The Visual Communication of Ecological Literacy - PhD Presentation, November 2011

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Visualising Science and Environment, ECREA @ The University of Brighton Symposium. 17-18 November 2011 …

Visualising Science and Environment, ECREA @ The University of Brighton Symposium. 17-18 November 2011

Graphic design is in the unique position of being able to make invisible ecological concepts visible. This paper will introduce my AHRC funded research on the visual communication of ecological literacy and the graphics made as part of this practice-based project. The research demonstrates how images can contribute to the development of new cognitive skills and even social capacities when built into transformative learning processes. I will describe how visual representation can facilitate ecological perception contributing to greater understanding of complexity, context, connections and causality. This research aims to help graphic design nurture latent possibilities in visuals, especially as a means of facilitating the emergence of new mental models to address sustainability imperatives.

One of the major premises of this project is that fragmentary thinking is an obstacle to sustainability and that reductive attitudes towards knowledge cannot adequately address problems associated with ecological systems - or other complex systems. Responding to this dilemma, this project uses a whole systems approach based on the powerful concept of ecological literacy. This research posits that visual communications offers a means of helping audiences understand context, interrelationships, dynamics and other features of whole systems thinking necessary for ecological literacy to become widespread.

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  • 1. The Visual Communication of Ecological Literacy Jody Joanna Boehnert EcoLabs & AHRC funded doctoral candidate University of Brighton November 2011www.eco-labs.org
  • 2. The Visual Communication of Ecological Literacy Jody Joanna Boehnert - MPhil - School of Architecture and Design Why? Context Levels of Learning & Engagement Presently humanity’s ecological footprint exceeds its regenerative capacity by 30%. This global overshoot is growing and ecosystems are 1st: Education ABOUT Sustainability being run down as wastes (including greenhouse gases) accumulate in Content and/or skills emphasis. Easily accommodated the air, land, and water. Climate change, resource depletion, pollution, into existing system. Learning ABOUT change. loss of biodiversity, and other systemic environmental problems ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSE - maintenance. threaten to destroy the natural support systems on which we depend. 2nd: Education FOR Sustainability What? Systems, Networks, Values Additional values emphasis. Greening of institutions. Problems cannot be understood in isolation but must be seen as Deeper questioning and reform of purpose, policy and practice. interconnected and interdependent. We must learn to engage with Learning FOR change. REFORMATIVE RESPONSE - adaptive. complexity and think in terms of systems to address current ecological, social and economic problems. Images can be useful tools to help with this learning process. 3rd: SUSTAINABLE Education Capacity building and action emphasis. How? Transformational Learning Experiential curriculum. Institutions as learning communities. Learning AS change. TRANSFORMATIVE RESPONSE - enactment. The value / action gap permeates education for sustainability and is obvious in environmental coverage in the media. The gap between Stephen Sterling, 2009 our ideas about what we value and what we are actually doing to address the problem is the notorious value / action gap. This project uses transformational learning to move from values to action. This approach is integrated into cycles of action research and practice based design work. ECOLOGICAL Actions GOOD DESIGN Ideas / Theories ECONOMIC SOCIAL Norms / Assumptions Beliefs / Values Paradigm / Worldview Metaphysics / Cosmology Transformational Learning Values, Knowledge, Skills A: SEEING (Perception ) An expanded ethical sensibility or consciousness The world is a complex, interconnected, finite, ecological-social- B: KNOWING (Conception) psychological-economic system. We treat it as if it were not, as Ecological literacy - the understanding of the principles of organization A critical understanding of pattern, if it were divisible, separable, simple, and infinite. Our persistent, that ecosystems have evolved to sustain the web of life - is the first consequence and connectivity intractable, global problems arise directly from this mismatch. step on the road to sustainability. The second step is the move Donella Meadows, 1982 towards ecodesign. We need to apply our ecological knowledge to C: DOING (Action) the fundamental redesign of our technologies and social institutions, The ability to design and act relationally, so as to bridge the current gap between human design and the integratively and wisely. References Fritjof Capra. The Hidden Connections. London: Flamingo. 