Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds
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Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds

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Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds

Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds

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  • When we think of the Northeast, we think this…
  • … and this, lots of forest.
  • Variety of s-s habitats in NE, make up significant percent of land area
  • Large, diverse bird community. Historically, habitat maintained by natural disturbances
  • … like this guy here. Unfortunately, mastodons aren’t around any more, so we have to do the work ourselves to maintain shrublands
  • Today, most s-s habitats maintained by deliberate management/anthropogenic disturbances. Ideally we’d have enough habitat that we wouldn’t have to worry about the details of management…
  • Unfortunately, not enough.
  • And now bird pops. tanking. THis is our motivation for our work on s-s birds. Given declining bird pops. and habitat limitation, imp. to determine the best ways to manage for them.
  • One way to think about ecol. strategies of s-s birds is to compare shrublands and eastern forests, where birds are well-studied. Forest are relatively permanent…
  • Based on ecology of shrublands in NE, here’s what we might expect. If go to literature, can find people saying these things about s-s birds. (After introducing each one): Really, this is what we hope for—would make management easy!
  • Going to go through these 4 areas 1-by-1 and see if the data support our predictions. Start w/hab. relationships. People call s-s birds generalists—why? Live in multiple habitats, clearcuts, swamps, especially suburbs. Hoping to avoid that sort of anecdotal reasoning…so we went out and surveyed birds in the field.
  • Contrast dandelions (r-selected, poor competitors, high dispersal rate) with
  • Site fidelity review methods
  • For forest birds, edges can be a major conservation issue—depressed abundances and increased predation rates along edges. Often think about edge effects in terms of forest fragmentation.
  • If you go out into these fragmented forests and look at s-s birds,…
  • Significant for 8 of 17 species.
  • Truism in conservation biology that larger patches are better, define minimum patch sizes for forest birds
  • Historical changes in s-s habitat; success in restoring forest; less success in restoring shrublands/natural disturbance regimes
  • Idea that s-s birds are edge specialists became so well entrenched that the two became essentially synonymous

Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds Ecological Strategies Of Northeastern Scrub Shrub Birds Presentation Transcript

  • Ecological Strategies of Northeastern Scrub-shrub Birds Scott Schlossberg David King Dept. of Nat. Res. Conservation U.S. Forest Service University of Massachusetts Northern Research Station
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  • Shrubland birds
  • Shrubland management, 12000 BC R. Askins, Restoring North America’s Birds , 2000
  • Shrubland management now
  • USFS Forest Inventory & Analysis
  • Brown Thrasher Field Sparrow Chestnut-sided Warbler Eastern Towhee Common Yellowthroat Golden-winged Warbler
  • Questions
    • What ecological strategies do shrubland birds follow?
    • How can we take advantage of those strategies to manage bird populations?
  • Forests and shrublands high uncommon large permanent Forests Habitat extent Edges Patch size Patch lifespan low prominent small ~20 years Shrublands
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized habitat preferences
    • High dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
    • Generalized habitat preferences
    • High dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
    Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
  • Silvicultural openings vs. old fields
  • Silvicultural openings vs. old fields King et al, For . Ecol . Mgmt ., 2009
  • Aber, Ecology 1979 60:18-23 Succession
  • Succession Schlossberg & King, J. Wildl. Mgmt . 2009 Year after logging Relative abundance
  • Birds in wetlands and uplands
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
  • Successional stage: early late Dispersal rate: high low
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  • Schlossberg, Condor , 2009 Mean return rates: Forest = 0.36 Shrubland = 0.35
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High Typical dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High Typical dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
  • Whitcomb et al., Forest Island Dynamics Indigo Bunting Northern Cardinal
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  • Meta-analysis
    • Studies: report bird abundance in edges and interiors of regenerating clearcuts in the eastern U.S.
    • Edge: within 30 m of forest edge
    • Interior: ≥ 60 m into clearcut
  • avoids edges prefers edges
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High Typical dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to Avoid edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High Typical dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to Avoid edges
    • Insensitive to patch size
  • Seymour et al., For . Ecol . Mgmt . 2003 Natural canopy gaps Severe fire and wind Disturbance dynamics in eastern forests
  • Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts
  • Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts Schlossberg and King 2007 Costello et al. 2000 Annand and Thompson 1997 Kerpez 1994 Rodewald and Vitz 2005 Alder flycatcher Blue-winged warbler Black-and-white warbler Cedar waxwing Common yellowthroat Chestnut-sided warbler Field sparrow Indigo bunting Mourning warbler Prairie warbler
  • Birds in clearcuts and groupcuts Costello et al. 2000 Annand and Thompson 1997 Kerpez 1994 Rodewald and Vitz 2005 Alder flycatcher CC Blue-winged warbler CC CC Black-and-white warbler CC CC CC Cedar waxwing CC Common yellowthroat CC CC Chestnut-sided warbler CC Field sparrow CC CC CC Indigo bunting CC CC CC CC Mourning warbler CC Prairie warbler CC CC CC
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  • Bird abundances in rights-of-way
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Generalized Specialized habitat preferences
    • High Typical dispersal rate
    • Indifferent or attracted to Avoid edges
    • Insensitive to patch size Area-sensitive
  • Ecological strategies of shrubland birds
    • Specialized habitat preferences
    • Typical dispersal rate
    • Avoid edges
    • Area-sensitive
  • Management implications
    • Diversity of approaches
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  • Management implications
    • Diversity of approaches
    • Larger openings better
  • Small openings create more fragmentation 16 ha affected 40 ha affected 1 clearcut, 9 ha 9 groupcuts, 1-ha each King et al. 1998
  • Management implications
    • Diversity of approaches
    • Larger openings better
    • Simple shapes to minimize edge
  • Mitchell et al. 2003
  • Management implications
    • Diversity of approaches
    • Larger openings better
    • Simple shapes to minimize edge
    • Partial cutting is not a panacea
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  • What we need to know
    • Landscape ecology
    • Nesting success
    • Post-fledging ecology
  • Post-fledging habitat use by forest birds C. Chandler, thesis, 2007
  • King et al., J . Zoology , 2006 Fink, thesis, 2003
  • low? high? Post-fledging survival ??? ??? Population growth rate high low Nest success
  • Acknowledgments
    • Natural Resources Conservation Service, Inventory & Assessment Division
    • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
    • C. Chandler, R. Chandler, B. Mazzei
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  • Area sensitivity in wildlife openings R. Chandler, thesis, 2006
  • Litvaitis 2003 Shrubland management now
  • Study Study location Study sites DeGraaf 1992 New Hampshire 8 Fink et al. 2006 Missouri 6 Rodewald & Vitz 2005 Ohio 24 Talbott & Yahner 2003 Pennsylvania 20 Yahner 1987 Pennsylvania 6 Elliott 1987 Maine 8 Kerpez 1994 Virginia 8
  • Imbeau et al., Ecography 2003
  • Evidence from western birds