The Szekler Alphabet

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The documentation of the Szekler runic script

The documentation of the Szekler runic script

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  • 1. THE SZEKLER ALPHABET Unicode Standard Proposal Written by: Varga Géza Translation: Beleznay Ákos Attila 2009 © Note: The names in the study were written according to Hungarian grammar. Order of names: Surname, first name, and middle name.
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1. Different Names of the Szekler Alphabet 2. Origin of the Szekler Alphabet 3. History of the Szekler Alphabet 4. List of the Szekler Signs 5. The Szekler Letters 6. Usage of Capital and Lower Case Letters 7. The Direction of Signs 8. The Szekler Logograms 9. Szekler Sentence Signs 10. Szekler Ligatures 11. The Expanded Nicholsburg Sign Case 12. The Direction of Writing 13. Variations of the Szekler Writing 14. Interpunctuation 15. Numbers 16. Runic Artifacts from the Stone Age 17. Runic Artifacts from the Metal Age 18. Era of Classical Szekler Artifacts 19. Written Artifacts from the Hun, Avar and Homecoming Era 20. Modern Usage of the Szekler Alphabet 21. Parallel Proposals 22. Code Setup
  • 3. Introduction and based on Hungarian chronicles and other evidences other groups of Hungarians are also of Hun descent. The Szekler runic writing is the writing of Hungarians, The following historical study is written by the researchers which has been established during the Stone Age based on the signs of the Board of Writing History established in 1991. The and symbols of an ancient religion, in order to record writings in researchers include Simon Péter, Szekeres István, Varga Géza, and Hungarian. Since the Stone Age this writing has not been forgotten, Varga Csaba. With the research of these writers, major changes and there were always users of it. have taken place during 1993 and afterwards with regards to the study of the Szekler writing. The characteristics of the group Based on artifacts found, it has been used by Scythians, include the interest in research of theory, and answering questions Huns, and the Avars. For the evidence of the integral evolution of in an academic and unique manner. the signs there are examples in folk (such as the ones used on ceramics), and also in monarchic and religious symbolism (holy Simon Péter, a senior lecturer university professor has crown, bauble, the king’s robe, and the signs in catholic churches). successfully written a study in 1993 which reckoned the hypothesis Its origin of being from the Stone Age is proven by the similarities of the Szekler writing being of ancient Turk origin. in the writing style compared to Chinese, Chukch, and Native American findings. Based on the probability calculations carried Szekeres István researches the parallels with the ancient out the coherence between these parallels cannot be explained as Turk and Chinese writings, which he has published in his study in being random. The writing uses words and syllables, sentence signs 1993 and in his upcoming new book. representing multiple sounds at once, logograms, and besides these characteristics it has a sophisticated alphabet. The direction of Varga Géza is the founder of the Board of Writing History, writing is based on the materials used to write with and to write on, and he has also published many books and written hundreds of and allegorization differences. Therefore it could either be vertical, articles. He researches the history and theory of writing, deciphered left to right, right to left, symmetric, or a circular fashion. many runic texts; and runs many online forums. The writing has been preserved from falling into the past Varga Csaba is not only a creative thinker but also a great and being forgotten by the Szekler people. The Szeklers (a group of researcher, and the author of many famous books. Hungarians) are Hun descendants. The Szeklers had an independent state and a separate history in Transylvania during the five hundred The proposal has been requested by a Szekler organization years after Attila’s death until the arrival of the Hungarian which has been running for 90 years and has hundreds of members. (Magyar) tribes with the leadership of Arpad. This independence The author who has Szekler ancestors aimed to anticipate his lead to the attributes of the Szekler culture during the next knowledge about Szeklers, and explain his academic viewpoint. millennium, including the usage of Hun writing. They live in the eastern parts of the once known Hungarian Kingdom, which since The work which has been done with the help of three First World War became part of Romania. They have Hun ancestry, mailing lists and dozens of online forums, was open to monitoring and inspection by anyone. The proposal’s request was also sent to
  • 4. the representatives of Szekler and Magyar scholars including Gazda József, Erdélyi István, Sándor Klára, Szász Tibor András, Czeglédy Katalin, Vásáry István, Szabó Mihály István and others.
