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Trends in Early-Seral Forest  at the Stand and Landscape Scales Paul D. Anderson & Janet Ohmann PNW Research Station, USDA...
Factors influencing forest composition and structure Regional scale Local scale Landscape and regional pattern Population ...
Factors influencing forest composition and structure Regional scale Local scale Landscape and regional pattern Population ...
Outline <ul><li>Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custodial Management </li></ul></ul><ul...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Custodial Management (Pre-World War II) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest ...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Production Forestry: 1940s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained Y...
Production Forestry: Natural Regeneration or Planting? Seed Source? Seed bed? Advanced Regeneration? Stock? Planting Sites...
Production Forestry: Site Preparation and Vegetation Control Photo: James N. Long, Utah State University, www.forestryimag...
Production Forestry: Vegetation Control Adapted from Wagner (2000) Tree Growth Variable of Concern Level of Vegetation Con...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management:  1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management:  1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management:  1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management:  1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened...
Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management:  1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened...
Historical Trend in Regional Silviculture Activity: Reforestation
Historical Trend in Regional Silviculture Activity: Timber Stand Improvement
Trends in Forest Harvest: Siuslaw NF
Some Current Issues in Silviculture Research <ul><li>Intensive Silviculture </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to Clearcutting...
Intensive Silviculture Photo: David Larson, USFS Photo: David Larson, USFS e
AGENDA 2020: Forest Products Industry - “Focusing Research, Development & Demonstration” <ul><li>National Strategy </li></...
Alternatives to Clearcutting & Thinning for Structural Diversity: Regional Large-Scale Silviculture Research Photo: USDA F...
Alternatives to Clearcutting & Thinning for Structural Diversity: Regional Large-Scale Silviculture Research Photo courtes...
Ongoing Large-Scale Silviculture Experiments of western Oregon and Washington 1,000   ft 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 90 80 100 ...
Regional Large-Scale Silviculture Research: Response Variables <ul><li>Vegetation – overstory & midstory 12 </li></ul><ul>...
Restoration of Forest Stands <ul><li>Insect and Disease Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian Functions and Habitats </li>...
Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Dan Mik...
Timbered Rock Reforestation Alternatives Passive Intensive Treatment Management Intensity Management Priorities Natural De...
Summary: Silvicultural Practices and Early-Seral Forests <ul><li>Historical changes in management objectives have been ass...
( Paul  - Stop Talking!) Thank You
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Paul D. Anderson - Trends in Early Seral Forest at the Stand and Landscape Scales

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Paul D. Anderson - Trends in Early Seral Forest at the Stand and Landscape Scales

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  • Now widely recognized that plant community struc. (and how it’s expressed as landscape pattern) results from many interacting factors, envt. and disturbance/processes, that operate from local to regional scales. What you see on any point on the ground = function of time since disturbance, and kind of disturb., and location along biophysical gradients. Historically (pre-European settlement): natural disturbance regimes produced dynamic mosaics of vegetation types. Current landscape: disturbance regime dominated by timber harvest and management activities and fire exclusion, constrained by ownership and management goals. However, underlying environmental gradients still have a strong imprint.
  • Now widely recognized that plant community struc. (and how it’s expressed as landscape pattern) results from many interacting factors, envt. and disturbance/processes, that operate from local to regional scales. What you see on any point on the ground = function of time since disturbance, and kind of disturb., and location along biophysical gradients. Historically (pre-European settlement): natural disturbance regimes produced dynamic mosaics of vegetation types. Current landscape: disturbance regime dominated by timber harvest and management activities and fire exclusion, constrained by ownership and management goals. However, underlying environmental gradients still have a strong imprint.
  • Reserve paradigm won’t work for a forest condition that’s tied to disturbance and short-lived in the successional sequence – new approaches needed
  • Transcript of "Paul D. Anderson - Trends in Early Seral Forest at the Stand and Landscape Scales"

