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    Basque sustainable development strategy 2020 Basque sustainable development strategy 2020 Document Transcript

    • ECO ECO ECO from the voice from economy from Ecology of the whole societyBASQUEsustainable developmentSTRATEGY 2020
    • 6 EcoEuskadi 2020: a stratEgic window to a sustainablE futurE
    • ECO from ECO from ECO from the voice economy Ecology of the whole societybasQuEsustainable developmentstratEgY 2020
    • Publication:July 2011PubliSHED bY:Eusko Jaurlaritza – basque Governmentihobe, Sociedad Pública de Gestión ambientalEcoEuskadi 2020 technical SecretariatAlda. de Urquijo N.º 36 - 6.ª (Plaza Bizkaia) 48011 BilbaoTel.: 94 423 07 43 • Fax: 94 423 59 00info@ihobe.net • www.ihobe.netDESiGn anD laYout:Canaldirecto • www.canal-directo.comtRanSlation:Traductores e Intérpretes S.A.lEGal DEPoSit:BI-2499/2011The contents of this book, in this edition, are published under licence:Creative Commons Recognition-Non commercial–ShareALike 3.0 Unported(Further information http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.es_ES)this document was made using only 100% recycled and totally chlorine free paper.the paper used holds the following certificates: angel azul, cisne nórdico and European Ecolabel.
    • indEx 04 PrEsEntatiOn 06 ECOEuskadi 2020: a stratEgiC windOw tO a sustainablE futurE 14 thE ECOEuskadi 2020 stratEgy: MissiOn 16 ECOEuskadi 2020 VisiOn 20 guiding PrinCiPlEs 24 stratEgiC ObjECtiVEs 32 linEs Of aCtiOn 62 transVErsal fOCusEs 66 ECOEuskadi 2020 COntrOl PanEl 74 ManagEMEnt MOdEl 80 guidElinEs fOr inCOrPOrating sustainability CritEria in sECtOral POliCiEs 87 annExEs
    • prEsEntation On 5 July 2011, the Basque Government approved 3% investment in research, development andthe first Sustainable Development Strategy, which innovation; reduce greenhouse gas emissions bywe named EcoEuskadi 2020. This milestone has 20%; reduce the school dropout rate to under 10%positioned the Basque Country among Europe’s most and the number of people living under the povertycutting-edge regions in the field of sustainability. threshold to under 15%. EcoEuskadi 2020 is economy, it is ecology and it is EcoEuskadi 2020 likewise sets out the strategicthe echo of the voice of society as a whole. It will reflections implemented by the differenthenceforth be the relevant instrument to prepare all territories and local councils, and consolidatespublic policies. It is a common project constructed by them into a single country vision. Achievingand for Basque citizens. the magnificent result of this strategy could not have been possible without this preliminary co- The Basque Country is now working on a progress responsibility work.model that will turn us into a cohesive country,with free citizens, committed to an economy that This document is also the outcome of theensures the well-being of its inhabitants and protects involvement of all socio-economic stakeholders. Ienvironmental assets. Jobs, youth and innovation are would like to sincerely thank each and every one ofthe pillars of this new model. them for their commitment and collaboration. We plan to increase the employment level EcoEuskadi 2020 is now a reality. The Basqueof people between 20 and 64 to 75%, achieve Country has a strategy. Patxi lópez Lehendakari (Basque Premier) 5 July 2011
    • EcoEuskadi 2020:a stratEgicwindow toa sustainablEfuturE
    • “EcoEuskadi 2020 is a transversal tool designed to advance towards a new model of sustainable progress that allows for a balanced development of the country with lower resource consumption, and from which we will promote one of the main engines for change towards this new economy in which bonds between economic growth, social welfare and conserving our environmental assets are appropriately linked (...)” Patxi López, President of the Basque Country Vitoria-Gasteiz, 5 july 2011 introduction On June 5, 2009, in the presentation of the so- territorial area, exceeding a specific territory.called Declaration of Urdaibai, the President of the Therefore, the Basque Country must unavoidablyBasque Country expressed his intention to lead a new coordinate its own strategy for sustainabledevelopment model - a transversal and integrating development with international strategies andpillar of the political action of the Basque Government, commitments, essentially with the Europe 2020gathered in the EcoEuskadi 2020 instrument. Strategy.2 Furthermore, it has to converge with the sustainable development strategies of the three The EcoEuskadi 2020 instrument, included as territories it comprises (the Biscay Programmean emblematic initiative within the significant 21 2011-2016, the Gipuzkoa Strategy 2020-2030Calendar of Plans and Actions for the 9thLegislature,1 is the Strategy for Sustainable and the Strategic Sustainable Development PlanDevelopment in the Basque Country up to the year for Álava 2011-2015), as well as with the local2020. It establishes the strategic objectives that sustainability processes of the towns, developedencompass sectoral plans from the sustainability through the Local Agenda 21.perspective. EcoEuskadi 2020 will serve to deepen By virtue of its transversal nature, thethe concept of Sustainable Development and EcoEuskadi 2020 instrument is devoted toto assimilate its implications when designing articulate public actions towards the projectdepartmental and sectoral policies. of a country that is economically competitive, Sustainability is an interrelated and global innovative and eco-efficient, social united andconcept that must be managed according to a jointly responsible, committed to the quality of thepolitical commitment that is appropriate to each assets and resources of its natural heritage.1 Regional Cabinet Agreement of April 13, 2010.2 It must also be aligned with the Strategy for Sustainable Development of Spain (2007) and the Sustainable Economy Act (2011). 7
    • organisational and economic resources procEss for dEvEloping necessary to develop the entire process. thE stratEgY — Technical Committee, formed by technical staff from the different Departments of the Basque Government. The process for developing the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy was led by the President of the — Technical Secretariat, coordinated by Basque Country, Patxi López, and boosted by the Basque Government’s Environmental several multidepartmental and multiinstitutional Management Authority (Ihobe). committees. The following operational organisms Considering the synergies that have been set had been established: out and the excellent results obtained from this — Interdepartmental Committee, formed by organisational model, it has to be kept in force, to Deputy Ministers of the Basque Government. deploy, assess and monitor EcoEuskadi 2020 in the context of the Sustainable Development Office.3 — Interinstitutional Committee, formed by representatives from the three provincial A noteworthy feature is the commitment to councils, from Eudel —Association of Basque gather the maximum number of agents and citizens Municipalities— and the economic, social and participating as possible, as a differentiating and environmental areas of the Basque Government. structuring factor of the entire process. In order to build the EcoEuskadi 2020 strategy bottom- — Monitoring Committee, made up of senior up. For that purpose, different onsite and virtual officials of the Basque Presidency, the participation channels were created throughout Department of the Environment and Ihobe, the process, that complemented and redirected the the operative body behind the EcoEuskadi work of the committees. Those channels were one 2020 initiative, responsible for proposing the of the main characteristics and most highly valued methodology and assigning the technical, elements when developing the Strategy. synthesis of the development process of the strategy for sustainable development EcoEuskadi 2020 PARTICIPATORY PROCESS ON CHALLENGES PARTICIPATORY PROCESS ON PROPOSALS Scenarios 2030 Strategic framework, PREPARATORY Situation objectives and lines of action WORK analysis Keys to sustainability in the Basque Challenges to Country STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE METHODOLOGICAL sustainability DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION EcoEuskadi 2020 Indicators Sustainable Development May 2010 October 2010 February 2011 June 2011 Figure 1. 3 See chapter 9 «Management Model».8 EcoEuskadi 2020: a stratEgic window to a sustainablE futurE
    • Work process other documents available on sustainability (E.g.: Basque President’s Advisory Council on The methodology followed to develop the Euskadi Socio-economic Affairs).2020 Strategy for Sustainable Developmentfully conformed to the slogan “the process is These documents prepared by the Technicalas important as its content”. Actually, great Committee have been contrasted by theprominence was given to the participation of social, Interdepartmental and Interinstitutional Committeeseconomic and institutional agents and to the public mentioned above.in general (particularly young people), almost The situation diagnosis highlights how ourcontinuously throughout the process.4 system faces three great threats that, lacking an The process itself has followed three clearly appropriate response, will gradually but inexorablydefined phases. The first, which we could call the lead to the depletion of the welfare system:preparation, began in May 2010 and tackled the — The first involves depletion of resourcescreation of the aforementioned committees and that are scarce (energy, other raw materials,the initial methodological documents; the second food, water) and ever more in dispute due tophase of diagnosis lasted from October 2010 to the growing number of countries in globalFebruary 2011 and finalised with the identification markets, which obliges us to redefine the basisof eight keys to safeguard the sustainability ofdevelopment in the Basque Country. Finally the of competitiveness in our productive industrythird phase, concluded in June 2011, consisted in an open and globalised world.of preparing the strategy itself. Both final phases — The second threat, closely linked to the currentwere strongly supported by extensive and in-depth energy model, is climate change. Mitigatingpublic participation processes that have allowed climate change requires a radical change ofthe different social agents and the public in general the energy model based on fossil fuels. Despiteto contribute to a true construction process from the possible change of energy model, climatethe base; specific proposals that have been included change will produce effects to which we mustin the strategy. adapt, beyond the 2020 horizon, and generally The diagnosis phase was developed on the basis given the greater frequency of extremeof three documents:5 atmospheric phenomena. — Scenarios 2030. Implications for the Basque — The third is linked to our demographic Country, based on recognised macro trends evolution, which leads us to a situation that in a series of fields that directly affect the is stationary and possibly, beyond 2020, framework of action in the Basque Country. regressive of the population volume. — Euskadi 2011 sustainable development These are threats that we also share with other indicators, putting into figures the main regions but that require specific solutions by each parameters that define sustainability, aligned region. with the European indicators in use. On the interaction of these three great threats — Situation diagnosis for a sustainable Basque with our socio-economic reality, the diagnosis Country in 2020, based on the sectoral concludes with the identification of nine challenges analysis prepared by the different departments to the sustainability of the Basque Country6 of the Basque government, those prepared to that were contrasted with the general public in develop the sustainable development strategies participatory session.7 As a result of this contrast, of the three Historical Territories, as well as the phase ended with the identification of the4 Annex 3: Synthesis of the participatory process.5 All the documentation is available at www.ecoeuskadi2020.net.6 The challenges identified were: 1. Productive model, employment and competitiveness. Basque Country in the global economy; 2. Sustainable production and consumption. Raw materials. Waste and recycling; 3. Climate change and energy model; 4. Land planning and use. Biodiversity and natural heritage; 5. Mobility, infrastructures and means of transport; 6. The welfare state; 7. Social cohesion and solidarity; 8. Culture and society and 9. Governance.7 Participatory process aimed at socio-economic agents. Technical Conclusions of the 1st session (January 25 and 26, 2011). Available at www. ecoeuskadi2020.net. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 9
    • following for a sustainable Basque Country in the After the contrast in the participatory process year 2020: undertaken in May 20118, the body of the Strategy 1. Scarce natural resources and in the process developed throughout this text was built. of depletion. It is noteworthy the work carried out throughout 2. Energy dependence and climate change. the process by the Basque President’s Advisory 3. Globalisation of competition. Council on Socio-economic Affairs, as a permanent contrasting organism throughout the drafting of 4. Profound demographic changes. EcoEuskadi 2020, and also Innobasque, the Basque 5. Unbalanced generational change. Innovation Agency, which acted as a coordinator for 6. Fragility of a changing system of values. the deployment of the participatory process. 7. Unsustainable mobility and transport. Finally, it should be noted that the Basque 8. Unequal international development. Economic and Social Council reported on the Sustainable Development Strategy Project on Based on the agreed key aspects, since late June 8, 2011 and considered it appropriate to be February 2011 we have built the Euskadi 2020 processed. The Economic Development Committee Strategy for Sustainable Development. During this of this Council, who worked on the EcoEuskadi last phase, the participatory processes were held 2020 strategy, incorporated in the report a series of parallel to the work undertaken by the different observations that have mostly been included in this committees, and have continuously contributed to Strategy. the process of drafting the Strategy. Each of the Extensive and intensive groups or individuals has submitted their input in relation to what they consider must be a more participatory process sustainable Basque Country and the specific lines The participatory process has had great of action and proposals to achieve this. In this relevance when drafting this Strategy, and it has way, the drafting has followed a bottom-up outline, been a conditioning element thereof. The Basque searching for the involvement of the greatest Government provided forums for participatory number of agents possible, maximum consensus reflection and cooperation (active co-creation) in and including the different sensitivities that make order to gather the opinions and stances of young up Basque society. people, businessesmen, social bodies, institutions and general public. The process was enriched with the contributions The intensity and extent of the participation of the technical staff of the Government came to prove a consensus on the need and urgency Departments through idea and line of action of developing a Sustainable Development Strategy contribution sessions in interdepartmental forums for Euskadi 2020 with a long-term vision, in order to combine the focuses on: to pursue action on the unsustainable trends of the current system. — Economic and Environmental Sustainability (Economy, Industry, Environment and The participation process can be summarised in Agriculture and Energy, Transport, Education). the following figures: — Social Sustainability (Health, Employment and — 50 physical and virtual participatory forums. Social Services, Economy). — 78 onsite meetings or workshops held. — 388 entities represented. — Governance (Presidency, Education, Economic, — 2,502 attendees and 2,368 people taking part; Public Administration). of them, 1,616 young people. 8 Participatory process aimed at socio-economic agents. Technical Conclusions of the 2nd session (May 9, 10 and 11, 2011). Available at www. ecoeuskadi2020.net.10 EcoEuskadi 2020: a stratEgic window to a sustainablE futurE
    • — 832 users of the open spaces online and on channels were complemented with Local Agenda 21 social networks. forums in different municipalities and regions, as — And over 9,350 hours of participatory work well as the work of several NGOs. dedicated to the EcoEuskadi 2020 strategy. As a differentiating feature, we opened a To do this, we followed two different channels: complementary and innovative public participation channel to gather social discourse on sustainability — A traditional in-person channel. in the Basque Country, and to approach this — A virtual channel, based on social networks. concept from a public perspective. For this purpose, we developed a qualitative methodology (Future All the information prepared is available on the Workshops) that allowed us to know the depth andwebsite www.ecoeuskadi2020.net, which is also development of social discourse, through groupthe permanent reference for the communicative and dynamics with people of different characteristics,participatory process. based on three parameters (Historical Territory, The institutional vision was also represented age and rural/urban environment). The resultsby the committees that make up the process: the show the positive but distant or remote nature thatTown Councils through Udalsarea 21 (the Basque citizens attributes to the concept of sustainableNetwork of Municipalities for Sustainability), the development, linked to responsibility towards thedepartmental and interdepartmental sessions of the future and particularly to the environment anddifferent Basque Government Departments, as well energy model. However, there is a distinct lack ofas the different Basque universities and Q Epea (the association between sustainable development andNetwork of Public Entities for Excellence). aspects of economic and social cohesion. The contribution of socio-economic agents This process gave rise to a pioneeringwas provided by Izaite (Basque companies for quantitative study9 related to Quality of life andsustainability), Bai+ (Forum for reflection for Sustainability, its main findings show for examplesustainability of Eusko Ikaskuntza/Basque that the weighting given by Basque society toStudies Society), Garapen (Association of Basque economic, social and environmental aspects inDevelopment Agencies), and Technological Centres, relation to the concept of quality of life are wellamong others. balanced. Employment and the competitiveness of Basque companies in a global market are Building a project for the future must significantly perceived as key aspects of the future, the studytake into account young people with special also detected a special sensitivity to promoting andattention to educational centres. There have aiding the primary sector in the Basque Country.been work sessions in the University of Deusto, The ageing population and low birth rate haveUniversity of Mondragón and the University of the an average relevance on the scale of importance.Basque Country / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, in Intergenerational and international joint-vocational training centres and in secondary schools responsibility is another outstanding aspect, mostin the three territories, as well as different youth are aware that current consumption of resourcesassociations. jeopardises the welfare of future generations and of the need to support the poorest countries. Finally, the contribution of Basque society waschannelled through the website and main social Due to the impact it had on the development ofnetworks (Facebook, Twitter, Tuenti, Open Ideiak, the Strategy, as an element to display the inputetc.), with the support and coordination of the Office received, the description of the participatoryof Open Government and Communication on the process and the results obtained will be objectInternet, attached to the Presidency of the Basque of an additional document that completesGovernment. Furthermore, these public participation EcoEuskadi 2020.9 Survey carried out by the Basque Government Office of Sociological Prospective among 1,200 people, based on a questionnaire linked to current and future keys to sustainability in the Basque Country. May 2011. See Annex 4. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 11
    • outlinE of The Strategy is completed with three chapters of the utmost importance: thE stratEgY — The control panel, with three types of indicators (the head, policy monitoring and progress in Strategy management) that allow The Euskadi 2020 Strategy for Sustainable us to make a direct reading of the evolution of Development has been structured following the sustainability and is the basis to assess the outline shown in the triangle of the figure: effectiveness of the Strategy. Mission — The management model, which establishes the procedure for monitoring, assessing and The rationale of the Strategy. Reflects the national periodically revising EcoEuskadi 2020. project towards which the Basque Country wishes to advance. — Guidelines for incorporating sustainability criteria into sectoral policies, which includes Vision the criteria to be used to incorporate the principles of sustainability in the policies of Direction or purpose of a conscious desire. the Basque Administration. Reflects how we want to see ourselves and be seen by 2020. Finally, the Strategy has four annexes, with the following content: Guiding principles 1. Aligning the Government plans with the Basic principles that should guide institutional strategic objectives of the 2020 Strategy for policies and leadership. Sustainable Development. Strategic Objectives 2. Fitting the EcoEuskadi 2020 strategic objectives with the objectives of the Derived directly from the vision, they reflect the sustainable development plans of the partial goals that must be developed in order to Provincial Councils. advance towards this vision. 3. Synthesis of the participatory process. Lines of Action 4. Citizenship and sustainable development. Main actions proposed to advance towards the Strategic Objectives outlined. As previously mentioned, the special characteristic of the participation process and Transversal Focuses the impact it has had on the development of the Strategy will be object of an additional document Priority areas of action that impact that complements the Euskadi 2020 Strategy for simultaneously on the three dimensions of Sustainable Development. sustainability. They require vertical and horizontal coordination by the Administration and may Finally, it is necessary to deploy a guide to detail become bottlenecks in the progress towards the the guidelines for incorporating sustainability strategic objectives. criteria in the sectoral policies and strategies.12 EcoEuskadi 2020: a stratEgic window to a sustainablE futurE
    • Outline of the sustainable development strategy,EcoEuskadi 2020Figure 2. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 13
    • thE EcoEuskadi2020 stratEgY:Mission
    • The mission of the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy is to serve as an integration platform for all the sectoral policies of the Government and other Public Administrations to create an explicit national project with public participation, agreeing a set of objectives, guidelines and principles that guarantee economic, social and environmental sustainability, establishing benchmarks that allow the progress made to be regularly assessed.This formulation implies: — Agreeing a series of objectives, guidelines and principles that guarantee its economic, social— Serving as a platform to integrate all the and environmental sustainability: Governments sectoral policies: Although the Strategy does not include Action EcoEuskadi 2020 does not intend, in principle, Plans, it shall include objectives and guiding to include new actions but to seek the principles that must be integrated and integration and coherence of the different deployed in the appropriate sectoral plans. In Government strategies. consequence, the objectives may condition the future plans and strategies.— And of the other public administrations: And also of the Provincial and Town — With active public participation: Councils, therefore its participation, given Active citizens demand to participate actively the distribution of competence between the in the regulation, plan and strategy drafting different levels of administration, is essential processes. Furthermore, progressing towards to achieve its goals. sustainability also involves hanging public models and attitudes. Therefore, public participation is essential for the effectiveness of— A national project: the actions. The perspective and priorities of the country as a whole should prevail, formalising a new — Establishing milestones to periodically assess contract between the Public Administration the progress made: and society, in which a new form of governance As well as objectives and guiding principles, is specified, achieving the support of the people the Strategy for Sustainable Development shall and organisations. have a control panel and set of monitoring indicators that shall serve as a reference to periodically assess the progress in achieving the different objectives set. 15