  • 5. century when the Szekler alphabet was given its name, 1. Different Names of the Szekler Alphabet scholars only took into consideration the mentioning of runes in ancient Hungarian chronicles, but not metal, ceramic, and bone The Szekler alphabet is given many different names, about archeological evidences and other painted findings. which there are many debates, which is the right one to be used. The “Szekler alphabet” is a more proper name given for this type of writing as a whole, since this is not based on any of Usually it is given the name „ runic writing”, since the the ways the letters were actually written during different ages. alphabet made up of runes. This name however is not proper What could go against this is however the fact that based on the enough if the Szekler alphabet is being differentiated from other archeological evidences from the Stone Age, giving the „Szekler” similar alphabets, since runes were also used by other nations name to the alphabet is anachronistic. This can be avoided by including Germans and Turks. Therefore this gives base to many simply referring to the findings from the Stone Age as the „pre- misunderstandings and inaccurate hypothesis and studies. Szekler alphabet”. In the past two centuries the name that was most Naming the alphabet „ancient Hungarian alphabet” commonly used is the „Szekler runic alphabet”. This way the indicates that it was used by all of the Hungarians (Magyars). For alphabet can be uniquely identified. foreigners it is also easier to understand, similarly to names such as the „ancient Persian alphabet” or „Elamic scripts”. Based on The name of the „Sumerian cuneiform” alphabet has historical records, this alphabet is never mentioned with a name similar origins, since it is also made up of the nation’s name that that includes „Hungarian” (Magyar) in it. The exception that can used it and the way the letters were written. The Sumerian be made is the century Constantin legend, which mentions cuneiform alphabet only used the „arrow-headed characters”, the writing of Magyars and Avars, but it refers to these people as however there are many different types of the Szekler runic Turks. This evidence however is purposely left out from the alphabet. The name Szekler runic alphabet was given by scholars Finno-Ugrist historians' writings, since it would deny the during the and century, since it was only used by preconception of Finno-Ugric origin of Hungarians. From Szeklers. Based on the archeological evidences found in Pécs, Contantinus Porphyrogenetus (Constantin the who wrote Bodrog-Alsóbű and Sopronkőhida and other findings taken into around 950 A.D., knew that the Hungarians were also referred to account, this alphabet was not only used by Szeklers, but all the as Sabir (Savartu Asfalu/ szavartü aszfalü) – therefore based on Magyars as a whole. However, referring to it as the „ Szekler these earlier times, we could not be talking about „Hungarian runic alphabet” can be accepted, since the Szeklers were the ones writing”. Chronicles written centuries after, only refer to only the who kept the alphabet alive and passed it on from generation to Szekler writing. Based on archeological evidences from the Stone generation for centuries. Age, referring to the alphabet as Hungarian could also be anachronistic, however the „pre-Hungarian alphabet from the Naming the alphabet based on the way it was written, the stone age” could be given. tally is gratuitous, since this way of „writing” the runes is only one of the many ways it was written. During the and
  • 6. Thelegdi János in his work titled Rudimenta written in Attila, it is practical to call it the „classical Szekler alphabet”. 1589, mentions „Hun letters”. The writing also includes a This so called classical alphabet however can not be separated prologue by Baranyai Decsi János, in which he refers to a and discussed separately since these writings have a continuous „Scythian alphabet”. During those times, these were the so called unity. traditional references to this type of writing. Benczédi Székely István in 1559 mentions the Szekler writing as „writing written in Hunnia”. Verancsics Antal (passed in 1573), Otrokócsi Fóris Ferenc (1693), Bél Mátyás (1718) and Dezsericzky Ince József (1749) all refer to the Szekler alphabet as Hun-Scythian writing. This is the oldest known name used for the alphabet. The rightful usage of „Hun-Scythian writing” can justified by the fact that Scythian and Hun findings can be read and understood with the Szekler alphabet. Therefore the usage of „Hun-Scythian writing” would be appealing, however this way it would be harder to differentiate the Hun and Scythian findings from the Szekler ones. The „Szekler runic alphabet” or the „Szekler alphabet” is the most reasonable name given. First and foremost because these are the names most commonly known and used. Also, the name given should not have to follow the current academic standpoint, and every one of its approaches about the subject. It is enough, if the given name of the alphabet can uniquely differentiate it. Under the wider reference of the Szekler alphabet the findings from the Stone Age and earlier times are also included, which can be read with the Szekler runes (just like the findings of Latin letters in Australia), and also folk evidences, symbols of reign, and religious artifacts. While referring to the Szekler writings during the different ages, it is important to differentiate them such as „pre stone-age Szekler runes”, „Szekler runes and its similarities with Chinese writings” and so on. The narrower reference of the Szekler alphabet includes findings after the famous king of the Huns, Attila, and evidences to present the different eras. In case we would really want to indicate that the Szekler alphabet mentioned is the one used after