    1. 1. Trends in Early-Seral Forest at the Stand and Landscape Scales Paul D. Anderson & Janet Ohmann PNW Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, Oregon
    2. 2. Factors influencing forest composition and structure Regional scale Local scale Landscape and regional pattern Population processes: biotic, social/economic Topography, microclimate, substrate Species interactions Climate History Community composition, structure Disturbance ( human: forest management, land use; natural: fire, wind, insects) land ownership
    3. 3. Factors influencing forest composition and structure Regional scale Local scale Landscape and regional pattern Population processes: biotic, social/economic Topography, microclimate, substrate Species interactions Climate History Community composition, structure Disturbance ( human: forest management , land use; natural: fire, wind, insects) land ownership
    4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custodial Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Emphases in Silviculture Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to Clearcutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration Management </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Custodial Management (Pre-World War II) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest of old-growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts at partial cutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale fire reforestation </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Production Forestry: 1940s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained Yield / Multiple Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearcutting and other even-age silvicultural systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative silviculture </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Production Forestry: Natural Regeneration or Planting? Seed Source? Seed bed? Advanced Regeneration? Stock? Planting Sites? Labor Force? Acceptable Levels of Uncertainty? Timing Species Composition Density Genetic Potential Competition Photo: Doug Maguire, www.forestryimages.org Photo: Sam Chan, USFS Photo: Dan Mikowski, USFS Photo: Dan Mikowski, USFS
    8. 8. Production Forestry: Site Preparation and Vegetation Control Photo: James N. Long, Utah State University, www.forestryimages.org Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Doug Maguire, www.forestryimages.org
    9. 9. Production Forestry: Vegetation Control Adapted from Wagner (2000) Tree Growth Variable of Concern Level of Vegetation Control Level of Stand Productivity Diameter (Biomass) Height Survival Overtopping Woody Cover < 20 % Cover Present Maximum Site Potential 20 – 30% of Site Potential Zero Productivity All Woody and Herb Cover Removed Competing Vegetation
    10. 10. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management: 1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to clearcutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning for structural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration management </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management: 1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to clearcutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning for structural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration management </li></ul></ul>Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS
    12. 12. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management: 1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to clearcutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning for structural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration management </li></ul></ul>Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS
    13. 13. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management: 1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to clearcutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning for structural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration management </li></ul></ul>Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS
    14. 14. Historical Trends in Silvicultural Practice <ul><li>Ecosystem Management: 1980s – Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives to clearcutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning for structural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration management </li></ul></ul>Photo: Sam Chan, USFS Photo: Dan Mikowski, USFS
    15. 15. Historical Trend in Regional Silviculture Activity: Reforestation
    16. 16. Historical Trend in Regional Silviculture Activity: Timber Stand Improvement
    17. 17. Trends in Forest Harvest: Siuslaw NF
    18. 18. Some Current Issues in Silviculture Research <ul><li>Intensive Silviculture </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to Clearcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning for Structural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of Disturbed Ecosystems </li></ul>
    19. 19. Intensive Silviculture Photo: David Larson, USFS Photo: David Larson, USFS e
    20. 20. AGENDA 2020: Forest Products Industry - “Focusing Research, Development & Demonstration” <ul><li>National Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancing the Forest Biorefinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Forest Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakthrough Manufacturing Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancing Wood Products Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next Generation Fiber Recovery and Utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively Impacting the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically Advanced Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Regional Projects (2002-2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of genetic variation in Douglas-fir productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of genes controlling adaptive traits in Douglas-fir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological effects of understory species on the productive potential of young Douglas-fir plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil productivity management in the dry forests of the northern Rocky Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using biosolids compost and mill residuals for watershed imporvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lidar remote sensing for precision forest management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen efficiency in short rotation hybird poplar plantings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to predict and manage Armillaria root and butt rot disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of stand density on riparian vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of soil and climatic factors on early growth and long-term productivity of Douglas-fir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizing the GRINCH/Wood quality relationships in Douglas-fir </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Alternatives to Clearcutting & Thinning for Structural Diversity: Regional Large-Scale Silviculture Research Photo: USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station Photo: Doug Maguire, www.forestryimages.org Photo: Doug Maguire, www.forestryimages.org
    22. 22. Alternatives to Clearcutting & Thinning for Structural Diversity: Regional Large-Scale Silviculture Research Photo courtesy of USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station Poage and Anderson (in press)
    23. 23. Ongoing Large-Scale Silviculture Experiments of western Oregon and Washington 1,000 ft 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 90 80 100 60 70 80 90 50 100 Treatment-Wide Percent Residual Basal Area (%) Matrix as Percent of Total Treatment Area (%) CFS (4a) DEMO (2a) DEMO (3a) DEMO (4a) DEMO (3b) STUDS (2a) STUDS (4a) STUDS (3a) YSTDS (2a) YSTDS (2b) YSTDS (4a) UAMP (4a) CFS (2a) UAMP (2b) OHDS (3a-d) LTEP (5a-d) FES (3a-b) DMS_RT (3a) DMS_IT (3b) DMS_IT (3a) DMS_IT (2a) gap (overstory removed) patch (unthinned) 10 ac Controls (1a) CWS (3a) CWS (4a) CFS (5a) DEMO (4b) CFS (3a) CFS (3b) (unthinned) CWS (4b-c) LTEP (3a-b) UAMP (2a) Poage and Anderson (in press)
    24. 24. Regional Large-Scale Silviculture Research: Response Variables <ul><li>Vegetation – overstory & midstory 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation – understory 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens, mosses and bryophytes 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Large mammals 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal mammals 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Small mammals 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Bats 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Birds 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Arthropods 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians/Reptiles 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Fish 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Mollusks 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest floor 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Snags 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Down woody material 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Soils 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Climate 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Microclimate 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrology/geomorph. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Pathology 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Perceptions 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Production 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Economics 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Factors 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Roads 2 </li></ul>Based on Twelve Studies Reviewed; Poage and Anderson (in press)
    25. 25. Restoration of Forest Stands <ul><li>Insect and Disease Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian Functions and Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Post-fire Reforestation </li></ul>
    26. 26. Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Paul Anderson, USFS Photo: Dan Mikowski, USFS
    27. 27. Timbered Rock Reforestation Alternatives Passive Intensive Treatment Management Intensity Management Priorities Natural Development Tree & Shrub Diversity Tree Diversity & Productivity Productivity & Diversity Mixed-Conifer 435 TPA Unweeded Mixed-Conifer 435 TPA Manual Weeding Unplanted Unweeded Mixed-Conifer 190 TPA Unweeded Mixed-Conifer 190 TPA Manual Weeding Douglas-fir 435 TPA Manual Weeding
    28. 28. Summary: Silvicultural Practices and Early-Seral Forests <ul><li>Historical changes in management objectives have been associated with changes in silvicultural knowledge and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded array of silviculture objectives associated with changing priorities for ecological, social and economic outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>On federal lands, harvesting as a whole has decreased substantially - regeneration harvests have declined, and commercial thinning as a proportion of harvest activity has increased </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural opportunities to influence early-seral forest condition occur at primarily at two points in stand development </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of early-seral forest produced by various silvicultural alternatives is not generally well-known and is a current research emphasis </li></ul>
    29. 29. ( Paul - Stop Talking!) Thank You
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