2003 Stephen Sterling. Whole Systems Thinking as a Basis for Paradigm Change in Education. University of Bath. 2003 ecological sustainable systems of nature. Stephen Sterling. Transformational Learning. Researching Transformational Learning. University of Gloucestershire. 2009 Fritjof Capra, 2003 Stephen Sterling, 2009www.eco-labs.org j.j.boehnert@brighton.ac.uk | jody@eco-labs.org This poster can be downloaded on this website: www.eco-labs.org
  • 3. Contents 1. Visualizing Ecosystems and Sustainability 2. Ecological Literacy in Theory and Practice 3. Visual Cultures, Visual Literacy, Visual Intelligence and Visual Language 4. Making the Invisible Visible: Context, Connections, Complexity, Causality and Quantity 5. Aesthetics and Ecological Perceptionwww.eco-labs.org
  • 4. 1 Visualizing Ecosystems and Sustainabilitywww.eco-labs.org
  • 5. www.eco-labs.org
  • 6. www.eco-labs.org
  • 7. Recent temperature changes GLOBAL STEP 2 Temperature Choice Models vs. Scenarios Bars show the range in year 2100 produced by several scenarios. 6.0 5.5 5.0 A1FI - Rapid growth, fossil fuel intensive. Temperature Rise, degrees Celsius 4.5 Temperature Rise, degrees Celsius. A2 - High energy consumption, rapid population growth. 4.0 A1B - Rapid growth, balanced energy sources. 3.5 B2 - Environmental preservation and local solutions. 3.0 A1T - Rapid growth, new, non-carbon, technology. 2.5 IS92a - "Business as usual" IPCC. 2.0 B1 - Environmentally and socially conscious global approach. 1.5 1.0 0.5 Scenarios A1B 0.0 A1T A1FI -0.5 A2 B1 -1.0 B2 IS92a 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 Year "The Game Plan" slideset release 1.0, March 13 2008 43www.eco-labs.org
  • 8. www.eco-labs.org
  • 9. Springer-Verlag. The New Scientist.www.eco-labs.org
  • 10. Earth’s Natural Wealth: an Audit. The New Scientistwww.eco-labs.org
  • 11. The Oil Age. Information design by Dave Menninger. 2006www.eco-labs.org
  • 12. www.eco-labs.org
  • 13. Living Planet Report 2006. WWFwww.eco-labs.org
  • 14. www.eco-labs.org
  • 15. 2 Ecological Literacy in Theory and Practicewww.eco-labs.org
  • 16. ecological literacy “All education is environmental education. By what is included or excluded, emphasized or ignored, students learn that they are part of or apart from the natural world. Through education we inculcate the ideas of careful stewardship or carelessness” (Orr 1992, 90). An understanding of the ‘principles of organization’ of ecological systems. (Capra 2002, 201). Critical eco-literacy is linked to cultural literacy for a more robust analysis of the connections between social and ecological systems (Kahn 2010, 66).www.eco-labs.org
  • 17. ECOLOGICAL GOOD DESIGN ECONOMIC SOCIALwww.eco-labs.org
  • 18. www.eco-labs.org
  • 19. www.eco-labs.org
  • 20. We need to apply our ecological knowledge to the fundamental redesign of our technologies and social institutions, so as to bridge the current gap between human design and the ecological sustainable systems of nature. Fritjof Capra, 2002www.eco-labs.org
  • 21. http://teach-in.ning.comwww.eco-labs.org
  • 22. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK RESEARCH DESIGN Epistemology Theoretical position Methodology Method Design Design Research Action Research Science Extended Epistemology Wicked Problems Visuali- Systems sation Pragmatism Thinking Design Thinking Transformation Eco- Critical Systems Design - 4.0 Inquiry pedagogy Thinkingwww.eco-labs.org
  • 23. 1. problem 2. strategy identification 2 design 1 3 The Teach-in PhD poster 2 3 EL graphics 10 Phases of TL for EL 1 4 4 REFLECTION ACTION 8 5 1. Identify problem condition 2. Identify communication goals 8 3. Write the brief 7 6 4. Design graphics 5. Design processes 6. Do it! Disseminate 5 7. Solicit feedback 8. Reflection and revision 7 4. reflection and 3. design and re-interpreation 6 disseminationwww.eco-labs.org
  • 24. How? Transformational Learning The value / action gap permeates education for sustainability and is obvious in environmental coverage in the media. The gap between our ideas about what we value and what we are actually doing to address the problem is the notorious value / action gap. This project uses transformational learning to move from values to action. This approach is integrated into cycles of action research and practice based design work.www.eco-labs.org