  • 7. 2. Origin of the Szekler Alphabet This theory stated the accepted view of “academics” until 1993, regardless the fact that it has never been reasoned in an The academic views have changed many times about the accurate manner. The most followers of this theory could have said Szekler alphabet in the past couple of centuries. is that these writings have 16 signs which are more or less similar formally, and 5 are similar both meaning and form wise. However, Kézai Simon writes in his chronicle written around 1282 this degree of similarity can be found with other distant writings, A.D., that the Szeklers like “they say it” use the writing of the but these have never been analyzed. It has never arisen, that the Blaks. It has not been clarified whether Kézai’s writing can be similarities can be explained based on other reasons than deriving relied on, and who could have been these Blaks mentioned in his the Szekler alphabet from the ancient Turk writing. The fact has not work. In case if the early Christian (Blak, Wlach, Olah, Olasz been mentioned and regarded, that other writings (including the /Italian/) Magyars would have been mentioned (the Huns had three Hittite hieroglyph writing) has around 20 formal, and some Christian Bishoprics in the Merv, Herat and Gurgan oaziases), it meaning similarities as well. would explain why the classical Szekler artifacts of writing were found in churches. Followers of the ancient Turk derivation (in opposition with the Magyar historic traditions, and with no linguistic proofs) During the 1500’s it was mentioned as the Hun-Scythian regarded the Huns not Magyar (Hungarian) but Turkish speakers. writing– referring to Magyars under the Hun and Scythian names – Based on this, they concluded that the Szekler writing had to be mentioned earlier. adopted. According to this theory the most likely transmitters were the Turks; because based on the Finno-Ugric theories the Magyars Nagy Géza in 1890 (before solving the enigma of the originate from the Ural Mountains, and on their way to the ancient Turk writing) in one of his presentations based on formal Carpathian-Basin they could have not any other people who knew similarities, compared the Szekler writing to the ancient Turk this runic alphabet. writing. His followers based on the formal similarities and the left to right direction of writing assumed that the Szekler writing could In 1993 the book of Simon Péter, Szekeres István, and have derived from the ancient Turk writing. Sebestyén Gyula in the Varga Géza was published, titled the “Magyar Writing During the 1900’s identified that the direction of writing is due to the Bronze Age” (Bronzkori Magyar Irásbeliség, Budapest, technique used to write runes, and not an absolute characteristic of Irástörténeti Kutatóintézet). Simon Péter – based on a wide range of these writings – however his findings were disregarded by the studies – has concluded that Szekler writing was not originated Finno-Ugrist authors. based on writing history studies and facts, but was subordinated to false historic preconceptions. According to him the Szekler signs The ancient Turk derivation theory was explained in depth were “blessed” with the ancient religion’s hieroglyph signs, from within Nemeth Gyula’s study in 1934, titled “The Magyar Runic south of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, during the II. Millennium Writing” (A Magyar Rovásirás). From this it is obvious that the B.C. Szekeres István and Varga Géza compared the Szekler signs theory has no established foundation, since the basic audits have with many signs of “world/universe models” (logograms). Later it not been done. proved to be theoretically important, since the world models were originally the signs of the ancient religion of the Stone Age. With
  • 8. the cooperation of the three researchers, many Szekler signs’ alphabets” (Frig Kiadó, Budapest – Frig Publishing, Budapest) pictographic and meaning contents were cleared, and were able to writes about important aspects of writing – unfortunately not read reconstruct the continuity of acrophonics. Based on this it became by many people – and finds proof from the Ice Age and the evident, that the Szekler letters originate from Magyar logograms: following ages. Based on the signs he concludes that the writing the Szekler writing is the creation of the Magyars. was worked out for the Magyar (Hungarian) language. After the work was published, the followers of the ancient Turk derivation have acknowledged that the origin of the Szekler writing is unclear. Sándor Klára in 1996 (A Székely Irás Megiratlan Történetei, Erdélyi Múzeum – The Unwritten Stories of the Szekler Writing, Museum of Transylvania) have stated that academics do not know the Szekler writing, or do not know enough about it: “every basic question is unclear”. This however is only the viewpoint of the academic “scholarship”. Instead of the academic “scholars” who sabotage the research of the Szekler writing, it is the independent academic researchers who do the real research and come up with worthy accomplishments. Varga Géza in his book published in 1999 (A Székely Rovásirás Eredete, Budapest, Irástörténeti Kutatóintézet – Origins of the Szekler Runic Writing, Budapest) puts the origins of the Szekler writing in the Stone Age, due to the relation to the Mas d’Azil and Native American signs, and the purpose of the world model functionalities. “The Szekler writing’s sign forms are top and front variations of world models, and also derive from the symbolism of world models… The first usage of the signs was in the Ararat… in a wider sense they were used to decorate ritual utensils during the Ice Age… during the population of the new world the pre-Szekler writing was used in Eurasia… the Szekler writing is direct descendant of the earliest known, phonetic writings of humanity”. Varga Csaba in his book “Jel, jel, jel, avagy az ABC 30,000 éves története – Sign, sign, sign or the 30,000 year old history of
