of global land area </li></ul><ul><li>5-8% of global CO 2 emissions </li></ul>Indonesia Malaysia Russia N America SE Asia
    19. 19. <ul><li>Peatland issues </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Tropical peat forest deforestation <ul><li>Peatland deforestation: </li></ul><ul><li>since 2000: 1.5%/yr: twice the rate for non-peatlands </li></ul><ul><li>currently 45% deforested </li></ul><ul><li>96% degraded </li></ul><ul><li>Peat forest conservation </li></ul><ul><li>< 5% of total peatland area </li></ul>
    21. 21. Logging and drainage <ul><li>Channels used to transport equipment and logs </li></ul><ul><li>Result: drainage and oxidation of peat soil </li></ul><ul><li>High emissions of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased fire risks </li></ul>
    22. 22. Conversion SE Asian peat forest areas A total of about 13 million ha of SE Asian peat swamps have been drained for agriculture and plantations
    23. 23. On the issue of continued emissions Conversion of peatswamp rainforest to oil palm plantation carbon store (t C ha -1 ) years after conversion 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 10 20 30 40 50 loss: > 430 tC/ha loss: > 130 tC/ha
    24. 24. Peat drainage increases the risk of fires <ul><li>Between 1997 and 2006 there were over 60,000 fires in peat swamp areas on Borneo in 3 out of 10 years (1997, 1998, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Most affected were deforested and drained peatlands </li></ul>Adapted from data provided by Siegert and Page
    25. 25. Rewetting CO 2 N 2 O CH 4
    26. 26. What if current ignorance continues No incentive mechanism to address 2-3 GT CO 2 -eq emissions No incentive to deal with almost half of LULUCF
    27. 27. Peat in REDD <ul><li>Include all 5 carbon pools (IPCC 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Most promising mechanism for addressing emissions from degraded peat swamp forests </li></ul><ul><li>Include emissions from deforested peatlands (i.e. emissions resulting from past deforestation) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar mechanism needed for non-forest peatlands </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude drained plantations </li></ul>
    28. 28. REDD for peat forests recommendations <ul><li>Support developing countries to get REDDI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventories and assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRV capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community-based, pro-poor approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New mechanisms for equitable sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local ownership and capacity </li></ul></ul>Bio-rights
    29. 29. Rapid action needed or 2020…?