  • 25. Actions Ideas / Theories Norms / Assumptions Beliefs / Values Paradigm / Worldview Metaphysics / Cosmology Transformational Learning Values, Knowledge, Skills A: SEEING (Perc eption ) An expanded ethical sensibility or consciousness B: KNOWING (Conception) A critical understanding of pattern, consequence and connectivity C: DOING (Action) The ability to design and act relationally, integratively and wisely. Stephen Sterling, 2009www.eco-labs.org
  • 26. Levels of Learning & Engagement 1st: Education ABOUT Sustainability Content and/or skills emphasis. Easily accommodated into existing system. Learning ABOUT change. ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSE - maintenance. 2nd: Education FOR Sustainability Additional values emphasis. Greening of institutions. Deeper questioning and reform of purpose, policy and practice. Learning FOR change. REFORMATIVE RESPONSE - adaptive. 3rd: SUSTAINABLE Education Capacity building and action emphasis. Experiential curriculum. Institutions as learning communities. Learning AS change. TRANSFORMATIVE RESPONSE - enactment. Stephen Sterling, 2009www.eco-labs.org
  • 27. 3 Visual Cultures, Visual Literacy, Visual Intelligence & Visual Languagewww.eco-labs.org
  • 28. Visual Culture ‘The effects of technology do not occur at the level of opinions or concepts, but alter sense ratios or patterns of perception steadily and without any resistance’ McLuhan 2001[1964]:290.www.eco-labs.org
  • 29. Visual Literacy and Visual Intelligence Donis Dondis first articulated the need for critical reading of images in A Primer of Visual Literacy (1973). The concept of visual thinking was developed by Ann Marie Barry in the seminal book Visual Intelligence: Perception, image and the manipulation of the visual in communications (1997). Visual intelligence extends beyond visual literacy, necessary not only to resist the influence of messages absorbed uncritically, but to develop the capacity to think in abstract and perceptually oriented ways (Barry 1997:7).www.eco-labs.org
  • 30. Visual Language In Visual Language (1998) Robert Horn claims that the current proliferation of visual communication indicates that we are witnessing the emergence of a new visual language that integrates words, shapes and images. Horn describes visual language as a potential antidote to the fragmentation and reductionism of current ways of communicating and thinking: ‘visual language has the potential for increasing human “bandwidth”, the capacity to take in, comprehend, and more efficiently synthesize large amounts of new information. It has this capacity on the individual, group, and organizational levels’ (Horn 2001a:1).www.eco-labs.org
  • 31. 4 Making the Invisible Visible: Context, Connections, Complexity, Causality and Quantitywww.eco-labs.org
  • 32. 1. COMPLEXITY Graphic design makes complex information accessible through the selective framing of data and structuring of information to reveal patterns Low–income countries Middle–income countries High–income countries 85 Japan France Gapminder World Map 2010 Sweden Germany Hong Kong Andorra Italy Iceland Switzerland Spain Australia Singa- Israel Canada pore Norway 1 New Zealand Finland Liechten- 80 Puerto Malta Netherlands stein Healthy 3 2 Cuba Costa Chile Rico South UK Bel- Ireland Lux- embourg Rica Korea Greece gium Austria USA China Portugal Slovenia Denmark Albania Mexico Barbados Taiwan UAE Kuwait Belize Uruguay Croatia Czech Rep. Brunei Argen- Grenada Panama Oman Vietnam Bosnia & H. Dominica tina Poland Bahrain Qatar 75 Poor Rich Kosovo Syria Venezuela Ecuador Macedonia4 Serbia Slovakia Malaysia Antigua & Barbuda Sri Lanka Tunisia Colo-5 Libya Bahamas Armenia Bulgaria Hungary Nicaragua Palestine Algeria Peru mbia Romania Latvia Estonia St Kitts & N. Honduras Jordan Brazil Seychelles Saudi Arabia Micronesia Philippines Paraguay DR Leba- Cape Tonga 1. San Marino El Jamaica 6 Mauritiusnon Lithuania Maldives Verde Georgia Samoa Sick Marshall Isl. Morocco Salvador Palau Iran Turkey 2. Monaco Indonesia Guate- Vanuatu 3. Cyprus 70 mala Egypt Azerbaijan Trinidad & 4. Montenegro Tuvalu Fiji Suriname Belarus Tobago 5. Saint Lucia Moldova Kyrgyzstan Ukraine 6. St Vincent & Uzbe- Iraq ailand Nepal North kistan Grenadines Korea Guyana Health Life expectancy at birth (years) Paki- Solo-Isl. Mongolia Russia Comoros Tajikistan Laos stan mon Bolivia Bhutan Bangladesh India São Tomé 65 & P. Turkmenistan Kazakhstan Nauru Yemen Kiribati Togo Colour by region: Myanmar Benin Cambodia Namibia Timor- Madagascar Haiti Papua Leste Gabon 60 Eritrea New Guinea Liberia