Wilson 2005 Lumber Exports (Wilson 2005) vs Witness Trees Projections (Lorimer 1977): very different estimates of the prominence of white pine (>10x), indicating a large difference in the frequency and scale of disturbance in these forests.
Northern Hardwoods seedling/sapling (1-15 yrs): 1-3% young pole (15-30 yrs): 1-3% 2-6% Pitch Pine- Scrub Oak seedling/sapling: 10-30% young pole: 10-30% 20-60% (Lorimer and White 2003)
Trani et al. (2001) Early-successional forests in the eastern U.S. 9% 4%
Parcelization or Fragmentation potential to mimic natural disturbances restoration of shrublands/ modified disturbance regime (“sliding scale”) modified disturbances (large and clustered/connected) limited extreme Forest Age young old
MANAGING INDUCED METAPOPULATIONS: may require deviating from HRNV ME NH VT NY MA CT RI