  • 9. 3. History of the Szekler Alphabet graves. The Tibetan and Native American mandala sand- dispersal technique has most likely developed from the The Szekler Alphabet’s origin is parallel with the Homo “writing” of the Paleolithic. Sapiens Sapiens’ inhabitation of Eurasia and America. Neolithic Paleolithic The people spreading out from the Middle East joined the groups earlier mentioned, and connected cultures. It is The first signs of the Szekler alphabet have already likely that during the beginning, the same or related writing existed during the coldest period of the ice age (approximately styles were used in Eurasia and in America. The explanation 50 000 years ago). The most important of these is the “f” (föld that can be given why the letters and signs have not changed is – Earth) sign. This sign is the map of the created and ordered due to the religious meanings of them, which did not allow world (the Eden surrounding the Ararat Mountains). The radical changes. Therefore the development of writing has kept reason why this sign can be found among many ethnic symbols the pre-Szekler alphabet in the form which was used for is because it was developed when the ancestors of these people religious ceremonies. lived in this Eden, what we could call a “common homeland” (100-50,000 years ago, during the period of interglacials). The oldest known archaeological finding, on which readable writing can be seen, is the 7,500 years old cow statue The antecedent of the Szekler alphabet was able to from Szentgyörgyvölgy. The statue is a model of the universe, spread to areas in Eurasia close to where the ice boundaries on which we can see how people imagined the world and God. ended, and to America. This can be prooved by the 20-20 On it the “szár – stem”, “sarok – corner”, “ég - sky”, “Ten” formal similarities between the signs of Mas d'Azil, signs by words are visible. These “sz”, “s”, “g” and “nt, tn” letters are Native Americans and the Szekler alphabet. also present in the today known Szekler alphabet, and have developed from these old writings. The beginnings of the phonetical Joma liturgy could be placed during the times at the end of the Paleolithic. It kept the The many times mentioned clay tablets from Tatárlaka name of the “ruler” of the Eden during the Paleolithic in the (Tataria) also contain letters which can be found in the Szekler North Eastern parts of Eurasia and America. With the help of alphabet, but many of them have foreign origin. According to the Szekler alphabet the text “Joma földje – Joma's Land” can Záhonyi András’ theory, the tablets are maps of the stars – be read and partially understood, the text which has survived in representing a view of the universe - and he is most likely right. Eurasian and American copies. It can also be added, that the reason why many of the letters/symbols are similar to ones of Sumerian origin, because The writing technique of the Paleolithic was the sand- the constellation representation was widely known and used dispersal, painting and the signs carved into stone by hitting it among many people. The design of the circular tablet matches with rocks. The okker, or sand-dispersal findings can be seen in the letter “f” (Föld – Earth) in the Szekler alphabet. This fact
  • 10. proves that the tablet from Tatárlaka represents a view of the universe. According to Chinese chronicles, the Chinese people learned how to write from the ancestors of the Huns. “Culture Letter from the Szekler alphabet also match other originates from the wise rulers of the beginnings, from whom written findings within the Carpathian-basin and surrounding the Xia Dynasty originates from, whom are ancestors of the areas, such as the ones from Tordos-Vincsa, Cucuteni, and Huns”. Evidence for this is the fact that relations with the Karanovo. Chinese and Chukch writings, Siberian cave drawings, and Scythian and Hun written findings are all in support of this The writing technologies from the Paleolithic – based Chinese chronicle. on archeological findings – also include carving into clay. Based on archaeological findings, the nomad people from the steppes knew and used the Szekler alphabet. The Metal-age Szekler alphabet used by Scythians, Huns, Avars, and Magyars was again present within the Carpathian-basin, where it was The metal works from the Metal Age made it possible known from earlier times as well. for the runic writing to develop, since stone knifes were most likely good for carving letters into wood. Due the technique Written findings by the Huns include the Joma liturgy used for writing, the shape of letters and the direction which of a Hun crown from Aluchajdengi; the Hun badge from they are written have also changed. Earlier writing was done Budapest, on which the word “North“(észak in