Good morning everyone, I am Valter Telo, and I come to present my work. My work consist to give you an idea of what the WTO.
Throughout this presentation will discuss topics such as: - brief description of the WTO - The general objectives of the WTO - the story of WTO (how emerged) - principles of the WTO (which are important for the good working of the organization) - evolution of the WTO - Rounds (and I'll talk a little about the Uruguay Round) And finally I will talk about why the WTO is important?
- The organization was founded January 1, 1995 with the purpose of enforcing the rules established by the GATT; - The WTO includes 127 countries, 153 members (more than 97% of total world trade and 30 observers) - WTO operates through a permanent International Conference and Ministerial Conference, its highest body, where each country is represented by a minister. The most important decisions are taken unanimously; - The WTO headquarters is at Geneva, Switzerland.
At the end of World War II has been an important step for global trade. WTO arises from the junction of the International Trade Organization and the Havana’s letter. The principles (of ITO - Havana’s letter) were introduced into the GATT (1947, temporarily) aimed at removing trade barriers so as to facilitate the exchange of products between countries. after the Uruguay Round (1995) was established WTO. The WTO came into January 1, 1995. Slovenia joined the WTO on 30 July 1995. The actual director-general of WTO are Pascal Lamy since 2005. The Ministerial Conference (council that makes decisions, meet periodically for two years); The General Council (solves trade disputes among members); The Secretariat and Director General (does not take decisions only helps administratively).
Most favored nation (MFN): – (Non-discrimination between countries in the WTO, the measures taken by a member of WTO in relation to another, must be equal to all other members). National treatment: – (This treatment should be applied to services, products, which require that there be no discrimination in domestic products and products of a member state. Reciprocity – This principle assumes that, when Countries joins the organization, reducing tariff barriers, also hopes that member countries do the same. Binding and enforceable commitments – This principle provides that trade agreements are listed in a &quot;schedule&quot; list of Concessions. If satisfaction of a transaction is not successful, the country concerned may claim the WTO. Transparency – This principle requires an internal transparency forcing member states, to always notify the transactions of trade measures. There is the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) to supervise the transparency. Safety valves – This principle requires WTO member may restrict trade for member states if and only if for: Ensuring articles to &quot;fair competition&quot;; Attain articles to non-economic finishes; Others (allow Intervention for Economic Reasons).
After the World War II it was necessary to build an organization for economic cooperation, at this time were created the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and GATT. In December 1945 USA took advantage of the fact that already knew their allies in war and therefore do business with low Tariffs, creating the ITO (International Trade Organization). In March 1948 letter from the ITO (Havana’s letter) was not successful, because North American Congress never approved it. On October 30 of 1947, 23 Countries have signed (Final Act authentic of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). From 1948 to 1995 the GATT was the only organization to deal with international trade. After the Uruguay round of GATT was transformed to the WTO.
Industrial tariffs and Non-tariff barriers, Trade remedies, Agriculture, Services. 149 countries Doha (2001/…). 2001/… Tariffs, Agriculture, Services, Intellectual property, Textiles. 123 countries Uruguai (1986/93); 1986/93 Tariffs, Non-tariff measures, Export restrictions, Measures for controlling the Proliferation. 102 countries Tokyo (1973/79); 1973/79 Tariffs, Antidumping measures. 62 countries Kennedy (1964/67); 1964/67 Tariffs 26 countries Dillon (1960/61); 1960/61 Tariffs 26 countries Genebra (1955/56); 1955/1956 Tariffs 38 countries Torquay (1950/51); 1950/51 Tariffs 13 countries Annecy (1949); 1949 Tariffs 23 countries Genebra (1947); 1947 Issues Number of countries Name Year