Sudan Guinea Côte dIvoire Ghana Mauritania Tanzania Gam- Size by population: Ethiopia bia Senegal Djibouti 55 Kenya Botswana Malawi Uganda Burkina Faso Congo, Rep. 3 100 1000 or less 10 millions Gapminder World Chart 2010 Version May 2010b Niger South Africa Burundi Rwanda Cameroon Equatorial Guinea 50 Somalia Data are for 2009 for all 192 UN member states and the other 5 countries and territories with more than 1 million people Mozambique Mali Chad (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Palestine, Puerto Rico and Kosovo). Congo, DR Sierra Leone Guinea-Bissau Nigeria Angola Free to copy, share and remix but attribute Gapminder. For sources see: Central African Rep. www.gapminder.org Zambia Swaziland http://www.gapminder.org/worldmap Zimbabwe Afghanistan Lesotho 45 500 1 000 2 000 5 000 10 000 20 000 50 000 Money GDP per person in US dollars (purchasing power adjusted) (log scale)www.eco-labs.org
  • 33. 2. CONTEXT Maps are useful devices in the development of context and situated knowledge.www.eco-labs.org
  • 34. 3. CAUSALITY and Dynamics Visuals can display complex ecological processes and long chains of cause and effect. Defining the processes that link elements can help create an understanding of system dynamics.With a business-as-usual approach, where fossil-fuel consumption and GHG emissions continue to increase, we will likelysee a warming of 2 °C to 3 °C this century with a planetary energy imbalance sufficient to melt enough ice to raise sea levelby several meters. An atlas of pollution: the world in carbon dioxide emissions Latest data published by the US Energy Information Administration Emissions ranking and country provides a unique picture of economic growth – and decline. 1 China China has sped ahead of the US, as shown by this map, which resizes each country according to CO2 emissions. And, for the first time, Key 7,711 % Million tonnes of CO2 emitted in 2009 Change in emissions, 2008 to 2009 Eurasia world emissions have gone down Regional emissions in 2009 28 Kazakhstan 2,358m tonnes of CO2 in 2009 8 South Korea 185 120 118 Down 9.2% on Europe 2008 9.8% 45 528 36 4,310m Uzbekistan North Korea tonnes of CO2 in 2009 54 115 79.5 1.2% Turkmen- 9.4% 7 Canada Down 6.9% on 2008 4 Russia istan 56.8 108 5 Japan 541 184 85 1,572 1,098 9.6% 136 103 9.7% 68 Norway 60 Sweden 59 Finland 7.4% 175 87 39.6 50.6 52.2 62 10 UK 25 Netherlands Denmark 49.6 249 520 0.2% 52 Belarus 72 Azer- 2 US 60.6 121 67 Ireland 7.8% baijan 36.2 99 5,425 40.3 212 22 Ukraine UK had been ranked 21 Poland 255 8th for emissions 34 Belgium 137 6 Germany 286 28.2% 1 China million tonnes 7,711 in 2008 11.2% 3.7% 766 Biggest % drop in emissions 7.0% 101 7.0% 111 million tonnes 41 Czech Rep ©2007 2030, Inc. ©2007 2030, Inc. US emissions are down for the second year in 18 France 95.3 73 SlovakiaHOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA - 1-meter sea level rise succession – after almost uninterrupted year on year increases since these records began in 397 7.4% 65 Switz. 50 Austria 35.8 13.3% 69.2 1980. The decline has matched the country’s 19 Spain 45.8Population: 139,357 Population: 139,357 Data Source: LIDAR and USGS 10M NED economic woes which have seen it only just 330 86 61 Hungary 50.0 44 Romania 80.5 Only three years earlier, in 2006, China was in second place, and until recently had been very emerge from recession. 8.4% close to US emissions. But from 2008 to 2009, Since 2000 the country’s CO2 emissions have 17 Italy 81 rapid growth has matched the country’s 9-10% 55 Portugal 58 Serbia 66 fallen by 7.5% 56.5 408 52.3 Bulgaria growth in GDP. 130 9.3% 84 44.5 24 Turkey Since 2000 the country’s CO2 emissions have 109 253 risen by 170.6% 154 124 7.3% 39 Greece 179 139 100 174 5.3% 20 Taiwan 102 291 33 Pakistan 3.7% 122 North 140 76 42 Cuba 213 0.4% Hong Kong 13 Mexico Middle East 147 America 30.4 150 74 208 80 86.0 444 83 Puerto Rico 94 Tunisia 22.9 1,714m 1.9% 95 33.3 37 Algeria 40 Vietnam 6,411m tonnes of CO2 135 191 166 194 tonnes of CO2 181 114 in 2009 93 98.8 47 71 57 Libya 27 Egypt 9 Iran in 2009 210 56 Philippines 198 Morocco 4.9% Up 3.3% 187 211 6.2% 55.0 167 192 Down 6.9% 146 36.5 on Bangladesh 72.4 527 on 171 188 143 2008 55.1 2008 98 105 160 192 133 201 3.5% 119 195 190 186 117 177 46 Nigeria 199 23 Thailand 129 113 169 96 64 Trinidad 185 164 180 163 115 158 77.7 162 176 112 3.2% 3 India 253 Africa 91 155 106 1,602 & Tobago 0.1% 156 88 104 107 Central & 47.8 173 30 141 134 196 97 149 125 126 152 32 Malaysia 215 1,122m 116 Venezuela 78 189 178 114 148 tonnes of CO2 38 Iraq 8.7% South America 206 165 53 Syria 162 in 2009 Angola 145 144 100 56.9 104 0.2% 202 24.0 Down 3.1% 1.4% 89 157 on 131 128 148 43 