    • EcoEuskadi 2020Vision
    • A country coordinated as Euskal Metrópoli (Basque Metropolis), cohesive, formed by free and healthy citizens who live in peace, who are actively committed to transforming the current productive system towards a new, eco-efficient and low-carbon economy that is competitive and open, based on education, research, knowledge, innovation and learning, to preserve the welfare and quality of life of its inhabitants; open to the world but protective of its cultural identity, natural resources and biodiversity, to build an attractive future in which to develop and cultivate human talent, and committed to developing the planet and its inhabitants. Developing the Strategy parts from an initial For this reason we formulated this purpose as adiagnosis10 of the Basque productive, social and conscious desire to:ecological system. This diagnosis has revealed theexistence of certain risks of unsustainability in the “Advance in the construction of a nationalfuture. Contrasting the diagnosis with public group project that is at the forefront of sustainablethat joined the open participation process led to the development.”identification of eight keys or reference elements This is specified in:for the future sustainability of the Basque system.11 A country coordinated as Euskal Metrópoli In view of these keys, a purpose is formulated (Basque Metropolis), cohesive, formed by freefor the Strategy for Sustainable Development. This and healthy citizens who live in peace, who arepurpose summarises the vision of how we want actively committed to transforming the currentto see ourselves and been seen in 2020, aware productive system towards a new, eco-efficientthat to fulfil this purpose, and starting from the and low-carbon economy that is competitive andbasis, we must undertake a series of actions that open, based on education, research, knowledge,require certain commitment by the Basque Public innovation and learning, to preserve theAdministration, the public and other agents. welfare and quality of life of its inhabitants;Nothing will come about on its own. open to the world but protective of its cultural On the other hand, we must be aware that the identity, natural resources and biodiversity, tovision is not really a goal but a direction. There is build an attractive future in which to developno state of sustainable development, but ways of and cultivate human talent, and committed toprogressing in a sustainable way. developing the planet and its inhabitants.10 Diagnosis of the situation for a sustainable Basque Country in 2020. Available at www.ecoeuskadi2020.net11 Keys to sustainability in the Basque Country. Available at www.ecoeuskadi2020.net 17
    • This formulation implies: — Transforming the current productive system towards a new, eco-efficient and low-carbon — A national project: economy: Is conceived, designed, built as an integrated Sustainable development involves country, i.e. with an overview where each transforming our productive system, Territory, each Region, each Municipality, establishing a new model of sustainable with its own personality and vocation is development, three-dimensional, with a reinterpreted in terms of the country as a growing role for innovation, to respond to whole. current challenges and, in particular, to the depletion of natural resources and the need to — That is at the forefront of sustainable change the energy model in favour of a system development: that is free or little dependent on fossil fuels. The Basque Country, which has positioned itself among the advanced countries in terms — Competitive and open: of economic and social development, must Excellence in what it is and in what allows it continue forward in developing knowledge and to successfully compete in an international in the achievements of the new, sustainable context. Economic globalisation makes it economy. imperative to progress towards a competitive and open economy to exchange the goods and — A country coordinated as Euskal Metrópoli services produced with increasing added value. (Basque Metropolis): A country where the time and distance between — Based on education, research, knowledge, its parts is so reduced that it conceives and innovation and learning: designs its equipment as that of a large city, Making progress and, even more so, being at accessible to all its citizens, inserted in its the forefront, requires research, knowledge, natural environment, open and integrated into learning, applying. The Science and Technology its surroundings. system is therefore a key element of the new economy. Its development requires — Cohesive: having a vocation for research and centres of Solidary and egalitarian, it strives to correct excellence embedded in the global network for factors of inequality, guaranteeing an collaboration. And it requires entrepreneurs to acceptable level of equitable opportunities commit to new business initiatives. Likewise, to develop the vital and healthy project of its a country that aspires to be at the forefront residents. Employment, preparatory training, needs a quality education system to achieve the universal provision of social and health academic success and coordinated in a flexible services and solidarity are keys. manner, able to adapt educational and training contents to the qualifications required by the — Formed by free and healthy citizens who live employment market. in peace, who are actively committed: An active commitment is needed from all the — To preserve the welfare and quality of life of men and women who are living for the first its inhabitants: time in many years in freedom, peace and Changing the productive model is necessary without violence, who are actively involved to continue being competitive. And we need in healthy habits and living conditions both to be to maintain our quality of life and in their daily social life and in their work finance our social and health protection environment. The condition of healthy is system, and the new needs that arise with the not limited to the absence of illness, but to change of demographic and social patterns, the approach of the determining factors of which include the increased proportion of health, including the prevalence of social, depended persons, the prevalence of chronic environmental and working conditions that diseases and the growing diversity of cultural allow a balanced development of the person. guidelines. It is not only a matter of resources18 EcoEuskadi 2020 vision
    • but also of efficient management by the Public — Committed to developing the planet and its Administration, avoiding administrative inhabitants: duplication and avoiding the inequities of the The unsustainability of our traditional way of system, with a vision of a country that knows life is a problem of planetary dimensions and that it is ageing and that it must adapt to new implications. On the other hand, we can hardly realities. be solidary behind closed doors by closing our eyes to the inequalities and shortages of the— Open to the world: most underprivileged countries. Developed The dimension of the challenges and the fact countries, including the Basque Country, have that they are shared by the whole developed acknowledged that they are jointly responsible world, requires us to relinquish the temptation for international development. to follow the path in isolation. The philosophy of network cooperation is necessary to share Our purpose is moving in the same direction, knowledge and accelerate progress. in other words, as the European Union in the Europe 2020 Strategy: intelligent, sustainable and— But protective of its cultural identity: integrating growth: The Basque Country has a strong cultural identity that is in itself an asset in a — Intelligent growth: developing a knowledge globalised world. The globalisation and and innovation-based economy. internationalisation of the economy must not undermine the strengthening of idiosyncratic — Sustainable growth: promoting an economy features that must also be an integrating that uses resources more efficiently, a green factor in a society with a high percentage of and more competitive economy. immigrants from other cultures. — Integrating growth: building an economy with— Its natural resources and biodiversity: a high level of employment that results in The quality of the natural environment and economic, social and territorial cohesion. biodiversity of the Basque Country, as well These three priorities are mutually reinforcing as contributing to the feeling of belonging and offer an image of the social market economy in and identity, is a natural asset that enriches Europe for the 21st century. the quality of life of citizens, therefore urban development, communication channels or productive activities must be compatible with their conservation and development.— To build an attractive future in which to develop and cultivate human talent: Overcoming the challenges that cast a cloud over the perspectives of humanity is, on the contrary, a source of hope able to arouse the best efforts and values, responding to the professional and life challenges of all people, particularly our youth. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 19
    • guidingprinciplEs
    • “Many current actions supposedly aimed at progress are simply unsustainable, they entail too great a burden on already scarce natural resources. These actions may be useful in the balance sheets of our generation, but they imply that our children will inherit losses.” World Commission on Environment and Development Notwithstanding that the Strategy may “development is sustainable if it meets the needsrequire direct action on many of the causes of of the present without compromising the ability ofunsustainability detected (e.g. substituting the future generations to meet their own needs”.energy model based on fossil fuels), sustainabledevelopment has much to do with the other way This is a concept with profound ethicalof designing policies or assessing actions. This importance. But it also highlights a scientific fact:different way of designing policies entails a more that at a given time the global ecosystem has aextensive analysis of their implications, both in limited load or assimilation capacity.time and in space: “Many current actions supposedly — We must look at the repercussions in time, aimed at progress are simply unsustainable, which may extend to future generations. they entail too great a burden on already scarce natural resources. These actions — We must analyse the implications beyond may be useful in the balance sheets of our the direct impacts, including other fields generation, but they imply that our children (economic, resources, social groups) and not will inherit losses.” only those specific to the policy in question. World Commission on Environment and Development It is therefore a matter of extending theassessment in time and transversally in space and Consequently, each generation must taketo the stakeholders. responsibility for managing resources thinking ahead, seeking a fair division of resources between This broader focus is evident in the definition of generations and regions of the world: each personsustainable development itself, which is still valid must have access to the necessary resources in thissince it was coined in the Brundtland Report:12 and coming generations.12 Our Common Future. Report of the Brundtland Commission. United Nations, 1987. 21
    • In practice, analysing sustainability is neither and objectives established not only the Strategy as obvious nor as simple. There are often gains for Sustainable Development, but also to other in one aspect of the analysis but losses in one of agreements and strategies with a higher territorial the others. The solution as a procedure requires a scope that involve the Basque Country. detailed analysis of the different types of impact, transparency in the assessment processes and the To do this, the cross-examination of solutions participation of the stakeholders to find balanced between the different Organisms involved solutions. should be incorporated from the early stages of development of policies or actions plans. It must To guide this process it is necessary to be ensured that important political decisions are establish a clear series of basic principles to made on the basis of proposals whose economic, guide policies and institutional leadership that social and environmental impact has been assessed must be promoted from the highest levels of the in a transparent, participatory and interrelated Public Administration. With this objective, the way. Ex post assessment of programmes also plays following four basic principles are presented an important role in understanding how their from the start: effectiveness and impact are applied to target groups, such as the existence of possible collateral A) Intergenerational responsibility effects. (assuming responsibility for future generations) Transparency in decision-making processes and the participation of affected stakeholders This principle directly entails that current needs are key to guarantee that possible conflicts of must not be covered at the expense of depleting interest are compensated, helping that decision non-renewable resources. On the other hand, made give due consideration to the perspective of responsibility for the future also entails respecting sustainable development. Conflicts shown during the principle of precaution (avoiding possible the development process should be published, and damage to health or the environment, even if no the decisions made properly motivated. definitive scientific evidence is available). Equally, applying the polluter pays principle, so that burdens are not transferred to other groups of the C) Balanced consideration of the present or future generation. repercussions of each policy on the threefold economic, social and B) Incorporating the perspective of environmental dimension, ensuring that sustainable development into the core balanced progress is made on all three of all policies, improving coherence and pillars coordination between the different Policy-making must include and assess the departments and areas of sectoral threefold dimension of the objectives (ensuring a policies comprehensive and holistic vision). This principle means that sustainable Notwithstanding the development of precise development is not another sectoral policy. The assessment methodologies and procedures, key issue is that all associated departments the balance and exchange between the three and organisms incorporate the perspective development pillars is such a delicate task that of sustainability in the way they design and only applying a strict principle of transparency implement policies from the beginning. will guarantee that the decisions are made after As if logical, this perspective must be frank and open debate, and with a rigorous incorporated according to the principle of examination of alternatives, easily understandable coherence with the international commitments for the public and the main social agents and undertaken, adapting the guidelines, rhythms entities.22 guiding principlEs
    • D) Joint responsibility productive processes to generate as little impact on their environment as possible and maximising the Sustainable development is not a matter that value generated for society.only concerns the general administration ofthe Autonomous Region. Therefore it is basic Therefore, the sustainability of policies requires,to promote associations and partnerships for (i) the collaboration of the different levels ofsustainable development among the different levels administration and (ii) the collaboration of theof public administration, with social agents and the stakeholders and general public. The publicgeneral public. understanding the different facets implicit in problems of sustainability is an essential Private companies and corporations, based on conditions to make progress in the solutions. Athe principle of corporate social responsibility strategy that does not include civil society in itsmust also pay attention to sustainability in their approach will be necessarily limited and surelystrategies and ordinary operations, optimising unsuccessful. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 23
    • stratEgicobjEctivEs
    • Nine strategic objectives The formulation of the vision shows a clear To reach this recognition, we must make substantialstrategic purpose: It is not merely about achieving progress towards a series of partial goals that aresustainable development, but reaching a recognition also included in the Vision. Translated in terms ofof excellence in the balanced development of objectives upon which we can work, they can beour living, economic, social and environmental divided into the following nine strategic objectives:conditions.01tO POsitiOn thE 02tO COnsOlidatE a 03tO strEngthEnbasquE COuntry fully intEgrating and sOCial PrOtECtiOn systEMsas an innOVatiVE, COhEsiVE basquE COuntry in OrdEr tO COntinuECOMPEtitiVE, basEd On EMPlOyMEnt, guarantEEingECO-EffiCiEnt EduCatiOn, PrEVEntiOn harMOniOus, hEalthyand OPEn ECOnOMy and sOlidarity and EquitablE dEVElOPMEnt04tO PrEsErVE Our 05tO MiniMisE EnErgy 06tO dEVElOP a MOrEnatural rEsOurCEs dEPEndEnCE On sustainablE intEgratEdand biOdiVErsity with fOssil-basEd EnErgiEs and MObility MOdEl thatrEsPECtful and balanCEd MitigatE grEEnhOusE gas faCilitatEs struCturingPlanning Of thE tErritOry, EMissiOns and thE EffECts thE inland tErritOryinfrastruCturEs, EquiPMEnt Of CliMatE ChangE and COnnECtiOnand hOusing with thE ExtEriOr in bEttEr COnditiOns Of COMPEtitiVEnEss07tO build an EduCatiOn 08tO dEPlOy an 09tO COntributE frOMand quality ValuEs innOVatiVE, EffiCiEnt, thE basquE COuntrysystEM, aiMEd at aCCEssiblE and tO MEEting thEaChiEVing aCadEMiC transParEnt PubliC MillEnniuM gOalssuCCEss, flExiblE and adMinistratiOn and, in gEnEral, tOadaPting EduCatiOnal thE sustainablEand training COntEnts dEVElOPMEnttO thE qualifiCatiOns Of thE MOstrEquirEd by thE jOb undErPriVilEgEdMarkEt and sOCiEty COuntriEsthrOughOut lifE,inCluding sustainabilityin all its diMEnsiOns 25
    • 01 strategic Objective 1 tO POsitiOn thE basquE COuntry as an innOVatiVE, COMPEtitiVE, ECO-EffiCiEnt and OPEn ECOnOMy Nowadays, the Basque economy is open and competitive based on industrial production, thanks to which we have reached the standard of living enjoying by the present generation, and that has proven to be strong and have a capacity for recovery that is above the other economies in its area. In the immediate future, increased global competition, the globalisation that affects many tradable activities and the depletion of energy and raw materials will lead us only being able to remain internationally competitive is we develop efficient technologies and processes, which optimise energy resources and the use of raw materials with a comprehensive product life cycle perspective. This requires developing new, advanced knowledge, based on science and its technological applications, which also increases added value per job post in a society in demographic stagnation or regression; something that, since our recognition as a small country, will be easier to achieve by cooperating with other countries in global networks than through autonomous development at any cost. 02 strategic Objective 2 tO COnsOlidatE a fully intEgrating and COhEsiVE basquE COuntry basEd On EMPlOyMEnt, EduCatiOn, PrEVEntiOn and sOlidarity Basque society has been characterised by its high level of social solidarity and large doses of egalitarianism, having paid special attention to underprivileged minorities. The main factor of social integration is undoubtedly a person’s access to quality employment in accordance with their skills. For this, it is essential that the education system is designed to develop their potential in an increasingly interactive, plural and open society. Appropriate employment and motivating education must make it easier to exercise healthy and integrating habits. Access to health and social services completes our welfare system, creating the framework that our society has developed to ensure equitable integration of individuals. Changes in values, diversity of ways of life and cultural standards and growing competition in the employment market can lead to situations of risk or social exclusion to which our system must respond, adapting and improving efficiency.26 EcoEuskadi 2020: a stratEgic window to a sustainablE futurE
    • 03 strategic Objective 3 tO strEngthEn sOCial PrOtECtiOn systEMs in OrdEr tO COntinuE guarantEEing harMOniOus, hEalthy and EquitablE dEVElOPMEnt Social protection systems are developed to guarantee people decent living conditions in which they can carry out their life project in a healthy way. Demographic changes, with the decrease in birth rate and prolongation of life, generate new demands (increased dependence, prevalence of chronic conditions) to which society must respond with formulas that affect both a more efficient organisation of services and funding mechanisms. On the other hand, the reduction in the workforce (employed or unemployed) and the increase in the inactive population (children, students, unemployed who do not want to work, pensioners...) make the financial stability of the system difficult. This will require us to adapt the systems from a dual perspective of income and expenses to ensure the viability of the whole.04 strategic Objective 4 tO PrEsErVE Our natural rEsOurCEs and biOdiVErsity with rEsPECtful and balanCEd Planning Of thE tErritOry, infrastruCturEs, EquiPMEnt and hOusing The expansion of urban activities (residential, productive and services), the multiplication of transport infrastructures and the progressive abandoning of agricultural practices have required a large consumption of land and fractioning natural habitats, which endangers the survival of our biodiversity and introduces radical changes to the natural landscape. Human activities certainly need land, but land must be managed as a valuable and scarce asset to be optimised, enabling development according to its natural functions, minimising the impact on ecosystems and natural resources. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 27
    • 05 strategic Objective 5 tO MiniMisE EnErgy dEPEndEnCE On fOssil-basEd EnErgiEs and MitigatE grEEnhOusE gas EMissiOns and thE EffECts Of CliMatE ChangE The prospect of depleting the current energy system based on fossil fuels, increases the vulnerability of productive systems and consumption that, as is the case of the Basque Country, have scarce supply sources. Increased price volatility in this market, stimulated by the increased demand of the large developing economies and the political instability of oil producing countries, make it necessary to evolve as quickly as possible towards a system based on renewable energies, with a long-term perspective (2050) of practically completely substituting oil. This also works in parallel on the fundamental causes that accelerate climate change. 06 strategic Objective 6 tO dEVElOP a MOrE sustainablE intEgratEd MObility MOdEl that faCilitatEs struCturing thE inland tErritOry and COnnECtiOn with thE ExtEriOr in bEttEr COnditiOns Of COMPEtitiVEnEss The Basque transport system relies mainly on private vehicles and road transport. Railway is recovering positions in passenger transport but is limited to certain areas. Along with developing the new high speed railway network, it is urgent to advance towards a comprehensive railway system that provides service to the main areas of demand for mobility in the Basque Country, which is integrating and complements other transport infrastructures (airports, ports, bus stations), favouring intermodality and non-motorised transport and contributing to building Euskal Metrópoli. On the other hand, road transport is one of the great consumers of fossil-based energy, therefore without prejudice to vehicles evolving (reducing the maximum limit of emissions, using biofuels, implementing electric vehicles, etc.) developing the railway network will reduce consumption of oil by-products, decisively contributing to fulfilling objective 5.28 stratEgic objEctivEs
    • 07 Strategic Objective 7 TO build an educaTiOn and qualiTy valueS SySTem, aimed aT achieving academic SucceSS, flexible and adapTing educaTiOnal and Training cOnTenTS TO The qualificaTiOnS required by The jOb markeT and SOcieTy ThrOughOuT life, including SuSTainabiliTy in all iTS dimenSiOnS The education system, and the university in particular, is the key by which we must access the knowledge necessary to face new challenges. The important feature is that the acceleration of changes requires us to clearly assume the concept of learning throughout life. And as we are at the frontier of knowledge, the new sustainable production systems require us to delve deep into the world of research and science. Besides preserving the traditional values that the education system must transmit, we must develop new values that promote innovation, collaboration and being open to the world. But becoming part of the global world must not make us lose our roots nor our history and way of being. On the contrary, it should serve to project a global dimension on to our own culture.08 Strategic Objective 8 TO deplOy an innOvaTive, efficienT, acceSSible and TranSparenT public adminiSTraTiOn We must move towards a new culture of Public Administration, to a form of governance understood as a different way of making decisions, multiplying the places to make decisions and the agents involved. Because the dimension of our challenges requires a new way of managing solutions, with maximum participation and collaboration between different levels of administration, and active participation of the public and stakeholders. It also requires us to make it more efficient and agile, avoiding duplicating and overlapping powers, searching for ways of collaborating with civil society that give new answers to new problems.09 Strategic Objective 9 TO cOnTribuTe frOm The baSque cOunTry TO meeTing The millennium gOalS and, in general, TO The SuSTainable develOpmenT Of The mOST underprivileged cOunTrieS Because the world will not be sustainable unless we assume our responsibilities for developing the most underprivileged countries. The Basque Country has ratified the Millennium Declaration, taking as its own the challenges of promoting international cohesion. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 29
    • The strategic objectives proposed are directly the end of the diagnosis phase, as reflected in the related the keys to sustainability identified at interrelation table below: 9 stratEgiC ObjECtiVEs 8 kEys tO sustainability 1. To position the Basque Country as an innovative, 1. Scarce natural resources and in the process of competitive, eco-efficient and open economy depletion 3. Globalisation of competition 2. To consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive 4. Profound demographic changes Basque Country based on employment, education, 5. Unbalanced generational change prevention and solidarity 3. To strengthen social protection systems in order 4. Profound demographic changes to continue guaranteeing harmonious, healthy 5. Unbalanced generational change and equitable development 4. To preserve our natural resources and biodiversity with respectful and balanced 1. Scarce natural resources and in the process of planning of the territory, infrastructures, depletion equipment and housing 5. To minimise energy dependence on fossil-based energies and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions 2. Energy dependence and climate change and the effects of climate change 6. To develop a more sustainable integrated mobility model that facilitates structuring the 7. Unsustainable mobility and transport inland territory and connection with the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness 7. To build an education and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and adapting educational and training contents to 6. Fragility of a changing system of values13 the qualifications required by the job market and society throughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensions 1. Scarce natural resources and in the process of 8. To deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible and depletion transparent Public Administration. 3. Globalisation of competition 6. Fragility of a changing system of values 9.To contribute from the Basque Country to meeting the Millennium Goals and, in general, 8. Unequal international development to the sustainable development of the most underprivileged countries 13 Associating the objective with the key comes from the input of the participation process.30 stratEgic objEctivEs
    • Moreover, and according to the three dimensions employment, education, prevention andof sustainable development, these strategic solidarity», 3. « To strengthen social protectionobjectives can be put into three groups of strategies: systems in order to continue guaranteeing harmonious, healthy and equitable — Strategies to advance towards a new development», and 7. «To build an education economic/productive model that considers and quality values system, aimed at achieving objectives 1. «To position the Basque Country academic success, flexible and adapting as an innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and educational and training contents to the open economy», and 5. «To minimise energy qualifications required by the job market and dependence on fossil-based energies and society throughout life, including sustainability mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and the in all its dimensions». effects of Climate change». Set apart would be objectives 8. «To deploy an — Strategies to achieve territorial and environmental excellence. The objectives innovative, efficient, accessible and transparent included in this group are objective 4. «To Public Administration, and to a lesser extent», 9. «To preserve our natural resources and biodiversity contribute from the Basque Country to meeting the with respectful and balanced planning of Millennium Goals and, in general, to the sustainable the territory, infrastructures, equipment and development of the most underprivileged countries; housing», and 6. «To develop a more sustainable both related to Governance and that could be integrated mobility model that facilitates considered on another level given their impact on structuring the inland territory and connection the three dimensions of sustainable development». with the exterior in better conditions of The strategic objectives will be object of competitiveness». measurement and monitoring using the Strategy — Strategies for social cohesion and integration. Control Panel, which includes, in an integrating Covers the areas of employment, education, and coherent manner, a set of indicators social protection and health, and includes appropriate to reflect the progress made towards objectives 2. «To consolidate a fully integrating greater sustainability of the economic, social and and cohesive Basque Country based on environmental system. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 31
    • linEsof action
    • To make progress in each strategic objective, a seriesof lines of actions are developed involving all areas ofGovernment as well as other institutions and the generalpublic. These lines of action group a set of actionsaccording to their thematic affinity, with the exceptionof economic, tax and regulatory instruments that areassigned to the whole objective due to their impact anddifferential nature.The formulation and content of the lines of actioncome from the proposals made throughout the openparticipation process, as well as the different commissionsformed to develop the Strategy. The end result is thecoherent sum of the visions that make up Basque society. 33
    • Nine strategic objectives and 27 lines of action strategic Objective 1. strategic Objective 3. to position the basque Country as an to strengthen sOCial PrOtECtiOn innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and systems in order to continue open ECOnOMy guaranteeing harmonious, healthy and equitable development of people Line of action 1.1. to promote an innovative, entrepreneurial and technologically advance economy based on Line of action 3.1. knowledge, creativity, cooperation and skills to design a global framework of active policies to favour increased birth rate Line of action 1.2. to encourage the creation of green employment, reducing consumption and productive dependence Line of action 3.2. on raw or natural materials, turning sustainability to consolidate the fiscal sustainability of the into a competitive advantage current welfare state (dependence, guaranteed income, health) Line of action 1.3. to support the internationalisation of companies strategic Objective 2. strategic Objective 4. to preserve our natural rEsOurCEs to consolidate a fully integrating and and biodiversity with respectful and cohesive basque Country based on balanced planning of the territory, EMPlOyMEnt, education, prevention infrastructures, equipment and housing and solidarity Line of action 2.1. Line of action 4.1. to ensure integration and social cohesion to promote a compact city model Line of action 2.2. Line of action 4.2. to promote prevention, health promotion and to reduce pressure on ecosystems and natural personal autonomy as well as equal access resources (soil, water, air and landscape), improving to resources from a perspective of social the quality of the same determinants Line of action 4.3. Line of action 2.3. to promote comprehensive rural development to to promote specific, active employment policies preserve the natural values of the territory34
    • strategic Objective 5.to minimise energy dependence onfossil-based energy and mitigategreenhouse gas emissions and the effectsof CliMatE ChangELine of action 5.1.to promote the improvement of energy efficiencyand reduce energy consumptionLine of action 5.2.to promote the generation and use of renewable strategic Objective 8.energies to deploy an innovative, efficient,Line of action 5.3. accessible and transparent PubliCto mitigate climate change and develop adaptation adMinistratiOnactionsstrategic Objective 6. Line of action 8.1.to develop a more sustainable integrated to modernise public management, innovatingMObility model that facilitates mechanisms for relating with the publicstructuring the inland territory andconnection with the exterior in better Line of action 8.2.conditions of competitiveness to reinforce the efficiency of the public administration, revising its organisation and distribution of powers, promoting intra andLine of action 6.1. inter-institutional cooperation and strengtheningto promote more sustainable means of transport coordination mechanismsLine of action 6.2. Line of action 8.3.to achieve accessibility in appropriate and to advance in social participation formulas andsafe mobility conditions, based on integrated public-private partnershipinfrastructures and servicesstrategic Objective 7. strategic Objective 9.to build an EduCatiOn and quality values to contribute from the basque Country tosystem, aimed at achieving academic success, meeting the MillEnniuM gOals and, inflexible and adapting educational and training general, to the sustainable development ofcontents to the qualifications required by the most underprivileged countriesthe job market and society throughout life,including sustainability in all its dimensionsLine of action 7.1.to develop a training system that provides theskills required for professional and social life Line of action 9.1.throughout life, including sustainability to actively contribute to the sustainable development of third world countries through cooperation projectsLine of action 7.2.to promote training in values, particularly valuesrelated to sustainability Line of action 9.2. to promote responsible trade and tourism withLine of action 7.3. developing countriesto promote the international projection of basqueculture and the elements that define our identity 35
    • strategic Objective 1. to position the basque Country as an innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and open ECOnOMy Line of action 1.1. to promote an innovative, entrepreneurial and technologically advance economy based on knowledge, creativity, cooperation and skills Transforming the current productive system requires innovating the current processes and making our companies more competitive, as well as committing to developing emerging sectors that are less dependent in terms of scarce and non-renewable materials and resources. Sectors of the future considered to be strategic are health services, ICTs and electronics, social services, energy and biosciences. But advancing towards a dematerialised, low-carbon economy requires us to go beyond current frontiers of knowledge, giving a strong impetus to scientific knowledge and its applications, in new materials for example. All this requires equally large doses of creativity entrepreneurship. To achieve this we depend on generating basic knowledge applied to excellence, for which it is essential to continue consolidating the Basque knowledge network, more closely approaching universities, companies, technological centres and the mediators in R&D&I that make up the Basque Science, Technology and Innovation Network (RVCTI). But it is not only necessary to acquire higher levels of technological knowledge: we must equally make progress in transforming organisations inwardly, establishing more advanced business and organisation management models to make them more receipt to innovation in all its dimensions. These are processes that are being worked on in all the countries in the developed world. Now more than ever it is crucial to participate in these international knowledge exchanges. Along with the internationalisation of our professionals, it is advisable to reach and project the image of an advanced, innovative and attractive country. This will make it easier to introduce benchmark centres of knowledge, attracting talent and activities from abroad. Although scientific development is often associated with clean technologies and more sophisticated industrial development, new social demands related to demographic evolution also open vast prospects for business development in the field of caring for the elderly and dependent, with a host of adaptive technologies that facilitate functional autonomy and quality of life. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 1. Supporting sustainable emerging sectors, particularly the renewable energies industry. 2. Consolidating the Basque Science, Technology and Innovation Network. 3. Improving the competitiveness of the productive industry through innovation3. Mejora de la competitividad del tejido productivo a través de la innovación.36 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 1.to position the basque Country as an innovative, competitive,eco-efficient and open ECOnOMyLine of action 1.2.to encourage the creation of green employment, reducing consumption andproductive dependence on raw or natural materials, turning sustainability intoa competitive advantage With no need to go beyond the barriers of knowledge there is ample room for improvingsustainability by reducing consumption and productive dependence, incorporating anenvironmental perspective into the design process, considering the whole life cycle of a product—from design to elimination— seeking maximum efficiency in the consumption of materials andenergy. Thus sustainability becomes a competitive advantage. At the same time, reusing products and recovering waste open new opportunities for businessand creating green employment. This requires the support of a regulatory framework thatinternalises external costs and long-term costs, which often the markets themselves are unableto convert into signals for the productive sector. Economic factors may also become conducive to forming local markets, both in qualityagricultural products and energy microgeneration, in which value is placed on local productionthat is globally competitive for economies of proximity, reducing logistics and transport costs.The end result is the creation of wealth and promoting local economies, boosted by encouragingintrapreneurship through business cooperation and forming innovative environments on aregional level. In all these processes and in terms of demand, public awareness interactively plays the roleof a lever to generate market by applying policies on corporate social responsibility and socialclauses in the productive sector. Information and awareness-raising for action are key elementsto generate responsible consumers who value and distinguish superior, environmentally friendlyproducts and the lack of natural resources. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 4. Boosting Innovation and Eco-design linked to material efficiency from the perspective of the life cycle of the product. 5. Recovering waste and reusing materials. 6. Boosting local economies that benefit from competitive advantages based on short proximity circuits. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 37
    • strategic Objective 1. to position the basque Country as an innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and open economy Line of action 1.3. to support the internationalisation of companies However, supporting the generation of local markets does not annul the marked trend to the globalisation of economic activity, which goes beyond approaching client markets. Globalisation implies a distribution of productive chain activities to achieve optimum use of both material and human resources. Consequently, progress towards an innovative, entrepreneurial and technologically advanced economy, based on Knowledge, Creativity, Cooperation and Skills (line 1.1. above) also implies progressing towards the internationalisation of the system, both of companies and organisations and, in particular, of the knowledge system itself. Consequently, beyond supporting the diversification of geographic and sector destinations of our exports, it is pertinent to support business internationalisation processes. Special attention must be paid to small and medium enterprises that may require inclusion in programmes for support from driving companies and, above all, the creation of common infrastructures and business networks set up in different countries to facilitate implementation, sharing knowledge and experiences on the country and its markets. It is obvious to add that globalisation requires companies to have people with the appropriate professional and social attitudes and aptitudes to manage cultural diversity and act in open economies. Reciprocally, this professional training will also contribute to building a country that is open to the world, boosting the image of an attractive country that facilitates attracting talent, promotes tourism and the implementation of activities from abroad, including knowledge generation centres. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 7. Promoting the internationalisation of the Science and Technology system. 8. Creating industrial estates in rapidly growing countries such as Brazil, India or China. 9. Grant programmes for training in internationalisation processes. Transforming the productive system is an arduous process that requires appropriate financial resources as well as reinforcing market signals or indicators. Hence it is considered important to highlight the role that must be played by two instruments: 10. Mobilisation of long-term financial resources and other sources of risk capital and long-term credit to redirect production towards sustainability (clean technologies, new materials and new sectors). 11. redirecting the tax system, incorporating significant and increasing criteria of green taxation.38 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 2.to consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive basque Country basedon EMPlOyMEnt, education, prevention and solidarityLine of action 2.1.to ensure integration and social cohesion An advanced and modern society in 21st century Europe is characterised, among other aspects,by coordinating a social policy system that guarantees the integration of differences and whosecore policy objective is to achieve a society that is as cohesive as possible. Despite efforts made in recent years, in which social cohesion indicators in the Basque Countryhave shown positive rates in comparison to the EU27, work remains to be done to promoteintegration and the fight against unequal opportunities. Added to this as a complementarychallenge is an important effort to maintain what has been achieved in a situation of economiccrisis. In the context of the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy, we must endeavour to achieve the trueintegration and inclusion of all people regardless of gender, age, origin or religious beliefs, basedon guaranteeing equal treatment in identical situations, but different in situations that are notidentical in all the areas in which we live: family, social and work. As an important aspect to be considered, we must also mention that the Basque Country hasbeen characterised by an important social initiative activity, which must continue to be an activeand joint part of public institutions in the operative development of social policies, includingintegration policies, which will result in the strengthening of mechanisms that make it possiblefor a society to be considered as socially cohesive. as the society itself is able to weave thenetworks that support it. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 12. Promoting social inclusion and individual autonomy, strengthening social participation fo- cused on solidarity and reinforcing collaboration with the social initiative in the operative development of social insertion programmes. 13. Favouring integration, including cultural integration, of immigrant workers and their fa- milies, influencing the educational disadvantage of the immigrant population. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 39