Kuwait India overtook Russia in 2009 123 1,273m 151 3.7% 49 2008 216 161 84.9 tonnes of CO2 in 2009 Colombia 168 159 82 16 Indonesia 197 209 204 48 Israel 207 182 31 Singapore 413 153 Up 3.6% 70.1 205 203 on 70.5 75 2008 77 Bahrain 161 140 137 31.1 0.1% Ecuador 14 Brazil 2.4% 28.7 12 South Africa 138 127 170 217 70 420 450 142 11 Saudi Arabia 172 183 Asia & Oceania Peru 92 38.2 0.3% 6.7% 200 470 51 Qatar 66.5 3.2% 13,264m 90 132 tonnes of CO2 in 2009 35 Chile 110 15 Australia 119 74.1% 29 214 79 Yemen 26 United Arab Emirates Up 7.5% on 2008 418 1.8% Biggest % Argentina 22.9 63 Oman 193 49.0 69 New increase 167 World 1.2% Zealand 3.2% 39.1 193 30,452m tonnes of CO2 in 2009 Detailed data ©2007 2030, Inc. ©2007 2030, Inc. Full list of each country’s CO2 emissions and Down 0.1% on 2008 movement in the world emissions league tableMIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA - 1-meter sea level rise Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent Rank/ Country Million Percent change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes change change tonnes changePopulation: 87,933 Population: 87,933 Data Source: LIDAR IHRCS on 2008 1 China 2009 08—09 7,711 13.3 on 2008 23 Thailand 2009 08—09 253 -0.1 on 2008 45 North Korea 2009 08—09 79.5 14.3 on 2008 67 Ireland 2009 08—09 40.3 -11.2 on 2008 89 Lebanon 2009 08—09 14.8 3.6 on 2008 111 Moldova 2009 08—09 7.1 -4.1 on 2008 133 Cambodia 2009 08—09 3.9 -6.1 on 2008 155 Djibouti 2009 08—09 1.8 3.4 on 2008 177 Mali 2009 08—09 0.74 6.4 on 2008 199 Chad 2009 08—09 0.29 11.1 2 US 5,425 -7.0 24 Turkey 253 -7.3 46 Nigeria 77.7 -22.4 68 Norway 39.6 -0.3 90 Bolivia 13.9 -2.7 112 Ethiopia 6.9 7.1 134 Benin 3.5 4.3 156 Guam 1.7 -3.5 178 Rwanda 0.74 0.0 200 Lesotho 0.27 5.9 3 India 1,602 8.7 25 Netherlands 249 -0.2 47 Philippines 72.4 -2.9 69 New Zealand 39.1 -1.1 91 Sudan 13.0 7.0 113 Costa Rica 6.8 -4.4 135 Nepal 3.4 3.8 157 Guyana 1.5 0.0 179 Bermuda 0.71 4.2 201 Saint Vincent/Grenadines 0.27 17.6 4 Russia 1,572 -7.4 26 United Arab Emirates 193 -1.2 48 Israel 70.5 4.8 70 Peru 38.2 4.0 92 Sri Lanka 12.8 1.7 114 Tanzania 6.7 7.1 136 Iceland 3.4 -7.4 158 Burkina Faso 1.4 2.1 180 Liberia 0.69 2.2 202 Nauru 0.20 9.1 5 Japan 1,098 -9.7 27 Egypt 192 3.5 49 Colombia 70.1 7.9 71 Morocco 36.5 -2.2 93 Burma 12.5 -9.5 115 IvoryCoast 6.6 2.2 137 Palestine 3.2 4.3 159 Seychelles 1.4 6.1 181 Antigua and Barbuda 0.69 4.4 203 Tonga 0.15 -23.1 6 Germany 766 -7.0 28 Kazakhstan 185 9.8 50 Austria 69.2 -2.5 72 Azerbaijan 36.2 -8.9 94 US Virgin Islands 12.5 -3.5 116 Congo 6.3 3.8 138 Madagascar 3.1 13.4 160 Barbados 1.4 -4.0 182 American Samoa 0.67 2.2 204 Cook Islands 0.15 66.7 7 Canada 541 -9.6 29 Argentina 167 -3.2 51 Qatar 66.5 4.8 73 Slovakia 35.8 -4.5 95 Jamaica 12.1 -4.6 117 Senegal 6.2 1.8 139 Malta 3.1 -2.5 161 Swaziland 1.4 17.0 183 East Timor 0.63 8.7 205 Comoros 0.15 25.0 8 South Korea 528 1.2 30 Venezuela 162 -1.4 52 Belarus 60.6 -9.5 74 Puerto Rico 33.3 -3.2 96 Netherlands Antilles 11.6 -4.1 118 Tajikistan 6.1 -10.4 140 New Caledonia 3.0 0.0 162 Niger 1.3 3.5 184 Greenland 0.61 -4.8 206 Sao Tome and Principe 0.15 11.1 9 Iran 527 3.2 31 Singapore 161 -0.1 53 Syria 56.9 6.1 75 Bahrain 31.1 1.6 97 Kenya 11.5 2.4 119 El Salvador 5.9 0.0 141 Togo 2.8 5.6 163 Guinea 1.3 -1.2 185 Guinea-Bissau 0.46 0.0 207 Vanuatu 0.15 25.0 10 UK 520 -7.8 32 Malaysia 148 -0.2 54 Turkmenistan 56.8 -1.2 76 Cuba 30.4 4.7 98 Guatemala 11.3 -1.4 120 Kyrgyzstan 5.7 -0.4 142 Reunion 2.8 0.0 164 Sierra Leone 1.3 5.9 186 Gambia 0.44 15.4 208 British Virgin Islands 0.15 25.0 11 Saudi Arabia 470 3.2 33 Pakistan 140 0.4 55 Portugal 56.5 1.5 77 Ecuador 28.7 1.7 99 Armenia 11.2 1.5 121 Georgia 5.3 -4.9 143 Mauritania 2.7 5.3 165 Malawi 1.3 4.6 187 Cayman Islands 0.43 -11.8 209 Samoa 0.15 -16.7 12 South Africa 450 -6.7 34 Belgium 137 -11.2 56 Bangladesh 55.1 9.4 78 Angola 24.0 1.8 100 Zimbabwe 10.6 18.6 122 Bahamas 5.2 3.1 144 Zambia 2.7 18.8 166 Laos 1.2 1.1 188 Saint Lucia 0.41 0.0 210 Montserrat 0.15 58.7 13 Mexico 444 -1.9 35 Chile 119 74.1 57 Libya 55.0 -3.9 79 Yemen 22.9 13.5 101 Luxembourg 10.6 -11.2 123 Papua New Guinea 4.8 6.7 145 Congo, Dem Rep 2.7 -2.6 167 Wake Island 1.2 -4.3 189 Burundi 0.37 4.0 211 Dominica 0.14 11.1 14 Brazil 420 -0.3 36 Uzbekistan 115 -9.4 58 Serbia 52.3 -3.2 80 Tunisia 22.9 5.7 102 Cyprus 9.4 -3.5 124 Albania 4.6 3.8 146 Martinique 2.6 6.3 168 French Guiana 1.1 6.1 190 Cape Verde 0.34 4.5 212 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.11 16.7 15 Australia 418 -1.8 37 Algeria 114 6.2 59 Finland 52.2 -4.9 81 Croatia 21.5 -4.7 103 Latvia 8.5 8.1 125 Equatorial Guinea 4.6 -2.1 147 Macau 2.4 1.3 169 Aruba 1.1 4.2 191 Bhutan 0.33 -11.1 213 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.08 