    • strategic Objective 2. to consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive basque Country based on EMPlOyMEnt, education, prevention and solidarity Line of action 2.2. to promote prevention, health promotion and personal autonomy as well as equal access to resources from a perspective of social determinants The line revolves around the idea of a healthy and equitable Basque Country, which involves applying the social dimension (healthy) to all areas of sectoral policies. The preventive dimension, both the concept of health and the concept of healthy, grants people a leading role in practising habits related to food, sports, open social relations, etc. But it also challenges the Administration, which must guarantee equal access to the resources needed by people to remain healthy. New trends to promote health insist that this be taken into account in all policies, and that the role of a person be promoted, their responsibility to care for their health and the autonomy of a patient when participating in provision of the care they need. With a view to 2020, the Basque Country faces a radical change of focus of its health system towards attending chronic patients and the dependent, while consolidating the space of the Basque social service system. Therefore, an important challenge to be addressed lies in the interrelational space between health and social services, the so-called sanitary and social space, conceived as a model of community and sustainable care that respects and promotes the dignity, wishes and quality of life of people with functional autonomy limitations. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 14. Building a sanitary and social care system focused on the person and a community-based approach. 15. Proactively influencing social determinants of health and dependence. 16. Promoting social spaces that facilitate satisfying the needs of people to relate and bond.40 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 2. to consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive basque Country based on EMPlOyMEnt, education, prevention and solidarity Line of action 2.3. to promote specific, active employment policies The employment rate is a good indicator of the level of sustainability of the socio-economic system. Creating employment depends of the dynamism of the country and, in turn, is the result of a wide range of factors, both external and internal, which must be taken into consideration to design active employment policies that allow us to achieve our objectives: to increase and maintain activity rates, improve youth employment indexes and address the reduction of the volume of people of working age due to the effect of ageing. But our employment market has another specific characteristic not found in other European territories we use as a reference: the poor quality of employment created, affected by greater insecurity and temporality.14 Added to this is the effect of the increased average age of the workforce that is evident in many public and private organisations. Active employment policies are an essential pillar of economic and social sustainability and must maintain an integrating nature in relation to public policies in force in relation to creating employment and activating mechanisms to support job maintenance, from a qualitative (quality, accessibility, creating opportunities) and quantitative perspective. On the other hand, we must not forget that creating employment falls mainly on businesses, therefore it is essential to include and involve them in these policies, as well as that businesses assume their responsibility for the quality of employment. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 17. Promoting the quality of employment, reducing precarious employment and underemployment. 18. Increasing employment opportunities for the older population, particularly women, favouring their employability. 19. Promoting age management policies in organisations and active ageing strategies. Generally, within Strategic Objective 2, the main economic demands are given by the need to transform the sanitary and social system and active employability management. Hence it is considered important to highlight the role that must be played by three instruments: 20. Comprehensive development of the Basque Country Public Employment System. 21. Implementation of impact assessment on health as a tool to visualise and integrate health in sectoral policies. 22. Fight against submerged economy as an instrument to reduce underemployment and increase Administration income.14 Youth policy is explicitly addressed in the second transversal focus. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 41
    • strategic Objective 3. to strengthen sOCial PrOtECtiOn systems in order to continue guaranteeing harmonious, healthy and equitable development of people Line of action 3.1 . to design a global framework of active policies to favour increased birth rate Declining birth rates in the Basque Country is a reality and forms part of what are known as heavy trends because their effect is present for many years and because their course cannot be changed quickly. The Basque Country has been among the European regions with the lowest birth rate for many years. The programmes and incentive measures implemented until now have not been sufficient. Recently a comprehensive approach to the low birth rate problem has emerged, coordinated around the concept of work-life balance, and once this approach breaks out, factors emerge that may have been hidden but which have a direct effect on birth rates: factors related to equal opportunities for men and women in the workplace, coordinating working hours with school hours, or global family policies. Work-life balance policies are also an important component of Corporate Social Responsibility, therefore the role as an activator they may play in businesses must be taken into account in the global framework of these policies when designing or implementing said policies. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 23. Promoting equal and efficient work-life balance policies. 24. Social agreement to reorganise the working day, overcoming the imbalances between work, school and commercial hours. 25. Plan to cover places at public nursery between 0 and 2 years.42 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 3.to strengthen sOCial PrOtECtiOn systems in order to continue guaranteeing harmonious,healthy and equitable development of peopleLine of action 3.2.to consolidate the fiscal sustainability of the current welfare state(dependence, guaranteed income, health) In order to strengthen the fiscal sustainability of the current welfare state we must reinforceits efficiency and adapt the current fiscal framework; but the public must also assume its shareof responsibility in the rational use of resources demanded of the public sector. This requires thereorganisation and modernisation of the Administration to improve its efficiency and that peopleaffront the new life cycle (longer life expectancy) and contribute to ensuring and maintaining, asmuch as possible, the level of welfare they want to enjoy. Dependence is a growing phenomenon as we add years to life expectancy and technological andmedical advances allow us to live with chronic illness. This is a radical change for people and theAdministration, which must provide public health and social services. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 26. Readapting the sanitary and social system in search of greater efficiency in spending while maintaining the quality of the services. 27. Adapting the fiscal effort to new realities. 28. Boosting the responsibility of citizens in the rational use of public services. It is important to highlight the role that must be played by the following instruments: 29. Analysis of new financial instruments, both public and private, aimed at boosting the sanitary and social protection system. 30. Regulatory framework and social agreement on work-life balance. 31. Public spending efficiency and control, with greater coordination between the competent authorities. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 43
    • strategic Objective 4. to preserve our natural rEsOurCEs and biodiversity with respectful and balanced planning of the territory, infrastructures, equipment and housing Line of action 4.1. to promote a compact city model Adequate land planning is the starting point to preserve natural resources and biodiversity. Faced with the poorly controlled expansion of city limits that has prevailed in the past, taking awareness of the importance of natural soil as a scarce resource clearly identifies as a priority acting on the city that has already been built, which can and should support productive and residential activities, setting strict limits on urban expansion. We must recover disadvantaged areas, renovate and develop existing buildings, redensify and mix uses in towns and cities, and eventually the vertical development of tertiary and industrial activities to reduce land consumption and avoid travel. The design of a city must be based on eco-efficiency criteria, avoiding unnecessary travel due to the separation and dispersion of industrial estates and work centres, or locating commercial, social or leisure facilities on the outskirts of the city. In the same way, urban design must give priority to public transport and creating pedestrian areas, generating the appropriate framework for practising healthy habits, reducing carbon emissions and optimising energy consumption efficiency. Nocturnal lighting systems must equally be optimised, avoiding unnecessary consumption and light contamination. The ideal use and design of infrastructures and equipment will result in minimising the occupation of new land. A comprehensive vision of the territory, overcoming strictly local visions, must allow us to avoid duplicating equipment and facilities, which will not only result in less land consumption but in greater financial stability. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 32. Establishing limits to land consumption in the Land Planning Guidelines, acting on the city already built. 33. Eco-efficient city design avoiding unnecessary travel, prioritising public transport and seeking a more efficient use of energy. 34. Optimising the use of infrastructures and equipment with a comprehensive vision of the territory.44 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 4. to preserve our natural resources and biodiversity with respectful and balanced planning of the territory, infrastructures, equipment and housingLine of action 4.2.to reduce pressure on ecosystems and natural resources(soil, water, air and landscape), improving the quality of the same The progressive strengthening of regulatory standards governing emissions and increasedpublic awareness have contributed to reducing pressure on ecosystems and natural resources,partially correcting the deterioration accumulated due to previous practices. We must continue making progress along these lines, progressively strengthening air qualitystandards, improving water resource management and water quality, and recovering contaminatedsoil to make possible the previously mentioned objective of giving priority to the city alreadybuilt, restraining the unnecessary expansion of urban limits. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 35. Improving water quality and water resource management. 36. Fighting the trivialisation of landscapes, favouring the maintenance of biological diversity.Lines of action 4.3.to promote comprehensive rural development to preservethe natural values of the territory Comprehensive rural development is key to maintaining population distribution between rural andurban environments. The presence of population in rural areas and promoting organic agriculture,together with other economic practices that are compatible with preserving natural values, are aguarantee for maintaining biodiversity. On the other hand, acknowledging the ecological contribution of agriculture allows the developmentof local economic activities based on growing local products valued by society, creating direct tradingchannels which, due to their proximity to the market, allow for more responsible consumption,reducing the cost of logistics and transport. The continuity of farming faces problems of generational change and a rise in value of agriculturalland for alternative uses. Therefore, it is necessary to develop systems that facilitate the transfer ofland for crops, such as land banks. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 37. Promoting economic activities linked to the rural environment (tourism, agrifood industry, etc.). 38. Promoting the generational change of farms. 39. Supporting agricultural practices that favour maintaining biodiversity and the landscape. It is important to highlight the role that must be played by the following instruments: 40. Land banks. 41. Analysis and incorporation of market mechanisms to bring real value to the public assets generated by natural resources. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 45
    • strategic Objective 5. to minimise energy dependence on fossil-based energy and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of CliMatE ChangE Line of action 5.1. to promote the improvement of energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption Transport is one of the main sectors in the Basque Country in terms of energy consumption. In turn it is a sector that offers many opportunities for improvement in terms of energy efficiency and its dependence one type of energy: oil. Supporting the development of alternative energies and energy with more sustainable technology, such as the electric car, is an action to be developed, to favour the efficient use of the most common form private transport to date. Urban environments also concentrate centres of energy consumption related to the residential, industrial, equipment uses, etc., developed in said environments. Promoting low-carbon consolidated urban developments and environments, understood to be those in which the flow of energy inputs and outputs are restricted to the minimum, lies in reducing energy consumption in said environments and in locating and concentrating energy production close to the points of consumption. In the same way and in terms of construction, we will tend towards the organised conversion of the construction sector towards nearly zero-energy buildings (Directive 2010/31), acting with new criteria on design, management and maintenance of new buildings, but also on existing consolidated buildings. On the other hand, urban networks will suffer an evolution as a response to technological advances, mainly in relation to their management, so that by providing the same service they achieve better performance and greater efficiency. Therefore, strategies such as the development of intelligent electricity networks or the response to new energy consumption associate with the electric car (electric charging unit network or charging stations) must be a reality. Promoting these measures will improve the supply safety, competitiveness and quality of the Basque energy system.46 linEs of action
    • The remaining sectors must in turn tend towards improving their energy efficiency in orderto globally reduce energy consumption and intensity. The industrial, agricultural and servicessectors must address improved energy efficiency by improving processes and energy cycles, usingthe most efficiently technologies and a more rational use of energy. On the other hand, evolution towards an innovative, entrepreneurial and technologicallyadvanced economy, based on knowledge, creativity and cooperation, must aim at reducing energyintensity, allowing for economic growth that is compatible with reducing consumption. Finally, in the section the public plays a key role as the end consumer in many of the sectorsmentioned and, therefore, the focus on reducing the impact of energy consumption will be anessential argument to raising public awareness. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant:42. Supporting the development and use of electric cars and other based on alternative energies.43. The organised conversion of the construction sector towards nearly zero-energy buildings.44. Comprehensive renovation of buildings.45. Emphasising efficiency in industry and other sectors to reduce consumption and improve competitiveness. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 47
    • strategic Objective 5. to minimise energy dependence on fossil-based energy and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change Line of Action 5.2. to promote the generation and use of renewable energies The Basque Country has limited resources, although it has the potential to generate more energy through renewable sources. It offers additional possibilities in terms of sources of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, geothermal, minihydraulic, biomass and wave power. Together with advancing towards an energy system based on renewable sources, improvements in relation to centres of production and consumption points will make it possible to develop a decentralised energy model. On the one hand, this decentralisation will facilitate connecting renewable energy sources to the network, even on a domestic level, and also reducing losses on the electricity network. Furthermore, recovering biomass waste for thermal and electric uses is a priority action to bring a new energy model to fruition. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 46. Intensifying efforts to promote increase renewable energy production based mostly on wind - land and sea - and photovoltaic energy, using biomass and, in the long term, marine energy. 47. Promoting greater use of renewable energies among users, particularly for the thermal use of biomass, solar thermal energy or geoexchange. 48. Seek institutional and social consensus on renewable energies and infrastructures.48 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 5.to minimise energy dependence on fossil-based energy and mitigate greenhouse gas emissionsand the effects of climate change Line of Action 5.3. to mitigate climate change and develop adaptation actions Today climate change is one of the greatest global phenomena. The Basque Country has positioned itself in a pioneering role in this reflect, which is reflected in the Climate Change Act. Having developed the legal framework, there are many challenges to be faced to combat the effects of climate change, minimise its causes and prevent the negative impacts entailed. Firstly, we will promote the development of carbon sinks, breaking the present cycle and favouring the reduction of climate change causes associated with the cycle of CO2. The other main measure lies in reducing vulnerability to natural and technological risks. This measure involves adapting infrastructures that are strategically more critical and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In turn, preventive action will be necessary to increase the capacity to anticipate and adapt to climate change. Finally, we must favour public awareness in order to reduce impacts and carbon footprint. Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 49. Developing systems to increase the absorption capacity of carbon sinks. 50. Promoting R&D&I lines of development to adapt to climate change, aimed at decision-making and communicating results. In this context, these are the key instruments for the successful completion of the actions proposed in the strategic objective: 51. Using tax benefits to promote the use of technology in productive processes that provide quantifiable reductions of greenhouse gas emissions throughout the product or process cycle considered. 52. Including in regulations and aid grants assessment criteria related to using productive processes and equipment provide quantifiable reductions of greenhouse gas emissions. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 49
    • strategic Objective 6. to develop a more sustainable integrated MObility model that facilitates structuring the inland territory and connection with the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness Line of action 6.1. to promote more sustainable means of transport The development of a new railway system, which connects the three Basque capital cities with high speed lines, and these with other Spanish and European nodes and capitals, will be a fundamental pillar in the development of passenger and goods public transport in the Basque Country in the coming years. The new high speed network should be complemented with and integrated into a suburban railway, underground and tram network that structures the whole territory and contributes to create, in case such as the area of San Sebastian, metropolitan railway networks and services. This structuring system also requires the appropriate coordination of the rest of public transport systems, particularly urban and interurban buses, around railway networks in order to enable a comprehensive, efficient and intermodal public transport system. In the same way, it is proposed that this comfort between different means of transport be properly materialised in relation to other passenger and goods transport systems (private vehicles, bicycles) and with centres that concentrate the flow of goods and people (ports, airports) in national and international distances. In this sense, coordinating railway-port transport or connecting “dry docks”, whether in the Basque Country or not, is essential in terms of the Basque goods transport system. This favours the inner structuring and external connection mentioned. On the other hand, more sustainable means of transport that are therefore more compatible with the environment and health, has been gaining ground and users not only associated with free time and leisure, but also with daily use of the same. Enabling pedestrian traffic, developing a cyclable urban structure, promote the use of bicycles, even through public service systems, are a strategic challenge for Basque cities. Network and service, complemented by the necessary interurban connections, will make it possible to extend this means of transport throughout the territory. Similarly, internalising external costs of less sustainable means of transport should contribute to funding public transport.50 linEs of action
    • At the same time, it is necessary to provide a public transport system as an element thatglobally links passenger transport in the Basque Country. For this purpose, measures will beimplemented to improve the physical and fare unification of the public transport systems, systemmanagement and coordination, as well as the implementation of dissuasive measures for lesssustainable means of transport such as the private vehicle. In first place, prices must be unifiedin each Historical Territory, and then make interoperability possible throughout the BasqueCountry, with a single ticket for the whole Basque Country. This last aspect is particularly relevant in relation to mobility in terms of business. Inthis field, the proposal is to limit movements as much as possible through teleworking,videoconferences, Internet, etc. and to find collective solutions for travelling to the workplace bybus or car-pool, overcoming the obstacles of different business working hours or involving tradeunions in this type of solution. This will all be accompanied by promoting an intensive policy of education on sustainablemobility, providing information on alternatives to conventional, individual motorised mobility(public transport, walking or cycling, car-pooling, park and ride, intelligent tickets, etc.) andsocially devaluing the use of vehicles. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 53. Turning rail transport into the structuring axis of passenger and goods transport. 54. Creating a single ticket in each Historical Territory to subsequently enable interoperability and the unification of fares throughout the Basque Country transport network. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 51