0.0 16 Indonesia 413 2.4 38 Iraq 104 3.7 60 Sweden 50.6 -7.7 82 Jordan 20.0 2.4 104 Ghana 8.1 9.6 126 Gabon 4.6 -3.2 148 Mozambique 2.3 4.6 170 French Polynesia 1.1 7.7 192 Western Sahara 0.32 0.0 214 Falkland Islands 0.05 0.0 17 Italy 408 -9.3 39 Greece 100 -5.3 61 Hungary 50.0 -10.7 83 Dominican Republic 19.9 2.1 105 Honduras 7.9 -2.4 127 Mauritius 4.6 -1.0 149 Guadeloupe 2.2 -5.1 171 Belize 0.94 -5.4 193 Antarctica 0.31 17.6 215 Kiribati 0.04 0.0 18 France 397 -7.4 40 Vietnam 98.8 -4.9 62 Denmark 49.6 -8.6 84 Bosnia and Herzegovina 18.3 -15.9 106 Brunei 7.6 -27.1 128 Botswana 4.5 7.7 150 Haiti 2.1 2.9 172 Maldives 0.92 3.4 194 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.30 11.1 216 Saint Helena 0.01 11.2 19 Spain 330 -8.4 41 Czech Republic 95.3 -3.8 63 Oman 49.0 9.9 85 Estonia 17.5 -11.8 107 Cameroon 7.5 -1.9 129 Nicaragua 4.5 -2.9 151 Suriname 2.0 4.0 173 Somalia 0.90 3.4 195 Grenada 0.30 4.8 217 Niue 0.01 2.9 20 Taiwan 291 -3.7 42 Hong Kong 86.0 10.3 64 Trinidad and Tobago 47.8 -4.1 86 Slovenia 17.4 0.5 108 Mongolia 7.4 -3.8 130 Gibraltar 4.4 -3.8 152 Uganda 1.9 -3.0 174 Afghanistan 0.83 -2.9 196 Central African Republic 0.29 -13.0 Table shows total carbon dioxide emissions 21 Poland 286 -3.0 43 Kuwait 84.9 6.3 65 Switzerland 45.8 1.0 87 Lithuania 15.8 -12.8 109 Macedonia 7.3 -20.1 131 Namibia 4.1 3.7 153 Fiji 1.9 -6.2 175 Faroe Islands 0.80 6.4 197 Solomon Islands 0.29 25.0 from the consumption of energy 22 Ukraine 255 -28.2 44 Romania 80.5 -16.6 66 Bulgaria 44.5 -11.9 88 Panama 15.5 1.7 110 Uruguay 7.2 -10.2 132 Paraguay 4.0 3.7 154 Montenegro 1.9 4.3 176 Eritrea 0.77 6.4 198 US Pacific Islands 0.29 0.0 GRAPHIC: MARK McCORMICK, PAUL SCRUTON. SOURCE: EIAwww.eco-labs.org
  • 35. 4. CONNECTIONS Network drawings are emerging as powerful communications tools displaying complex webs of dynamic information. Unlike text and speech, network diagrams encourage undirected, interactive reading and perform the service of illustrating pattern.www.eco-labs.org
  • 36. 5. Quantity and Qualitative Whole Systems Thinking A focus on quality balances the often uncritical and reductionist emphasis on quantitative analysis. Ecological perception is relational and qualitative. Visual thinking and reasoning must integrate qualitative and quantitative modes of analysis to facilitate ecological perception.www.eco-labs.org
  • 37. 5 Aesthetics and Ecological Perceptionwww.eco-labs.org
  • 38. Visual communication design can go beyond facilitating clear thinking and rational analysis because graphic design, like visual arts, has emotional impact. Images speak directly to the beyond-rational self that is the source of the motivation. Visuals are powerful because we react emotionally to images before they are cognitively understood (Barry 1997). David Orr and other ecological thinkers link alienation as arising from a lack of identification or empathic relationship with nature. This emphatic perception of relations is a basis for ecological identity.www.eco-labs.org
  • 39. e Eco-Literacy Map Humanti c Tufte McCandless Design 4.0 Lombardi Horn Lima Morelli Density Design information visualisation eco- Barry visual intelligence visualising networks visual language indigeneity & psychology & information design traditional ecological knowledge Crompton Kasser Sewall Berry Macy Merchant cognitive frames ecofeminism Warren identity Harris & Gray Roszak perceptual disorder campaigning ecological literacy critical transformative Wasilewski consciousness learning epistemological deep Capra The Land eco Reason error ecology Spretnak Kahn Sterling Goethe Ethic Holmgren literacy Mezirow Bower Barabasi Goethian science Leopold Kuhl energy Bateson Naess Shiva paradigm decent Plumwood Lakoff ecological critical sustainable shift embeddedness Friere action eco-pedagogy education Milestone Orr research Thackara crisis of reason Silent Gaia Theory Spring Dewey Lovelock Harding Bohm Wilber knowledge as Lukes Cohen Carson historical holistic science Integral Theory design as effective action transition social control denial Fuller ecological positive towns collapse Foucault development three-dimensional power Hopkins Santos Cox Bourdieu design Diamond symbolic violence science Tainter cognitive / discursive power crisis discipline Birkeland justice design thinking Tonkinwise Manzini Cross Ehrenfeld Goodbun Meadows Fry & Willis re-directed practice design as social learning critical limits to industrial ecology urban sustainment growth Klein ecology Drysek crisis capitalism Daly Foster Harvey Sachs Jackson steady state economy prosperity without growth critiques of capitalism Key to lines † Failure to become familiar with the major lines during your journey will signi cantly increase the likelihood of serious environmental damage. ecological literacy philosophy sustainable development critical pedogogy Key to stations Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832) writer, polymath Edward Tufte (b.1942) political scientist, statistician, designer, writer Wolfgang Sachs (b.1946) sociologist, social scientist Ezio Manzini (n/a) design theorist Stanley Cohen (n/a) sociologist communications critical social theory Aldo Leopold (1887 - 1948) ecologist, conservationist Robert E. Horn (n/a) political scientist, information designer Fritjof Capra (b.1939) physicist, systems theorist, author Density Design - Paolo Ciuccarelli & others (n/a) information design Richard Kahn (n/a) critical theorist, education scholar Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922 - 1996) physicist, philosopher Joseph A. Tainter (b.1949) is a U.S. anthropologist and historian Vandana Shiva (b.1952) physicist, philosopher, activist, ecofeminist Manuel Lima (n/a) information architect, visualization designer Paulo Freire (1921 –1997) radical educator, critical social theorist perception transition movement Donella ‘Dana’ Meadows (1941 - 2001) environmental scientist Jared Diamond (b.1937) scientist, geologist, author Karen Warren (n/a) ecofeminist, philosopher Angela Morelli (n/a) information designer Stephen Stephen (n/a) education and sustainability scholar Gregory Bateson (1904 - 1980) anthropologist, social scientist Robert Cox (n/a) professor of rhetorical studies, communications scholar Carolyn Merchant (b.1936) historian of science, ecofeminist John Thackara (n/a) design theorist, director of Doors Jack Mezirow (n/a) education scholar, social theorist Rachel Carson (1907 - 1964) biologist, ecologist Tom Crompton (n/a) change strategist, communications scholar Val Plumwood (1939 - 2008), ecofeminist activist, philosopher Jon Goodbun (n/a) architect, critical theorist C.A. Bower (n/a) environmental educator, philosopher visual communication ecological economics Albert-László Barabási (b.1967) physicist Tim Kasser (b.1966) psychologist, communications scholar Charlene Spretnak (b.1946) ecofeminist activist, philosopher Nigel Cross (n/a) professor of design studies. John Dewey (1859 – 1952) philosopher, educational reformer Harding, Stephan Dr. (n/a) holistic scientist Santos, Boaventura De Sousa (b.1940) professor of sociology David Orr (n/a) environmental and political scientist Anne-Marie Willis & Tony Fry (n/a) design theorists, designers Theodore Roszak (b.1933) professor of history graphic design psychology / ecopsychology James Lovelock (b.1919) scientist, author Marshall McLuhan (1911 – 1980) educator, philosopher Humanti c: Elizabeth Pastor and GK VanPatter (n/a) designers Cameron Tomkinwise (n/a) design theorist Laura Sewall (n/a) visual psychologist David Bohm (1917 - 1992) quantum physicist, philosopher Ann Marie Barry (n/a) professor of visual perception and communication David McCandless (n/a) data journalist, information designer Naomi Klein (b.1970) author and social activist Joanna Macy (b.1929) author, Buddhist scholar, activist Ken Wilber (b.1949) author, integral theorist John Bellamy Foster (n/a) sociologist Mark Lombardi (1951-2000) researcher, information designer, artist Pierre Bourdieu (1930 - 2002) sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher Thomas Berry (1914 -2009) cultural historian, ecotheologian design science Arne Næss (1912 - 2009) philosopher, activist David Harvey (b.1935) anthropologist, geographer John Ehrenfeld (n/a) industrial ecologist, author Michel Foucault (1926 – 1984) philosopher, social theorist, historian Leslie Gray (n/a) indigenous educator, clinical psychologist Rob Hopkins (b.1970) ecologist, permaculture designer, author Tim Jackson (n/a) professor of sustainable development Buckminster Fuller (1895 - 1983) engineer, designer, inventor Peter Reason (n/a) action researcher, social theorist, sustainability scholar La Donna Harris & Jacqueline Wasilewski (n/a) indigenous scholars, activists feminism / ecofeminism holistic science David Holmgren (b. 1955) ecologist, permaculture designer Herman Daly (b.1938) ecological economist Janis Birkeland (n/a) architect, writer, scholar Steven Lukes (b.1941) political and critical social theorist Mary-Catherin Bateson (n/a) writer and cultural anthropologist The information gathered on this map has been gathered from different sources and is not complete . Version 3.0 - August 2011 Key to Lines: Summary of Disciplinary Lines Eco-literacy: Ecological literacy (EL) describes a capacity to think in terms of Design is uniquely positioned to engage