    • strategic Objective 6. to develop a more sustainable integrated MObility model that facilitates structuring the inland territory and connection with the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness Line of action 6.2. to achieve accessibility in appropriate and safe mobility conditions, based on integrated infrastructures and services Developing a national infrastructure and services network will respond to the internal and external mobility needs, with an economic viability integrated into the European transport system. This network will be a tool to promote territorial and social cohesion and the competitiveness of the Basque Country, integrating mobility into land use planning based on the concept of proximity. Key aspects for this are the optimum use of transport infrastructures and minimising the occupation of new land, together will a commitment to a compact urban model; mixing residential uses, economic activity and leisure, etc. Similarly, mobility is closely related to concept of expenditure, both public and private. In this sense, and understood as measures related to the economy of mobility, implementing the economic instruments necessary to internalise the external costs of transport (tolls, variable fiscal treatment according to type of vehicle acquired and fuel used) will be incentives for a more rational use of the different means of transport. This, combined with rationalising investments in transport infrastructures and services, with due planning of the viability of their future form of exploitation and promoting R&D&I activities related to technologies applied to mobility, will make it possible to integrate services associated with the different means of transport. Mobility in turn has strong social implications related to universal and equal access to transport, an area in which it is necessary to overcome the different inequalities associated with factors and conditions such as gender, age, income or disability. Reducing risk, in terms of accident rates, is in turn one of the main improvement measures for the mobility system on a social level. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 55. Developing mobility plans at all institutional levels and in centres of activity that generate mobility. 56. Studying the application of systems to internalise external costs and transferring these costs to funding public transport and transport infrastructures. 57. Promoting the introduction of information and communications technologies to reduce the need for travel. In this context, these are the key instruments to successfully implement the actions proposed: 58. Single fare system. 59. Measures to discourage the use of private vehicles in city centres. 60. Comprehensive system of intermodal infrastructures and park and ride areas combined with public transport shuttles.52 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 7.to build an EduCatiOn and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and adaptingeducational and training contents to the qualifications required by the job market and society throughout life,including sustainability in all its dimensionsLine of action 7.1.to develop a training system that provides the skills required forprofessional and social life throughout life, including sustainability The speed with which technological and social changes occur today make learning to learn anessential skill to make the most of the advantages offered by technological and social innovation,and in turn contributes to developing an innovative culture. It is also an essential requirement tonot be relegated on the job market. Innovations also reach the profile and performance of trainingprofessionals, a field in which we must facilitate continuous updating of knowledge and methods,highlighting teaching values, aptitudes and attitudes for which specific skills are required. One obvious area of continuous innovation is information and communications technologies orICTs. This area is extremely familiar to the younger population but has the risk of creating digitaldivides in other groups. We must help to reduce this digital divide so that barriers do not arise thatimpede access to the job market or even on an individual level, as access to information and publicservices is increasingly becoming digital. These changes, and the subsequent labour mobility, make it necessary to improve trainingthroughout life and to facilitate access, without ignoring the wealth of knowledge acquired throughwork experience without formal support, which makes it advisable to extend the accreditationsystem to all professions by recognising qualifications. That is, to offer to people over 18 thepossibility to acquire, update, complete or extend their knowledge and skills for personal andprofessional development, through learning adapted to the students or free tests that facilitatethem obtaining the qualifications necessary for their incorporation into the education system orinsertion into the job market. It is also necessary to further reduce the premature dropout rate with professional trainingprogrammes that offer effective alternative means for students who have not completedCompulsory Secondary Education and, at the same time, they can achieve a professionalqualification that facilitates access to employment or other systems that prevent social exclusionand eventually facilitate re-entry into the formal education system. The globalisation of productive activities and increasing international travel and exchangesrequire us to strengthen educational mobility for young people to favour exchanging experiencesand thus valuing cultural diversity. For this it is obviously necessary to develop language skills,from primary education, in order to reach efficient multilingualism. (.../...) BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 53
    • (.../...) Knowing and understanding the keys to sustainable development in all professional fields also requires reinforcing curricular design, incorporating the appropriate guidelines. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 61. Promoting professional qualification programmes to reduce premature dropout rates. 62. Developing training opportunities throughout life and facilitating access. 63. Balancing training and employment during the training period. 64. Reducing the digital divide.54 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 7. to build an EduCatiOn and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and adapting educational and training contents to the qualifications required by the job market and society throughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensions Lines of action 7.2. to promote training in values, particularly values related to sustainability15 Faced with the immediacy and easy life often promoted by consumer society, driven by advertising and the press, the complexity of today’s world requires giving priority to dedication, effort, quality, initiative and learning. Social changes introduce other needs: appreciating cultural diversity and differences, tolerance, respect, taste for innovation, for change. But the values that have traditionally characterised us as a society must remain in force: solidarity, effort, cooperation and social responsibility. Although these values are practised rather than taught, it is interesting to promote collaborative projects of “Schools of values” in collaboration with the education, family, employment and social fields, while promoting forming associations and active citizenship. Among these values, and in the context of EcoEuskadi 2020, it is necessary to pay special attention to education in those values that are particularly related to sustainable development such as responsible consumption, recycling, etc.16 Within this set of actions the following are particularly relevant: 65. Promoting a system for collaboration between the education, employment, family and social fields for training in values (Schools of values). 66. Raising public awareness of the three dimensions of sustainable development.15 No specific monitoring indicator has been included for this line of action as there are no European references available. During later reviews of the Strategy one or two specific indicators will be developed to allow us to assess progress in this area.16 Noteworthy in this context are the initiatives of the School Agenda 21 or the Environmental education plan for sustainability. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 55
    • strategic Objective 7. to build an EduCatiOn and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and adapting educational and training contents to the qualifications required by the job market and society throughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensions Line of action 7.3. to promote the international projection of basque culture and the elements that define our identity In a globalised world, differentiating Basque culture and particularly the Basque language (euskera) is a relevant value. But culture is alive and dynamic and benefits from the cross- fertilisation of ideas. Lines of aid should be promoted to facilitate positioning Basque cultural industries and businesses in other markets, in the different cultural sectors: audio-visual, theatre, music, etc., as well as grants that favour the presence of new creators in international creativity centres in different fields. Cultural development comes from developing collaboration agreements both within and outside of the Basque Country, with public and private institutions, in order to offer a joint internationalisation of Basque country, promoting a common culture and creating collaboration networks between universities, colleges and art centres on a national and international level. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 67. Promoting lines of aid to facilitate positioning Basque cultural sector companies in new markets. 68. Developing collaboration agreements within and outside the Basque Country, with public and private institutions, in order to offer a joint internationalisation of Basque culture. Key Instruments for the actions proposed: 69. Development and implementation of the Permanent Learning Act. 70. Accreditation system for professional skills, acquired through work experience or non-formal learning.56 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 8.to deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible and transparent PubliCadMinistratiOnLine of action 8.1.to modernise public management, innovating mechanisms for relating withthe public The Public Administration is affected by the same wave of changes and technologicalinnovations as the rest of society. The role of the Administration in relation to citizens hasexperienced a radical transformation, which goes from being a mere subject of obligations toclient and owner. The Administration must be efficient because it has an enormous effect of theefficiency of the system, and it must be accessible, accountable and act transparently in all itspolicy and decision making processes. This involves strengthening interactive tools in its relations with citizens, systematisingstakeholder consultation processes, documenting and regulating decision making processesin a transparent way, enabling citizens to access information, and systematically includingassessment processes of its actions as a basis to improve these programmes. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 71. Reinforcing transparency in policy-making processes, in their implementation and the assessment of results. 72. Promoting 2.0 tools as a complementary means of communication with citizens, enabling the highest degree of digitalisation of the processes. 73. Boosting the exemplary role of the Administration, promoting procurement and contracting with sustainability criteria: social, ethical, environmental and innovative. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 57
    • strategic Objective 8. to deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible and transparent PubliC adMinistratiOn Line of action 8.2. to reinforce the efficiency of the public administration, revising its organisation and distribution of powers, promoting intra and inter-institutional cooperation and strengthening coordination mechanisms The need to be efficient, even more so in times of budgetary constraints, lies is reviewing the way in which the whole Public Administration performs its duties. Developing the public sector has given rise to obvious duplications, some justified by the distribution of powers and the existing structure, and other produced by way of fact. The evolution of needs, accumulation of experience and course of time make it necessary to search for operative improvements, aimed at public service quality and cost efficiency. To do this, we must search for relative specialisation among all agents and full coordination of activities, particularly those that involve important commitments as a country to optimise resources and efforts and to guarantee the best results. Furthermore, the Administration must be proactive, simplifying burdens (information, documentation) imposed on citizens and companies, optimising internal operative processes, boosting the interoperability of the information systems of the different administration, and promoting interinstitutional agreements. Systematic public and stakeholder consultation in the development processes of major strategies and programmes, as well as the systematisation of exercises to assess the results and impacts of the policies and programmes of certain entities, executed with transparency, will contribute to the programmes being more adjusted and incorporating continuous improvement mechanisms. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 74. Promoting specialisation among all agents and consensus on major commitments, adapting the distribution of resources according to the powers assumed, avoiding duplications within and between administrations. 75. Reaching the interconnections of information systems of the different Public Administrations, promoting interinstitutional agreements. 76. Achieving more efficient management of public expenditure, improving budgetary regulation in line with the new European economic governance. 77. Advancing towards the simplification of administrative processes.58 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 8.to deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible and transparentPubliC adMinistratiOnLine of action 8.3.to advance in social participation formulas and public-private partnership The maturity of society, which will not resign itself to maintaining a passive role towards themanagement of public affairs and the will to make public policies and services more efficient,taking into consideration the opinions of those who benefit from and are affected by them, hasmade us advance considerably towards a new form of governance, which seeks and generatesmeeting places, favouring the coordination of different public and private agents in order toachieve an effective policy, aimed at resolving problems. Sustainable development criteriahighlight this need for new governance as they emphasise a holistic vision of issues andtake into consideration all the possible impacts, not only those formally pursued by a certainprogramme or policy. Meanwhile, new technologies make it possible to accommodate efficientlybroad and proven formulas of participation of social agents. On the other hand, managing social needs can and should be open to new approaches thatincorporate social initiative in an innovative way, not only to make their cost must sustainablebut also to make them more efficient and adjusted. Equally, major development or social transformation projects have increasing complexityand their unilateral impulse generates resistance that makes it necessary to address them witha sum of forces, allowing for the participation of social agents through ad hoc or permanentcoordination mechanisms. However, the mechanics of participation and coordination is not aneasy task, therefore it is necessary to delve deeper into training all the agents involved. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 78. The Administration assuming the exemplary role, promoting public procurement and contracting with social and environmental criteria as an engine for innovation. 79. Systematising and standardising public and stakeholder participation in the development and review (assessment) processes of Public Administration initiatives and programmes. 80. In-depth training for agents in the mechanics and processes of participation. It is important to highlight the role that must be played by the following instrument: 81. Systematising the assessment of the results and impacts of the most relevant policies and programmes as an instrument for learning and improvement. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 59
    • strategic Objective 9. to contribute from the basque Country to meeting the MillEnniuM gOals and, in general, to the sustainable development of the most underprivileged countries Line of action 9.1. to actively contribute to the sustainable development of third world countries through cooperation projects Serious global problems: climate change, growing international conflicts, financial and productive crises, forced migrations, human rights violations, lack of participation and decision channels, give rise to a global panorama characterised by three closely related processes: vulnerability, inequality and poverty. The fundamental challenge facing humanity in order to end the dynamic of increasing vulnerability is to guarantee the freedoms, rights and development of the capabilities of all the women and men who inhabit the planet, with special emphasis on those in poverty. The old goal of contributing 0.7% of GDP to cooperation projects is far from being achieved, despite the active involvement of the different Public Administrations. The multiplication of projects and dispersion of support lines favour the fragmentation of aid. It is recommendable to seek comprehensive coordination of international cooperation policies promoted by the Basque Country, establishing geographic prioritisation criteria, both to facilitate visibility and to concentrate efforts and make way for projects with greater scope and impact. Another recommendable channel is to promote specific collaboration agreements that enable the bidirectional transfer of knowledge and technological resources to resolve specific problems, without forgetting the ultimate goal is to give support for local communities to develop their own responses, avoiding transferring solutions directly. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 82. Reinforcing and integrating the development cooperation policy promoted by the Public Administration to make it more efficient (enabling interventions of greater dimension/ qualification). 83. Promoting collaboration agreements with developing countries.60 linEs of action
    • strategic Objective 9.to contribute from the basque Country to meeting the MillEnniuM gOals and, ingeneral, to the sustainable development of the most underprivileged countriesLine of action 9.2.to promote responsible trade and tourism with developing countries Along with cooperation projects, developing peoples comes from producing and exchanginggoods and services. International trade and tourism play an extremely relevant role instimulating productive activities. However, both may encourage unsustainable development,introducing labour practices that do not respect social rights or pillaging or deterioratingnatural resources. International trade and funding policies and practices should be consistent and promotesustainable practices in its three economic, social and environmental aspects, in terms ofproduction, transport and exploitation of natural resources. For this same reason, multinationalcompanies and corporations must transfer their codes of ethics and social responsibilitypractices to those countries in which they are implanted or with which they trade. Particularly,we must avoid productive implementation in developing countries as a response to an attemptto avoid the application of stricter environmental and social regulations in the Basque Country.Citizens, as consumers, must show through their consumption practices their rejection ofproducts which represent social or environmental dumping, therefore it is necessary to advancethe transparency of information provided by certificates of origin and environmental quality. On a more personal level, when travelling citizens should scrupulously mind their behaviourso as not to support no give coverage to unsustainable practices of consumption or social andenvironmental respect. Just as other values should be cultivated from educational centres,the school curriculum must contribute to promoting awareness and individual and socialresponsibility for the development of other countries, integrating the vision of cooperation andcoherence with the sustainable development of peoples. Within this set of actions, the following are particularly relevant: 84. Incorporating criteria of responsible trade and tourism into corporate social responsibility and public procurement and contracting. 85. Promoting international sustainability certification. It is important to highlight the role that must be played by the following instrument: 86. Reaching a budgetary allocation of 0.7% of GDP to achieve the Millennium Goals. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 61
    • transvErsalfocusEs
    • Four transversal focuses: 1. Innovation and knowledge for sustainability. 2. Youth in movement. 3. Employment in a global economy. 4. Determinants of quality of life. Some of the strategic objectives established transvErsal focus 1.are closely interrelated and achieving them mustmobilise our collective attention. Therefore, it was innovation and knowlEdgEconsidered necessary to define priority areas of for sustainabilitYattention, called transversal focuses which, due totheir horizontal importance, long-term implications The goal is to advance towards a Basque societyand complexity of coordination, require monitoring that is open to learning and that strengthens theand coordination through multidisciplinary teams, perception and appreciation of individual andboth interdepartmental and interinstitutional, as social values on innovation, creativity, learningwell as a strong involvement of socio-economic and cooperation. For this, it is necessary to focusagents. innovation policy and knowledge of the main challenges faced by our society and which are Selecting the transversal focuses was in turn seen as emerging sectors: renewableconditioned by their impact on the three aspects energies, sustainable mobility, efficient use ofof sustainability: economic, environmental and resources and active and healthy ageing. Thesocial; by their direct contribution to several of the ultimate goal will consist in increasing levels ofstrategic objectives; by their high impact on the public-private investment, improving conditions,Control Panel; by being initiatives to be deployed increasing the percentage of high-tech companies,across all levels of administration and their developing new advanced knowledge that increasesalignment with the Europe 2020 Strategy. added value per job, and reinforcing each of the links of the innovation chain, from research to These focuses identify essential industrial commercialisation.commitments with important macroeconomiceffects to ensure sustainability, the consolidation Main lines of work:of public finances and support for a higher level of — Promoting investment in education, R&D&Igrowth, competitiveness and employment. and ICTs. Better connecting research and innovation systems in the Basque Country and These focuses are: improving their performance. Increasing skill 1. Innovation and knowledge for levels at our universities. Giving priority to sustainability. spending on knowledge, for example by using 2. Youth in movement. tax incentives and other financial instruments 3. Employment in a global economy. to promote greater private investment in 4. Determinants of quality of life. R&D&I. 63
    • — Getting more innovation from research. Main lines of work: Increasing cooperation between science and business. Eliminating barriers that continue to — Guaranteeing efficient investment in prevent entrepreneurs from bringing their “ideas education and training systems at all levels, to the market.” Promoting entrepreneurial spirit from pre-school to further education, including by supporting young, innovative companies. both university education and higher levels Promoting entrepreneurial culture and creative of vocational training; improving educational spirit as a method to create new innovative results though an integrated approach that companies and transform existing companies. includes key skills and values, aimed at Advance in supporting companies with achieving academic success. knowledge-intensive products and services and — Reinforcing the open nature and relevance of productive processes. the education system, favouring generating — Setting-up "Basque Innovation Cooperation." and attracting talent. Increasing student Increasing joint programming / co-creation mobility programmes, aligning them with / cooperation between different level of European Union programmes. Promoting the Public Administration and between the attractiveness of further education to attract Administration, universities and companies. foreign talent and for the international job Improving general conditions that favour market. innovation by companies, for example, — Improving youth access to the job market improving SME access to intellectual property through an integrated action that includes protection and demand policies such as public the following aspects, among others: guidance, contracting). advise and work experience. Increasing — To promote social innovation, open innovation, cooperation between further education and innovation in the public sector and eco- business. Stressing the need to monitor innovation17 as a response to new global and the market to rapidly respond to demands local challenges. for qualified personnel. Helping people to obtain their first job and begin a professional career. Promoting entrepreneurial processes, transvErsal facilitating access to internal or external funding instruments. focus 2. Youth in movEmEnt — Promoting access to housing as one of The goal consists of reaching full, independent the structuring pillars of the independent development of young Basque people, enhancing development of young people, which also their training, integration and recognition both enables social integration. in the Basque Country and abroad. This requires promoting the level of entrepreneurship of young people on all levels: personal, professional, social transvErsal focus 3. and cultural, as well as reinforcing levels of independence, improving their living conditions, EmploYmEnt in a global providing quality education from the early stages of EconomY education to employment, complementing formal and informal education, focusing on permanent learning The goal consists in increasing the level of and promoting the generation of talent. The ultimate employability, adaptation to changes, and to target is young people to be overt, responsible and guarantee the continuity of our social model, able to choose their future. investing in an economy that ends the duality 17 Energy efficiency, Eco-efficiency and Eco-design.64 transvErsal focusEs
    • suffered by our job market.18 To do this, we must transvErsal focus 4.modernise and consolidate our employment,education and training policies, as well as social dEtErminants of QualitYprotection systems, by increasing workforce of lifEparticipation, reducing structural unemploymentand promoting corporate social responsibility. All The goal consists in advancing in aspectsthis will happen in a global economic context that interrelated with the concept of prosperity; definingconditions the competitiveness of our companies “prosperity” as the possibility for people to develop,and encourages the pursuit of added value for each achieving greater social cohesion and greater levelsjob. of welfare while still reducing material impact on the environment. Determining factors of this prosperityMain lines of work: are values, culture, attitudes, different ways of life and personal and social habits, so they become keys — Boosting flexicurity to set the best ways to achieving the strategic objectives outlined. to manage economic transactions, to fight unemployment and increase activity rates. This Main lines of work: is to reduce market segmentation and improve employment quality. Facilitating labour — Developing sustainable habits of consumption mobility, adapting supply to demand. that consider the impact of consumption in both the short and long-term and within and — Promoting new forms of balancing work, outside our environment, to allow regeneration family and personal life, as well as active of natural resources, a rational use of public ageing policies that favour demographic assets which reveals their value and jointly pyramid management so as to boost birth responsible with society. rates and thus ensure economic and social sustainability. — Influencing the determining factors of our health, focusing our attention on prevention — Promoting permanent learning through rather than correction and assuming the instruments such as work-life balance, integration of health in all public policies. recognition, easy access to opportunities created by ICTs in this field, adapting to — Advancing in the development of more training supply to different personal and sustainable cities, visualising our professional demands. municipalities as closer environments in a more comprehensive way, participating in — Promoting the internationalisation of SMEs, redesigning cities. improving the business environment by promoting associations and improving access — Enhancing the values of sustainability, to funding. A key aspect for this is to guarantee looking for responsible behaviour by citizens that transport and logistics networks allow and other socio-economic agents, and effective access to the single and international stressing the exemplary action of the Public market. Administration as an engine for changes. Promoting local cultural expressions. — Simplifying administrative procedures to create companies, improving competitiveness — Advancing the development of indicators and the response to market demands of the of welfare, progress, quality of life, etc. in Basque business sector. collaboration with Eustat (Basque Institute of Statistics), we will advance in the development of synthetic indicators that can pick up the level of sustainable development achieved.18 We have a “two-speed” job market, where a significant part of the population have no access to employment and to a decent wage. This market duality represents a threat to the welfare state and fragments social cohesion. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 65
    • EcoEuskadi 2020controlpanEl
    • Where do we want the Basque Country to be in 2020? The EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy establishes a Control Panel that includes a complete system of signs that allow us to indicate variations in the truly relevant magnitudes. Therefore, they must be monitored to submit the management of the same to controls, facilitating decision-making. The Control Panel established includes three — Employment levels of the population betweentypes of Indicators with different characteristics. 20 and 64 should increase from the currentAnalysing these indicators will provide us a 68 % to at least 75 %;comprehensive vision of the progress made towardsthe objectives established in the Strategy: — Moving from an investment in research, development and innovation of 2% to 3% of GDP. — Headline indicators: aligned with the It is necessary for both the public and private objectives included in the Europe 2020 sectors to invest in R&D&I. In line with the Strategy, they include a limited number of European Commission, we propose maintaining quantitative key objectives. the 3% goal, advancing in the development of an indicator that reflects the intensity of R&D&I. — Policy monitoring indicators: focus on the direction of change and are directly related — Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% with the strategic objectives established. They with regard to the year 2005; increasing the mark the designed trend: Increase, Reduction percentage of renewable energy sources in our or Stability. final energy consumption up to 17% and 20% of energy efficiency. — Strategy management progress indicators: includes a panel of internal control indicators — An educational objective focused on results, that reflect the level of progress of the which reduces the problem of the dropout Strategy. rate to under 10%, from the current 12.6%, and which maintains the percentage of the Achieving the quantitative objectives will be population between 30 and 34 that completevital to successfully achieve the vision established further education above 40% in 2020.in the year 2020. Below are details of theseobjectives as well as the interrelation table between — The number of people living below the povertyEurope, Spain and the Basque Country: line must be reduced from the current 19% to below 15%. 67
    • hEadlinE indicators scopE and hEadlinE indicator Eu-27 spain basQuE countrY AT OBJECTIVE AT OBJECTIVE AT OBJECTIVE PRESENT19 FOR 2020 PRESENT19 FOR 2020 PRESENT20 FOR 2020 EMPLOYMENT Employment rate 20-64 years 69,1% 75% 63,7% 74% 68.5% 75% R&D&I Public and private spending on 2.01% 3% 1.38% 3% 2% >3% R&D&I over GDP ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE Greenhouse gas emissions21 -11.3% -20% +27% -20%22 +6%25 -20%23 Share of renewables in final con- 10.3% 20% 10.7% 20% 6.5% 17% sumption of energy Energy saving 20% 25.224 20% EDUCATION Premature school dropout rate 14.4% 10% 31.2% 15% 12.6% 10% Share of population 30-34 years 32.3% 39.4% 44% 41% >40% with further education 40% POVERTY AND SOCIAL ExCLUSION Population at risk of poverty or so- 113.7 million 10.6 million 9.2 million 417,000 <15% cial exclusion 23.1% 93.7 million 23.4% 19.3% 19 2009. 20 2008. 21 Baseline year: 1990. Current year: 2008. 22 Non diffuse sectors and in relation to 2005 23 Reference year: 2009 24 Reference year:2005 25 Mtep Saving on consumption trend in 2020 equivalent to a 2% annual reduction of energy intensity68 EcoEuskadi 2020 control panEl
    • policY monitoringindicatorsStrategic Objective 1. to position the basque country as an innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and openeconomy INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TRENDI-1.1 IUS Position on the Innovation Union EcoEuskadi 2020 Scoreboard (IUS) own indicatorI-1.2 Productivity of the Ratio between GDP and Indicator of level I resources Domestic Material Consumption (e / Kg) (EU-SSD) (a)I-1.3 GDP per capita Ratio between GDP and number of Indicator of level I inhabitants (EU-SSD) (a)I-1.4 Openness Total percentage of EcoEuskadi 2020 foreign trade over GDP own indicatorStrategic Objective 2. lo consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive basque country based on employment,education, prevention and solidarity INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TRENDI-2.1 Personal income Gini index of available personal income EcoEuskadi 2020 concentration index own indicatorI-2.2 Level of social Percentage of people that access protection, EcoEuskadi 2020 inclusion inclusion and personal independence own indicator guarantee programmes of all the people in a situation of riskI-2.3 Social inequalities Comparative mortality rate of people with EcoEuskadi 2020 in mortality primary education aged 20 to 64 years old in own indicator relation to those with further educationI-2.4 Youth employment Employment rate of population aged 20 to EcoEuskadi 2020 rate 29 years own indicatorStrategic Objective 3. to strengthen social protection systems in order to continue guaranteeing harmonious,healthy and equitable development of people INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TRENDI-3.1 Birth rate Number of births over total population in EcoEuskadi 2020 thousands own indicatorI-3.2 Consolidated gross Percentage of consolidated gross public debt EcoEuskadi 2020 public debt of the Basque administrations over GDP own indicatorI-3.3 Public social Percentage of public expenditure on EcoEuskadi 2020 expenditure education, health and social services over GDP own indicator BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 69
    • Strategic Objective 4. to preserve our natural resources and biodiversity with respectful and balanced planning of the territory, infrastructures, equipment and housing INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TREND I-4.1 Built-up areas Percentage of artificialised surface of total Indicator of level II surface area (EU-SSD) (a) I-4.2 Rural population Rate of population in towns of less than EcoEuskadi 2020 2,000 inhabitants with no town centre own indicator I-4.3 Urban waste Urban waste generated per capita Indicator of level II (EU-SSD) (a) I-4.4 Common bird Index of general poultry, forests birds and Indicator of level I index urban birds (EU-SSD) (a) I-4.5 Endangered species Percentage of endangered species of total EcoEuskadi 2020 species own indicator Strategic Objective 5. to minimise energy dependence on fossil-based energies and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TREND I-5.1 Energy dependence Percentage of energy imports of domestic Indicator of level II energy consumption (EU-SSD) (a) Strategic Objective 6. to develop a more sustainable integrated mobility model that facilitates structuring the inland territory and connection with the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TREND I-6.1 Energy consumption Percentage of energy consumption SSSD (b) of transport of transport over GDP I-6.2 Road goods Percentage of road goods transport EcoEuskadi 2020 transport over total own indicator (c) I-6.3 Private passenger Percentage of private passenger EcoEuskadi 2020 transport transport over total own indicator (c)70 EcoEuskadi 2020 control panEl
    • Strategic Objective 7. to build an education and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success,flexible and adapting educational and training contents to the qualifications required by the job market andsociety throughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensions INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TRENDI-7.1 PISA assessment Overall average performance in reading, EcoEuskadi 2020 science and mathematics own indicatorI-7.2 Scientific No. of ISI publications of the Basque EcoEuskadi 2020 publications university system own indicatorI-7.3 Support for the Budget for international dissemination of EcoEuskadi 2020 international Basque culture activities own indicator dissemination of Basque cultureI-7.4 Permanent Percentage of population aged EcoEuskadi 2020 learning 25 to 64 in learning activity own indicatorStrategic Objective 8. to deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible and transparent public administration INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TRENDI-8.1 Electoral turnout Turnout in elections (European, national, EcoEuskadi 2020 regional and local) own indicator (c)I-8.2 Electronic Percentage of complete administrative EcoEuskadi 2020 administration process that can be completed own indicator telematically over totalI-8.3 Dissatisfaction with Complaints to Basque ombudsman in EcoEuskadi 2020 the Administration relation to the Administration own indicatorStrategic Objective 9. to contribute from the basque country to meeting the millennium goals and, in general,to the sustainable development of the most underprivileged countries INDICATOR DESCRIPTION SCOPE TRENDI-9.1 Official Percentage of official development Indicator of level I development aid aid over GDP (EU-SSD) (a)I-9.2 CO2 emissions Tonnes of CO2 emissions per capita Indicator of level II per capita (EU-SSD) (a) (a) EU - SSD: European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development. (b) SSSD: Spanish Strategy for Sustainable Development. (c) The European strategy has a similar indicator. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 71
    • stratEgY progrEss indicators progrEss indicators Level of progress of the actions included Sectoral plans that incorporate a sustainability perspective Good sustainability practices identified Agents involved in deploying the Strategy72 EcoEuskadi 2020 control panEl
    • EcoEuskadi 2020managEmEntmodEl
    • The Strategy for Sustainable Development contributes to good government management by driving it to overcome the departmental vision, promoting policy integration as well as improving government efficiency and effectiveness. EcoEuskadi 2020 is a national strategy promoted Analysing the three types of indicatorsby the Basque Government. Accountability established will provide a comprehensive vision ofultimately lies with the Regional Cabinet. However, the progress of the Strategy.responsibility corresponds to everyone. The successof this Strategy depends on the commitment andability of the whole Administration: all Government stratEgY organisation anddepartments, their organisms and publicauthorities, including local authorities, as well as managEmEntthose that provide public, business and individual When establishing the guiding principles, it wasservices. stated that: Sustainable development is a priority shared by — "To guide this process (of sustainablethe Basque Public Administration. It is therefore development) it is necessary to establishnecessary to increase the capacity and incentives a clear series of basic principles to guideso that all departments and the public sector policies and institutional leadership that mustin general to implement their contributions be promoted from the highest levels of theto the Strategy for Sustainable Development. Public Administration".The following is a real differential aspect: allGovernment departments and their organisms will — "Sustainable development is not anothercontribute their thoughts and progress in relation sectoral policy. The key issue is that allto the Strategy. associated departments and organisms incorporate the perspective of sustainability The Strategy for Sustainable Development in the way they design and implement policiescontributes to good government management by from the beginning".driving it to overcome the departmental vision,promoting policy integration as well as improving — "The cross-examination of solutions betweengovernment efficiency and effectiveness. It also the different Organisms involved shouldprovides a framework for different social agents be incorporated from the early stages ofwhen taking their own initiatives in a responsible development of policies or actions plans".and progressive way, within a broader framework. On the other hand, a large majority of the Strategy monitoring must be comprehensive, actions envisaged in this Strategy are channelledencompassing all the impacts of applying public through the different strategic plans of thepolicies, business activities and civil society departments and other organisms involved. It isactions. therefore necessary to formulate a coordination 75
    • and management system that is compatible with — Promoting and managing interdepartmental the original responsibility of said departments and interinstitutional projects agreed. and organisms. For this purpose we distinguish: — Supervising the correct development of the — Leadership in developing and implementing actions envisaged in the Strategy. the Strategy: lies with the Basque President and, by delegation, with the Basque Presidency. — Informing the Government in advance (ex ante) of the conformity of the sectoral — The coordination of the actions envisaged: strategies and departmental plans of the a Sustainable Development Office is Government with the criteria and guiding established with the duty of coordinating and principles included in the Strategy for incorporating the sustainability criteria and Sustainable Development. The report will objectives set in the Strategy. specifically include the adjustment to the sustainability framework established — Monitoring actions: a measurement and in EcoEuskadi 2020, both for the "Basic report mechanic is established for the actions Strategic and Economic Lines" phase and for included in the Strategy. the final processing phase of the Plan. This will be drawn from the document “Guide — Periodic Strategy assessment: a system to for incorporating sustainability criteria in periodically assess and review the Strategy is sectoral policies and strategies.” established. To effectively perform its duties, the Basque Presidency will be supported by the Sustainable Development Office. lEadErship of thE EcoEuskadi 2020 stratEgY for sustainablE thE sustainablE dEvElopmEnt dEvElopmEnt officE (sdo) Given the comprehensive and integrating nature The Sustainable Development Office (SDO) is the of the Strategy, whose scope of action transcends body that coordinates and supports the process each department and encompasses the entire public of implementing the 2020 Strategy for Sustainable administration and the public, the leadership of Development, led by the Basque President. its development, implementation and promotion process in its different phases corresponds to the According to criteria of simplification, Basque President and, most notably, the awareness interdepartmental cooperation and resource and communication process among the public and savings, the SDO will be structured in the following economic and social agents. Specifically, he will way: assume the following duties: — A Basque Government Interdepartmental — Leading the development, review and Committee, formed by a Deputy Minister reformulation process of the Strategy for from the departments involved, with working Sustainable Development. sessions at least once per year. — Providing technical support services to — An Interinstitutional Committee, formed by the departments through the Sustainable representatives of the Basque Government, Development Office. the three Provincial Councils, and Eudel76 managEmEnt modEl
    • (Association of Basque Municipalities), with The Government will strengthen the role of the working sessions at least once per year. Basque President’s Advisory Council on Socio- economic Affairs, also granting this independent — A Technical Committee, formed by advisory body the role of advising and verifying representatives from each of the Departments progress made on the objectives of the 2020 represented in the Interdepartmental Strategy for Sustainable Development. Committee, with working sessions at least once per quarter. The role of existing mechanisms with a focus on sustainability will also be strengthened: the — A Monitoring Committee, made up the network of Basque municipalities for sustainability Coordination Directorate of the Basque (Udalsarea 21), as well as the network of Basque Presidency, the Basque Government companies for sustainability (Izaite). Similarly, Department of the Environment and the public participation in existing forums and Managing Director of Ihobe as Technical processes will also be strengthened. Secretariat of the Sustainable Development Office. It will hold quarterly meetings. — A Technical Secretariat. Technical Secretariat duties will be performed by staff from the funding thE activitiEs Basque Government Public Authority Ihobe, of thE stratEgY for through specific designation by the Presidency. Its main role will be to provide technical sustainablE dEvElopmEnt resources for the proper functioning of the remaining organisms of the SDO, and to In accordance with the nature of integration coordinate management activities for the platform of the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy,26 effective deployment of the Strategy. the actions envisaged will be finances by the The members of the Technical Committee competent Departments and organisms thatwill play a key role in Office communications develop or must execute them, according towith the other Government Departments, the guidelines established in the Strategy.notwithstanding the powers that correspond Integrating sustainable development principlesto the Interdepartmental and Interinstitutional and objectives in sectoral policy planningCommittees. The Technical Secretariat will and management does not therefore need anestablish the appropriate channels for additional budget. In principle, the Strategy forcollaboration between the Technical Committee Sustainable Development does not involve newand the equivalent bodies in the Provincial activities but a different way of doing things basedCouncils and Eudel, to enable a coordinated effort on impact analysis, taking into account stakeholderthroughout all the Basque Public Institutions. participation and, above all, developing synergies and cooperation with other Departments and The Interdepartmental Committee and the Organisms.Interinstitutional Committee will be responsible, intheir respective fields, for promoting the principles The Government will reinforce its leadership inof sustainability in sectoral policies. It is their all departments and their organisms, for example,responsibility to approve the work of the Technical by providing civil servants with sustainableCommittee and the Technical Secretariat. These development training. Funding should be coveredCommittees may establish specific work groups by existing regular budgets. Each Governmentdeemed relevant. Department and other Organisms are responsible26 The Mission defined for EcoEuskadi is “to serve as an integration platform for all sectoral policies of the Government and other Public Administrations to create an explicitly national project with public participation, agreeing a set of objectives, guidelines and principles that guarantee economic, social and environmental sustainability, establishing benchmarks that allow the progress made to be regularly assessed”. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 77
    • for incorporating the necessary financial resources improvement; this section will be prepared in its financial planning to implement the Strategy. in collaboration with the respective Departments. — Every two years, a public survey monitoring and (Sustainability barometer27) will be undertaken on a homogenous basis, which assEssmEnt allows us to assess the course of public opinion on key aspects of comprehensive The approval of the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy sustainability and social perception of the will begin a procedure of implementation, progress made. monitoring, assessment and continuous The Strategy will be reviewed in 2015 by improvement. the SDO and will be approved by the Regional The following monitoring instruments are Cabinet prior to beginning the review process proposed: of the Departmental Strategies, therefore its findings may be taken into account in the same. — Annual Sustainable Development Report. Prior to reviewing the Strategy, an independent Each year the SDO will compile an annual body will perform an external assessment so report, assessing the level of progress that the reformulation of the Strategy will of implementing the actions included in take into account this assessment as well as the Strategy to obtain a judgement on its tending to the same standards of information, execution and, in contrast with the results transparency, institutional collaboration and of the indicators, to assess the suitability of social participation used during its first drafting. the same. The report will highlight what are considered the good practices identified and will include an evaluation of the causes of deviations detected in the implementation of communication and the Strategy. The report will be made public on the Internet and will serve as a basis for participation the participation of both internal and external key agents. This report will include the One of the riches of the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy assessment of the trajectory of the indicators development process has been the participation included in the 2020 Strategy control panel. of a large number of institutional, social and The report will be presented to the Regional economic agents; particularly of young people and Cabinet prior to its presentation at the the general public, who have contributed their annual Sustainable Development Forum. views and proposals for action. Therefore, this two- This report will also outline the findings of way communication flow must continue regarding the assessment of the level of integration the monitoring, assessment and review mechanics of sustainability criteria in departmental proposed. sectoral policies, including the relevant impact analysis as well as an analysis of As a specific participation and monitoring restraints and obstacles and proposals for instrument, an annual meeting will be held 27 The first instalment of this Barometer is the survey on “Quality of life and sustainability” available at www.ecoeuskadi2020.net.78 managEmEnt modEl