in a process of moving from theory Philosophy: We have inherented a philosophical tradition based on a radical Transition is a social movement and community design practice based on local Ecofeminist analysis asserts that the logic of domination has been used histori- whole systems. Ecological literacy recognizes humankind’s embeddedness within to practice and moving between sectors to facilitate transdisciplinary actions disconnection with the natural world constituting ‘epistemological error’ a crisis of responses to climate change and peak oil, i.e. depletion of fossil fuel reserves. cally to oppress of both women and nature. Feminism is a fundamental building the ecological systems and thereby organizes cultural, political, legal and eco- and design new ways of living. Design is a problem solving profession with a reason and ethical rootlessness. Ecological literacy describes a worldview that Transition has its origins in permaculture which developed strategies for the block to the next social transformation – that of enlarging the community of nomic systems to re ect interdependence and interconnections. wide variety of tools and techniques to addresses complex problems. supports an ecologically embedded ontology, epistemology, rationality and ethic. design of systems for local resilience and energy descent. concern to include the wider ecological community. Sustainable Development: Current models of development based on Graphic Design aims to strategically change human understanding and behav- Critical Pedagogy is an educational movement that originated from Paulo Ecological Economics is economic theory that recognizes the economic Holistic Science: Holistic science dramatically challenges assumptions and A map based on the literature review in nite quantitative economic growth within a nite ecological system are entirely ior through the use of visual communication. Graphic design can address the crisis Freires educational practices focused on conscientization or critical consciousness. system as embedded within the ecological system, and having to function within methodological approaches of positivist science. Holistic science unites both of the AHRC funded PhD research, unsustainable. Development must re ect growth in nature where physical in environmental communications by visualizing complex webs of interdependence These teaching practices have been integral to the profound change witnessed in the carrying capacity of the earth. It describes quantitative growth as no longer quantities and qualities of scienti c methodologies, in a paradigm shift in science The Visual Communication of Ecological Literacy growth occurs to maturity then levels off. helping audiences notice relationships and develop ecological perception. social movements globally including women’s liberation. delivering prosperity to rich countries. Instead we must aim for qualitative growth. from physics to the life sciences. at the University of Brighton. Graphic No.23 - Version 3.0 Communications mediate the human-nature relationship and thus have a Science: Ecological literacy has emerged out the movement in modern science Social Theory offers powerful tools of analysis that expose how and why Ecopsychology address our psychological relationship with Nature, offering a Visual Communication Within the context of an increasingly visual culture, Joanna Jody Boehnert vital role to pay in responding to environmental problems. Visual communica- away from the Enlightenment tradition characterized by atomism, mechanism, ecological literacy remains marginal by describing how power functions in our radical re-visioning of ecological self. Ecopsychology understoods denial as a ‘natural’ visual communications can potentially facilitate ecological understanding through August 2011 tion has the unique capacity to communicate context, causality, connections, objectivism, anthropocentrism, rationalism and dualism. This shift follows Kuhn’s culture. Dominant discourses re ect the interests of powerful political interests defense mechanism and using practices from addiction therapy to address denial. display of complexity, context, connections, causality and quantity while nurturing This poster can be downloaded here: and complexity thereby facilitating ecological perception. theory of paradigm shifts in science, evolved now to ‘post-normal science’. with concepts such as the ‘discursive power’ and ‘symbolic violence’. Eco-psychology is heavily informed by TEK (traditional ecological knowledge). qualitative whole systems thinking. www.eco-labs.orgwww.eco-labs.org
  • 40. T EcoLabs L ♦ www.eco-labs.org http://teach-in.ning.com Q lo fa No. lowww.eco-labs.org