    • - the “Sustainable Development Forum” - as a The Government communication policy,space for information, contrasting and for both supported by the SDO, will have the sustainabilityinternal and external agents to participate in the policy and actions as one of its permanentimplementation of the Strategy, so as to submit references, to ensure at all times a line of publicthe annual Strategy assessment reports to public communication and awareness raising about thedebate, among other activities, and to maintained same.a continuous connection with future reviews of thesame. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 79
    • guidElinEs forincorporatingsustainabilitYcritEria insEctoral policiEs
    • Sustainable development should not merely be considered as a sector policy, but rather as a concept that must be integrated in all sector policies, as a mandatory governing principle for the Administration. Sustainable development must not be seen only P.2. Incorporating the perspective of sustainableas a sectoral policy, but as a concept that must be development into the core of all policies,integrated in all sectoral policies, as a mandatory improving coherence and coordinationguiding principle of the Administration’s duty. between the different departments andTherefore, sustainable development must be areas of sectoral policies (transparency andintegrated from the start of planning and in participation from the initial phases).the existing management processes of the P.3. A balanced consideration of theBasque Government, local administration and repercussions of each policy in each of itstheir organisms. The criteria for sustainable three dimensions — economic, social anddevelopment policy, detailed below, are based environmental — which is summary means:on documents such as the Europe 2020 Strategy — Staying within environmental limitsand other international documents issued by the — Achieving a sustainable economyUnited Nations and the OECD. — Building a just society Below is a summary of the criteria to incorporate P.4. Joint responsibility, promoting partnershipsthe principles of sustainability in Basque Public for sustainable development among theAdministration policies (plans, programmes, different levels of public administration,strategies, etc.) with social agents and the general public (good governance). The principles included in the Strategy forSustainable Development are: When formulating policies, it is necessary to delve further into the principles highlighted, particularly P.1. The principle of intra and intergenerational those relating to the balance of the repercussions responsibility, so that burdens are not of each policy in its three dimensions - economic, transferred to other groups nor other social and environmental. Therefore, these principles generations, following a principle of must be completed with result-based criteria. The prudence in case of lack of scientific table below presents 15 criteria for a holistic vision evidence. of the three pillars of sustainable development. 81
    • Criteria for economic, social and environmental sustainable development Economic sustainabilitY critEria 1. Job creation and income according to needs, ensuring that they are acceptably distributed among geographic areas and social groups. 2. Quantitatively and qualitatively improving productive capital based on human and social capital. 3. Increasing competitiveness and the innovative potential of the economy. 4. That market prices appropriately incorporate signals related to scarcity of factors and externalities as the main evaluation tool. 5. Public management without transferring the burden of its activities to future generations (in the form of debt or loss of value). EnvironmEntal sustainabilitY critEria 6. Maintaining natural areas and biodiversity. 7. Use of renewable resources below the natural or regeneration level. 8. Use of non-renewable resources below the level of potential development of renewable resources. 9. Pollution affecting the environment and people must remain below harmful levels. 10. Avoiding or reducing the impact of environmental disasters and only assuming risks of accidents when the damages produced in the worst-case scenario are not permanent and do not exceed the period of one generation. social sustainabilitY critEria 11. Protecting and promoting the health and safety of humans. 12. Guaranteeing education and personal development for the entire population. 13. Promoting culture as well as maintaining and developing historical heritage and social resources and assets as part of the general social capital. 14. Preserving the principle of equality before the law, legal certainty and equal opportunities, and particularly the principles of gender equality, rights and protection of minorities and respect for human rights. 15. Stimulating solidarity between generations and between the regions of the world. Table 1. In a purely theoretical approach, it could be against one of the dimensions and there must be a considered that the economic, natural and social global net increase in value. resources are a capital stock that must never However, many aspects of the environmental be altered. In practice, exchanges are produced dimension in themselves are irreplaceable and between one and other type of capital so that it their loss could be compensated in return of may be acceptable, within certain limits, to have improvements in the other two dimensions. This is a loss of environmental value in exchange for an case of climate stability, biodiversity, soil fertility increase in economic or social value. For these or the ozone layer. In general, no interventions transactions to be acceptable, the assessment in the natural environment may be allowed to process must be transparent, not act systematically take place that lead to irreparable damages82 guidElinEs for incorporating sustainabilitY critEria in sEctoral policiEs
    • that comprises the capacity for action of future incorporating thEgenerations. principlEs of However, there are limits to the substitutioncapacity of the dimensions, such as: sustainabilitY — Respecting certain minimum thresholds in Incorporating the principles of sustainability in social, economic and environmental terms: e.g. the practice of each Government Department and mandatory legal regulations (on emissions), Organism must be reflected in four areas of the scientific criteria not yet included in legal organisation: regulations (global warming), socio-political rights (equal opportunities, minimum wage, — In the area of policies. decent living conditions, social security or — In the area of Department governance and human rights guarantees). leadership. — In the area of the people who work in the — Developments or effects that produce Department. irreversible damage must be avoided. — In the area of the operative management of — No burdens must be passed to future the Department (purchasing and procurement, generations that do not involve corresponding maintenance, etc.). benefits. In the specific context of a strategy for — Environmental pollution and social problems sustainable development, the more relevant area must not be exported to other countries or if the way that policies are formulated. However, regions. consistency of approaches requires the principles of sustainable development to equally permeate the — Great care must be taken in situations where there other three organisational areas proposed. is uncertainty or risks arising from insufficient knowledge or when, with doubtful probability, the potential damage is extremely high. In Department policies and programmes — Care should be taken to avoid continued The principles indicated must be reflected both deterioration of areas already affected by acute in Department policies and in the way relevant problems of sustainability or where, in view of decisions are made. They must specifically be existing trends, the problems may worsen. reflected in: POLICIES How are the principles of sustainability being applied in the policies developed by the Department so that the results achieved are sustainable? PEOPLE GOVERNANCE AND Are the teams and people at the LEADERSHIP Department su ciently aware of Do the Department leaders promote Assessment of departmental sustainability the principies of sustainable the sustainable development by their development, and do they have the managemant and leadership? skills and incentives necessary to act in coherence with? OPERATING MANAGEMENT Does the department manage its procurement, contracting facilities and operations in coherence with the principles of sustainable development? BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 83
    • — Purpose and ambition. Department policies — Objectives. Leadership must translate must expressly reflect how they contribute to into the existence of clear objectives and achieving the objectives of the Government’s priorities which clearly show progress Sustainable Strategy. towards sustainability and the contribution to the government’s global sustainability — Action mechanisms (in each phase of the strategy. policy development and implementation cycle). In each phase of the life cycle of a — In decision-making and assigning programme or policy, the Department ensure responsibilities. The Department must have a that sustainability criteria are incorporated, clear functional structure, which defines the for which it must have drafted procedures, responsibilities to guarantee that the policy guidelines, impact measurement tools, etc. delivery processes effectively incorporate objectives in accordance with the principles of — Decision making. The decisions taken, sustainable development. among the possible alternatives in the most relevant programmes or policies, must taken — Monitoring and assessment. The existence into account the principles of sustainable of clear objectives must equally be reflected development and record should be kept of this in policy monitoring, in such a way that it is for later assessment. possible to assess the results and impacts achieved through the appropriate reports of — Implementation. In practice, the the phases of the implementation processes. implementation of a programme must reflect that the principles of sustainable development — Implication of stakeholders. The principles have been taken into account. Implementation of sustainability require us to seek the active processes must include examples of interaction participation of stakeholders and collaboration with stakeholders to ensure the sustainability with other Departments and public of the results. organisation, sector associations, companies, third sector organisms and the general — Results and impacts. The results and impacts public. This must, therefore, be reflected in of relevant programmes should be assessed the Department’s activities and in the way it to discover if they contribute effectively to relates to stakeholders through workshops, achieving the objectives of sustainability forums, communications, information outlined. The assessment requires prior provided, etc. indicators and formal internal and external assessment processes. In the people of the Departments In Department leadership and governance Department staff must be familiar with, have enough knowledge of, have the skills/abilities The Department leadership and governance required and the appropriate incentives to perform model must promote the principles of sustainable their work in a way that is consistent with the development. They must specifically be reflected in: principles of sustainable development. — Leadership. Senior Department officials must They must specifically be reflected in: exercise effective leadership, transmitting the principles and objectives of sustainability in — Knowledge. The people that work at the their conduct, reflected in their actions and Department must understand and know how intervention and in the effective perception of the principles of SD should be applied in their Department staff. daily work.84 guidElinEs for incorporating sustainabilitY critEria in sEctoral policiEs
    • — Skills. Having the skills, abilities and tools They must specifically be reflected in: to be efficient and effective in their work, aligned with the principles of sustainable — Operative mechanisms development. Transferring the principles to the • In relation to its environmental management decision they make in the context of their work systems. and their personal lives in relation to work, • In relation to generating carbon emissions. e.g., when travelling, purchasing goods and • In relation to the social and economic services and supplier management. impact of its activities on the environment. • In relation to contract management. — Staff policy. Must take into account social, economic and environmental impacts. — Impact of its activities: there must be a robust Must meet the commitment to give equal system to collect information on impacts (job opportunities in recruitment. creation, electric and water consumption, carbon emissions, etc.). There must equally be a set of indicators to allow assessment and monitoring.In Department operations and procurement — Procurement management: the Departmentmanagement must manage its goods and services procurement and contracting consistent with The Department must manage its infrastructure the principles of sustainable development.and develop its operations consistent with the They must specifically be reflected in:principles of sustainable development. • Procurement and contracting procedures. • Relations with suppliers and the supply chain. • The impact of procurement. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 85
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    • annExEs
    • Annex 1. Fitting goVErnMEnt Plans and thE stratEgiC objECtiVEs oF ECoEuskadi 2020 The Basque Strategy for Sustainable Development It is appropriate to stress again that sustainable sets guidelines and lines of action, but the development is not limited to incorporating implementation of the specific actions corresponds the vision of environmental sustainability into to the Departments and departmental organisms. economic development programmes. Also true is These have their own strategies and plans that the opposite: that environmental sustainability frame and direct their actions but that must actions must contemplate their economic impact. necessarily be aligned with the objectives set in And that in both cases the social dimension of EcoEuskadi 2020. economic and environmental actions is usually forgotten. A threefold dimension that should never This Annex includes the relevant Plans and fail to be present when formulating policies and Initiatives for the current legislature, which designing relevant projects and actions. highlights the alignment existing among its objectives and those of the Strategy for Sustainable Due to this interaction, it is not recommendable Development. It is not surprising to find that to pass judgement in an isolated way or in absolute overall there is a strong relation between the terms whether a particular plan or strategy is formulations of one and the other. This is so not sustainable or unsustainable. It is preferable only because there is a coincidence in the time that the evaluation is produced in relative or they have been developed, but also because the comparative terms, i.e., evaluating whether a incorporation of the culture of sustainability particular option is more or less sustainable, and happened some time ago, at least in terms of why, than another option that is considered equally strategic approaches. Hence, the management feasible. Contrasting with the option of not doing model of the Strategy for Sustainable Development anything is usually particularly illustrative. itself — which establishes a certain control and assessment mechanic of the sustainability of the Below is the interrelation between the strategic plans — and the Guidelines for incorporating objectives of EcoEuskadi 2020 and the strategic principles of sustainability document that serves as plans and initiatives of the Basque Government, as support and a complement, are greatly important. well as the level of development of each of them.88
    • Strategic Objective 1.to position the basque Country as an innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and open economyDept. of Industry, Innovation, Trade and Tourism— Business Competitiveness Plan 2010-2013. In progress.— Energy Strategy for the Basque Country 2020 - 3E 2020. In advanced stage of development.— Basque Information Society Plan 2015. In advanced stage of development.Dept. of Education, Universities and Research— University Plan 2011 – 2014. In progress.— 3rd Vocational Training Plan 2011/2014. In progress.Dept. of Environment, Land Planning, Agriculture and Fisheries— Competitiveness plan of the Basque agricultural sector. In advanced stage of development.Presidency— Science, Technology and Innovation Plan 2015 In advanced stage of development.— Strategic Framework for External Action 2010-2020. In advanced stage of development. Not included in the plans of the 9th Legislature but among the significant actions.Strategic Objective 2.to consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive basque Country based on employment,education, prevention and solidarityDept. of Employment and Social Affairs— Strategies for sanitary and social care in the Basque Country. Agreed in February 2001, this is the basis for the future Strategic Plan for sanitary and social care that will replace the plan for the period 2005-2008. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature.— Basque Employment Plan 2011-2013. Under development.— 3rd Plan on Immigration, Citizenship and Intercultural Coexistence 2011-2013. In advanced stage of development.— Strategic plan for social services in the Basque Country 2011-2014. In progress.— 3rd Interinstitutional Family Support Plan. In advanced stage of development.— 2nd Strategic Plan on Occupational Health and Safety in the Basque Country 2011/2014. In progress.Dept. of Health and Consumption— Strategy to address the challenge of chronicity in the Basque Country. In progress. Not included in the plans of the 9th Legislature but among the significant actions.— Basque Health Plan 2012-2020. Under development.Dept. of Culture— III Gazte Plana (Youth Plan) 2020. In advanced stage of development. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature.Strategic Objective 3.to strengthen social protection systems in order to continue guaranteeing harmonious,healthy and equitable developmentDept. of Employment and Social Affairs— Strategic plan for social services in the Basque Country 2011-2014. In progress.Dept. of Home Affairs— Plan against gender violence. In progress.Presidency— 5th Plan for Equality of Men and Women 2010-2013. In progress. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 89
    • Strategic Objective 4. to preserve our natural resources and biodiversity with respectful and balanced planning of the territory, infrastructures, equipment and housing Dept. of Housing, Public Works and Transport — Master Plan on Sustainable Mobility. 2020 Horizon. In progress. Dept. of Environment, Land Planning, Agriculture and Fisheries — Land Planning Guidelines. Revised in 2010. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature. — Environmental Framework Programme 2011-2014. In progress. — Sustainable Rural Development Programme 2007-2013. In progress. — Basque Country Coastal Development Programme 2011-2013. Under development. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature. — Food Industry and Quality Strategic Plan of the Basque Country 2010-2013. In progress. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature. Strategic Objective 5. to minimise energy dependence on fossil-based energies and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change Dept. of Industry, Trade and Tourism — Energy Strategy 3E 2020. In advanced stage of development. — Business Competitiveness Plan 2010-2013. In progress. Dept. of Environment, Land Planning, Agriculture and Fisheries — Basque Plan on Climate Change 2020. Under development. — Environmental Framework Programme 2011-2014. In progress. Dept. of Housing, Public Works and Transport — Master Plan on housing and urban regeneration 2010-2013. In progress. — Master Plan on Sustainable Mobility. 2020 Horizon. Under development. Strategic Objective 6. to develop a more sustainable integrated mobility model that facilitates structuring the inland territory and connection with the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness Dept. of Housing, Public Works and Transport — Master Plan on Sustainable Mobility. 2020 Horizon. Under development. — Basque Railway Plan 2020 on rail and tram transport. Under development. — Sector Territorial Plan of the intermodal and logistics network. In progress Not included in the plans of the 9th Legislature but among the significant actions. — Basque Country airport plan. In progress. Not included in the plans of the 9th Legislature but among the significant actions. Dept. of Home Affairs — Strategic road safety plan 2010-2014. In progress. Not included in the plans of the 9th Legislature but among the significant actions.90 anExos
    • Strategic Objective 7.to build an education and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible andadapting educational and training contents to the qualifications required by the job market and societythroughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensionsDept. of Employment and Social Affairs— Basque Employment Strategy 2011-2013. In development.— Basque Government Strategic Master Plan for Development Cooperation 2008-2011. In progress. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature.Presidency— Plan for democratic coexistence and delegitimisation of violence 2010/2011. In progress.Dept. of Culture— III Gazte Plana (Youth Plan) 2020. In advanced stage of development.— Citizen Contract for the Promotion Cultures. Under development.Presidency— Government action plan against gender violence. In progress.— 5th Plan for Equality of Men and Women 2010-2013. In progress.Dept. of Education, Universities and Research— 3rd Vocational Training Plan 2011-2014. In progress.Dept. of Environment, Land Planning, Agriculture and Fisheries— Environmental Framework Programme 2011-2014. In progress.Strategic Objective 8.to deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible and transparent Public administrationDept. of Justice and Public Administration— Public innovation and electronic administration plan 2011-2013. In progress.Presidency— Science, Technology and Innovation Plan 2015.In advanced stage of development.Strategic Objective 9.to contribute from the basque Country to meeting the Millennium goals and, in general,to the sustainable development of the most underprivileged countries.Dept. of Employment and Social Affairs— Basque Government Strategic Master Plan for Development Cooperation 2008-2011. In progress. Not included in the calendar of Plans of the 9th Legislature. The Development Cooperation Agency, dependent on the Presidency, has been set up. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 91
    • Annex 2. Fitting thE objECtiVEs oF thE ECoEuskadi 2020 stratEgy and thE sustainablE dEVEloPMEnt stratEgiEs oF thE ProVinCial CounCils The Provincial Councils of Biscay, Gipuzkoa and Programmes and Actions or Objectives and Álava have Strategies for Sustainable Development Actions. Therefore their structure is similar. Both that are aligned with the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategies have a strong orientation towards the guidelines. There are, however, some differences Departments of the provincial institution itself between them in approach and scope: and towards municipal administrations,28 and their horizon is medium-term (2015 and 2016 — EcoEuskadi 2020 started by identifying the respectively). risks of unsustainability of the Basque socio- economic model to then identify the challenges — Meanwhile, the Provincial Council of has and the keys to sustainability. From this basis a conceived its strategy, Building our shared future Vision was defined, which comprises 9 strategic together. Gipuzkoa Strategy 2020-2030, as a global objectives deployed in lines of action. reflection on the desired development model for the Territory, with no special connection with the — The Councils of Álava and Biscay, Strategic Town Councils or limiting itself to the scope of Sustainable Development Plan of the Historical authority of the Provincial Departments. Thus Territory of Álava 2011-2015 and Bizkaia formulating a Vision and advocating 6 great 21 Egitasmoa Programme 2011-2016, have transformations desired. Its horizon is 2030, developed their strategies around the Aalborg although it sets goals for the year 2020. Commitments, of which they are signatories. The commitments give rise to a series of Below is a summary of the alignment of said strategic lines, and each line is deployed in Strategies with the EcoEuskadi 2020 objectives.29 28 The strategy of Álava has the twofold objective of Integrating the concept in the organisation and Supporting and guiding stakeholders in meeting the Aalborg Commitments. The goal of the Bizkaia 21 Programme is to help incorporate sustainability in all the provincial departments, while insisting of the necessary coordination with the rest of the Basque Public Administrations, and particularly with the Municipal Administration. 29 There is an extensive document that analyses in more detail the traceability of the lines of action, clearly showing the synergies between the documents mentioned.92
    • On the one hand, Table Table 1 relates the 10 Aalborg EcoEuskadi 2020. Objectives 3 and 7 do not directly fitCommitments, which are the starting point for the into any of the commitments, although both strategiesstrategic formulation of the Provincial Councils of have Lines of Action that contribute to the same.Álava and Biscay with the Strategic Objectives ofinterrelation between the EcoEuskadi 2020 objectives and the Commitments of the Provincial Councils of Álavaand biscay ECOEuskadi 2020 ÁlaVa 2011-2015 / bisCay 2011-2016 Objective 1. To position the Basque Country as an 8. To create and ensure a vibrant local economy that innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and open economy gives access to employment without damaging the environment Objective 2. To consolidate a fully integrating and 7. To promote and protect the health and welfare of cohesive Basque Country based on employment, our citizens 9. To ensure integrating and solidary education, prevention and solidarity communities Objective 3. To strengthen social protection systems in order to continue guaranteeing harmonious, healthy and equitable development Objective 4. To preserve our natural resources and 3. To fully assume our responsibility to protect, preserve biodiversity with respectful and balanced planning of and guarantee equal access to common natural assets the territory, infra-structures, equipment and housing 4. To adopt and facilitate the prudent and efficient use of resources and to encourage sustainable consumption and production Objective 5. To minimise energy dependence on fossil- based energies and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions 5. To assume a strategic role for urban planning and the effects of climate change and design in ad-dressing environmental, social, economic, health and cultural issues for the benefit of all Objective 6. To develop a more sustainable integrated 6. To firmly promote sustainable mobility models, mobility model that facilitates structuring the inland recognising the interdependence of transport, health territory and connection with the exterior in better and the environment conditions of competitiveness. Objective 7. To build an education and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and adapting educational and training contents to the qualifications required by the job market and society throughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensions Objective 8. To deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible 1. To promote our decision-making processes through and transparent Public Administration a more participatory democracy 2. To development effective management programmes, from de-sign to assessment, through implementation Objective 9. To contribute from the Basque Country to meeting 10. To assume of global responsibility for peace, justice, the Millennium Goals and, in general, to the sustainable equality, sustainable development and protecting development of the most underprivileged countries the climateTable 1. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 93
    • Meanwhile, Table 2 juxtaposes the EcoEuskadi 2020 Transformations included in Gipuzkoa involve several objectives and the Transformations of the Gipuzkoa EcoEuskadi 2020 objectives. The only objective not 2030 Strategy. The comparison shows that some of the expressly covered is international solidarity (Objective 9). interrelation between the EcoEuskadi 2020 objectives major transformations for gipuzkoa 2030 ECOEuskadi 2020 giPuzkOa 2020-2030 Objective 1. To position the Basque Country as an 1. Economic transformation (TEC). Towards an innovative, competitive, eco-efficient and open economy open, competitive and sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge Objective 2. To consolidate a fully integrating and cohesive Basque Country based on employment, education, prevention and solidarity 2. Demographic-social transformation (TDS). To manage our transition towards an older society Objective 3. To strengthen social protection systems in and ensuring funding for the welfare state order to continue guaranteeing harmonious, healthy and equitable development Objective 4. To preserve our natural resources and 3. Environmental and territorial transformation (TAT). biodiversity with respectful and balanced planning of Towards environmental sustainability, expressing an the territory, infrastructures, equipment and housing honest commitment to future generations Objective 5. To minimise energy dependence on fossil- Strategic Renewable Energies Programme* based energies and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change (Environmental and territorial transformation) Objective 6. To develop a more sustainable integrated Strategic Sustainable Mobility Programme (electric mobility model that facilitates structuring the inland car and train)* territory and connection with the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness (Environmental and territorial transformation) Objective 7. To build an education and quality values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and adapting educational and training contents to the qualifications 4. Transformation in learning and knowledge required by the job market and society throughout life, (TAC). Gipuzkoa, a land that learns including sustainability in all its dimensions Objective 8. To deploy an innovative, efficient, accessible 5. Transformation of the public-political space and transparent Public Administration (TEP). Towards the comprehensive modernisation of the public administration and further institutional streamlining. A new governance based on new values Objective 9. To contribute from the Basque Country to meeting the Millennium Goals and, in general, to the sustainable development of the most underprivileged countries *Included in the economic transformation. Table 2.94 anExos
    • Annex 3. synthEsis oF thE PartiCiPatory ProCEss: PartiCiPation has lEFt its Mark on thE ECoEuskadi 2020 stratEgy The social and public response to the participatory As a complement to the participatory process, we mustprocess developed in the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy highlight the activity of the ecoeuskadi2020.net website,has left its mark. This was possible thanks to joint with over 14,000 visits, 40,925 page views and anwork and effort. On the one hand, EcoEuskadi 2020 has average visit time of 3.10 minutes (data from June 2011).generated and provided many and different spaces forparticipation; and on the other, the public and socio- Although the participatory process did not reach alleconomic agents have responded well. the agents and entities involved, its main value is the qualitative and quantitative leap that its approach, After several months of work, between January organisation and development has meant for the Basqueand May 2011, and having finalised the participatory Government, and for Basque society in general. Thisprocess, the evaluation below allows us to make process contributed to:conclusions on: — Creating relational and meeting spaces for different 1. The participation figures; groups. 2. The main contributions; and 3. The resulting commitments. — Creating debates that contribute shared knowledge, reflection and learning. The issues dealt with varied according to the technical thE figurEs of participation development process of EcoEuskadi 2020. Thus, in EcoEuskadi 2020 depending to the moment, the participation process has considered how to address or direct: These are important numbers that reflect efforts toincorporate social debate into EcoEuskadi 2020. The — The main challenges of sustainability in the BasqueBasque Government provided physical and virtual Country.forums for participatory reflection and cooperation in — The 2020 Vision of a sustainable Basque Country.order to gather the diversity of opinions and stances — The 8 keys to sustainability in the Basque Country.from a young, businesses, social, institutional and — The strategic objectives.general public perspective. — The lines of action. 95
    • The numbers that summarise the participatory process of EcoEuskadi 2020 are: nO. PartiCiPatiOn PartiCiPatOry sEssiOns PartiCiPants Social networks: Facebook 450 friends Twitter 180 followers Openideiak 142 members Tuenti 38 members Posts by people from the University 19 General Public Agenda 21 forums in Town Halls 73 NGOs 9 Future Workshops (Qualitative analysis): Groups 9 No. people 72 Public survey (Quantitative analysis) 1.200 General seminars 534 Basque Presidents Advisory Council on Socio-economic Affairs. 30 Basque Government Interdepartmental Sessions: social, 45 environmental and economic Udalsarea 21, Basque Network of Municipalities for Sustainability 23 Economic, social Bai +5 forum 83 and institutional Garapen / Regions (Development agencies and agents 27 Associations of municipalities) Izaite (Association of Basque Companies for Sustainability) 40 Q Epea, Network of Public Entities for Excellence 5 Technological Centres 10 Ihobe 22 Departmental sessions 20 Universities: Processes in lecture rooms 294 No. university associations 3 Vocational Training: No. centres 23 Youth No. students 841 Other youth associations 120 Schools (16-18 years) No. centres 10 No. students 385 Below is a summary of the participation spaces open during the EcoEuskadi 2020 development process, interrelating these spaces with the issues discussed and the key to sustainability dealt with in depth.96 anExos
    • Issues discussed and addressed Entity Date Vision Key Key Key Key Key Key Key Key 2020 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Local Agenda 21 Forum of 24/03/2011 Legazpi Local Agenda 21 Forum of 04/04/2011 Nerbioi Ibaizabal Local Agenda 21 Forum of 29/03/2011 ZarautzGENERAL PUBLIC Advisory Council on the Environment of 06/04/2011 San Sebastian Local Agenda 21 Forum of 30/03/2011 Debabarrena (Debegesa) Socio-economic agents 13/04/2011 forum of Goierri (Goieki) Romani cultural 19/04/2011 association 26/04/2011 KALE DOR KAYIKO NGOs 06/04/2011 University of Deusto:La 28/03/2011 Comer-cial – 5th year 07/04/2011 University of Deusto: La 15/03/2011 Comercial – 2nd year 19/04/2011 University of the Basque Country: Polytechnic 14/04/2011 College of San Sebastian 23 vocational training March and centres April 2011YOUTH 10 middle and high March and schools April 2011 AIESEC: global network of university students 27/04/2011 and graduates 12/03/2011 Eusko Ikaskuntza -Youth 02/04/2011 Bosko Taldea Federation April 2011 of the Basque Country Key 1. Scarce natural resources and in the process of depletion Key 2. Energy dependence and climate change Key 5. Profound demographic changes Key 6. Unbalanced generational change 97
    • Issues discussed and addressed Entity Date Vision Key Key Key Key Key Key Key Key 2020 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 14/03/2011 IZAITE 18/03/2011 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AGENTS 05/04/2011 BAI+5 2011 Q-EPEA. Public entities 18/04/2011 for excellence 01/04/2011 GARAPEN 15/04/2011 Technological Centres 29/03/2011 UDALSAREA 21, Technical 05/04/2011 Committee 25/03/2011 IHOBE 08/04/2011 Basque Government - departmental session on 09/03/2011 Land Planning INSTITUTIONS Basque Government - departmental session on 29/03/2011 Health Basque Government - Social departmental 04/04/2011 session Basque Government - public administration 12/04/2011 interdepartmental session Basque Government - eco-nomic-environmental 18/04/2011 interdepartmental session Open days: Challenges 25/01/2011 of sustainability in the 26/01/2011 Basque Country OPEN SPACES 09/05/2011 Open days: 10/05/2011 Proposals for action 11/05/2011 Social networks 2011 E-mail 2011 Key 3. Globalisation of competition Key 4. Unsustainable mobility and transport Key 7. Fragility of a changing system of values Key 8. Unequal international development98
    • thE main contributions to general public) to a sustainable development model for the Basque Country. EcoEuskadi 2020 — Some conditions considered necessary to address Many documents have been written as a result of a sustainable future in the Basque Country are:the participation in the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy. It iscomplicated, almost impossible, to summarise all the • Placing people, particularly young people, atnuances of the contents and reflections that arose in the the core of the EcoEuskadi 2020 Strategy, givingspaces for debate. special relevance to appropriately guiding educational, health, social, employment policies, However, when analysing the documentation, we among others.can identify the main lines of thought contributed toEcoEuskadi 2020 by the general public, young people, • Working and strengthening our system of valuessocio-economic agents and civil servants. as a society. Below, we have stated the key reflections on which • Guaranteeing a transparent, coordinated andthere is consensus or a majority of opinion, and which efficient administration.are also reinforced, with some nuances, by analysingthe social discourse undertaken. These are therefore • Developing a new governance or a new way ofthe most important contribution of the participatory governing with the general public.process to EcoEuskadi 2020. They are as follows: — The participating entities and people validate the need for a Sustainable Development Strategy for thE commitmEnts arising the Basque Country. There is social consensus on from participation in the need and urgency to address the unsustainable trends of the current system, reflected in the EcoEuskadi 2020 economic, social and environmental crisis. In The main goal of this participatory process was short, the social commitment to truly integrating to promote social debate, in order to incorporate its sustainability into the strategy and national model, main conclusions into the Euskadi 2020 Strategy for and to the socio-economic and environmental Sustainable Development. This goal, and also the policies that develop it. commitment to carry it out, has already been fulfilled. — Political and social leadership is key to facing and We can therefore state that the main results of social assuming the changes associated with the new participation have provided value and contributed to sustainable economic and social approach and enriching and reinforcing reflection and the technical model. A leadership that must be shared and driven work behind EcoEuskadi 2020. This is a Strategy built by people, knowledge and innovation. for and by Basque society. — Advancing towards sustainability requires sectoral technical and technological solutions, and also However, the work does not end here. Once the Euskadi joint social responsibility. 2020 Strategy for Sustainable Development has been The majority of the proposals to address the approved, a new path has started, which concerns of challenges faced by the country are related to: us all. • Sustainable and innovative technical Communicating and developing EcoEuskadi 2020 management in the different areas of action, and its proposals, dedicating the necessary efforts and such as: energy and climate change, mobility, talent, assuming the behaviour changes required… must land planning, resource management, production be a personal and collective commitment. A national and consumption, etc. This management must commitment and challenge that we must shape, slowly be accompanied by a legal framework and fiscal but surely. support. The following description of the participatory process, • Education, awareness raising and a together with the results obtained, will be object of a commitment of Basque society as a whole document called “Participation leaves its mark on 2020”, (Administration, socio-economic agents and the attached to the Strategy for Sustainable Development. BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 99
    • Annex 4. CitizEnshiP and sustainablE dEVEloPMEnt Along with the participatory spaces created, the A summary of the qualitative results of the study Basque Government has endeavoured to discover the could be specified in the following elements: public discourse on sustainable development and the strategic objectives of EcoEuskadi 2020. For this we — Society still finds it difficult to understand have undertaken: sustainable development beyond aspects connected to the environment; this does not mean that society — Qualitative research with 72 participants in 9 shows no concern for problems or situations related discussion groups-future workshops, which to the economic or social future of the Basque analysed Sustainable Development as a concept and Country. the Keys to Sustainability of EcoEuskadi 2020. — In economic terms, the general public perceives that — Quantitative research based on 1,200 telephone the Basque Country has known how to adapt to new interviews with Basque citizens, which analysed times, viewing globalisation as an opportunity to social perception of the quality of life of the Basque improve and expand the boundaries of its market people was analysed as well as the importance of and assuming that the entry of foreign products Sustainable Development for the good progress could turn the local market into a vulnerable of the Basque Country in the near future. (See market. However, there is a perceived need to "Quality of life and sustainability" repost at www. continue working to maintain the Basque Country ecoeuskadi2020.net) as a competitive economy in the global market. The general goal was to identify the most significant — From the perspective of socially sustainable elements of public discourse concerning EcoEuskadi development, a concern is detected on how to 2020, integrating the results of the two phases of redirect value system, transmitting modernity research conducted. Below is the interrelation between and innovation to future generations, but always the objectives and the two research projects. enriched with the traditional Basque values that have made us what we are today.100
    • kEys tO stratEgiC ObjECtiVEs analysis ParaMEtErs sustainability ECOEuskadi 2020 (quantitative phase) (qualitative phase)1. To position the Basque Country as an — Quality of life innovative, competitive, eco-efficient Globalisation of — Local product consumption and open economy competition — Competitiveness of businesses — Defence against globalisation2. To consolidate a fully integrating and — Employment Unbalanced cohesive Basque Country based on — Integration of immigrants generational employment, education, prevention — Young people prepared for the job market change and solidarity — Work for young people in the Basque Country3. To strengthen social protection — Ageing population Profound systems in order to continue demographic guaranteeing harmonious, healthy — Problems maintaining pensions changes and equitable development of people4. To preserve our natural resources — Resource consumption Scarce natural — Environmental threats and biodiversity with respectful and resources, in balanced planning of the territory, the process of — Scientific advances as an environmental infrastructures, equipment and depletion solution housing.5. To minimise energy dependence on — Climate Change fossil-based energy, and to mitigate Energy dependence greenhouse gas emissions and the and climate change — Energy dependence effects of climate change6. To develop a more sustainable integrated mobility model that Unsustainable facilitates structuring the inland mobility and — Traffic problems territory and the connection with transport the exterior in better conditions of competitiveness7. To build an education and quality — Unlimited consumption values system, aimed at achieving academic success, flexible and Fragility of a adapting educational and training changing system of contents to the qualifications values — Declining solidarity required by the job market and society throughout life, including sustainability in all its dimensions8. To deploy an innovative, efficient, Responsible agents accessible and transparent Public (transversal — Coordination between the administrations Administration analysis)9. To contribute from the Basque Country to meeting the Millennium Unequal Goals and, in general, to the international — Helping the poorest countries sustainable development of the most development underprivileged countries BASQUE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2020 101
    • — From the environmental perspective, the general — Almost everyone (95%) believes that employment is public finds obstacles to empathise and care about a fundamental aspect for the good functioning of that have apparently not yet arrived, so awareness society. Another aspect considered as a key for 75% and prevention in terms of climate change or lack is the ageing population and the viability of the of resources can be difficult. Even so, the general pension system. public is beginning to become aware that current consumption habits are undesirable. — 75% of the population considers that the current rate of resource consumption is excessive and — The responsibility to boost changes in the economic, jeopardises future generations. This would contrast social and environmental field is not assumed in with the perception of 46% that threats to the most cases by the general public itself, although environment are exaggerated, and the confidence it is willing to collaborate. The responsibility to of 48% that scientific advances will solve these generate change is placed with agents such as threats. On the other hand, almost 70 per cent of the institutions or companies, representing a deficit in population is aware of the importance of climate joint social responsibility. change. — With regard to education, 64% of the public considers that young people are prepared for the When summarising the results obtained in the job market and perceives having to leave the Basque quantitative phase, the following aspects should be Country to work as a problem. It is noteworthy highlighted: the relevance given to education in values and the perception of over 70% that we are becoming less — Over 80 per cent consider their quality of life to solidary with others, even while 84% agrees with be good or very good. However, it is perceived the idea that rich countries should financially help that this quality of life may be threatened by poorer countries. competition and globalisation, so more than half of the population surveyed would agree with adopting defensive measures against globalisation, endorsing the consumption of local products even if they have a higher price.102 anExos