Hungarian) can from left to right, that changed to right to left (in case of be seen written with Szekler letters. Around 531 A.D., during carving into wood). The old symbolic ligatures and painted the Oazis of Merv, the Holy Crown (Szent Korona) was made symbols/letters the original left to right writing direction was for the Huns, on which the script “great king: great land” can kept. An example of this is the writing on the bowl from be read written with the Joma liturgy. The Avars who lived Afrasijabi ( century). during the Magyar conquest of the century, made a nozzle with Szekler letters on it. It has survived the centuries, On the area of Eden, the knowledge of the pre-Szekler and was found in Bodrog-alsóbű. The golden bowls and other alphabet was kept for very long. Writings from this central area findings from Nagyszentmiklós are also made by the Avars. On from different ages are visibly related to the Szekler alphabet. these findings it is not the runes that can be identified with the This is why in many writing styles (Hittite hieroglyphs, Szekler writing, but the religious symbols and characters, hieroglyphs from Urartu, symbols from Tepe Vahjai, etc.) there which have not yet been analyzed accordingly and well are approximately 20-20 similar symbols, which in some cases enough. have similarities even in meaning and in sounding. The earliest The Huns and Avars used the pre-Szekler alphabet all historical resources remembered that this writing was over the Carpathian-basin, written in a syllabifying style. developed by ancestors of the Hungarians. According to Phoenician tradition, the Phoenicians got their writing from the Taautos – “tátos, táltos” in Hungarian, who are shamans. Age of the classical Szekler Alphabet
  • 11. The writing was kept alive by the Szeklers in Transylvania. Over time the syllabifying way of writing slowly became effaced, but not fully forgotten. However after King Attila's death there were still sentence and words signs being used. At the end of the period (during present times) the “modern users” of the Szekler alphabet garble its characteristics. Instead of the symbol orders of the Szekler alphabet the Latin order is being used; the sentence signs and logograms are also questionable; and there is a new rule regarding the usage of mirror images of letters. Today the original runic technologies have effaced, and have been taken over by writing on paper and using computer software. During the time of transitions – accordingly to what is used to write with and write on - paper, stone plates, and so on, the left to right direction of writing is being more commonly used. Two or three devotees of the “modern” usage – a group that spreads this popular fallacy – holds on to the right to left writing on paper. The potters and egg painters, who hold on to the old traditions, still use the left to right way of writing. The archaeological findings of the classical Szekler alphabet include the scripture from Alsószentmihály; the brick with Szekler writing on it from Székelyderzs; the scripture from Dálnok, Bögöz, Csík, Constantinople; the calendar of the Marsigli count; the alphabet from Nicholsburg; ceiling painting from Ènlaka.
  • 12. 4. The Szekler writing’s sign order and number of signs 13 syllabeles (enc, eck, encs, end, aty, ety, ak, unk, nj, emp, ek, - zt, st) The signs of the Szekler alphabet are not fully estimated At least 3 logograms (us quot;ősquot;/ancient,old/, ent quot;Tenquot;, engy - and summed up in an organized way. The full collection of signs of the Szekler alphabet represents a historical value. quot;nagyquot;/ great, big/). 1 sentence sign (tprus quot;tapar usquot; = quot;szabír ősquot; /”Sabir - The modern ( and century) writing styles with a few exception narrows writing down to letters. Users of writing ancestor”/). today do not know that the Szekler alphabet also contains sentence The Nicholsburg alphabet (is varied; besides letters also signs and logograms. The publications disregard the usage of word contains sentence signs and logograms) kept the order of the and sentence signs. Instead what is being used, are signs of thousands years old Szekler writing’s original order. Without different vowel harmonies, liturgies, and sometimes “mysterious separation, it contains both letters and signs of different vowel capita dictioniums” are mentioned. The authors mainly define the harmonies. This order is closely related to the Ugarit and Khazar Szekler writing as letter writing and its collection of signs are called writings’ sign orders – meaning it corresponds with the earliest ABC’s / alphabets. However, the facts oppose this. signs of Latinate characters, a representation of a 4,000 year old tradition. The letters mostly originate from the names of gods, or their traits and characteristics; their orders are assigned based on their contents within the ancient religion. This ranking is also present in the Chukch word-sign order, in which the “godly trios” can be identified in the beginning. This historical order of signs is only kept by the Nicholsburg alphabet; every other Szekler alphabet – with regard to its time’s academic discipline – follows the order of the Latin alphabet. Diagram 1. The Nicholsburg Alphabet The Nicholsburg alphabet The Nicholsburg alphabet which originates from the 1400’s, contains 46 signs. Out of these are: - 29 letters(a, b, c, cs, d, j, e, f, g, gy, h, i, l, ly, m, n, ny, o, p, r, zs, s, t, u, v, ö, ü, sz, z)
  • 13. Rudiment Thelegdi János in his academic description written in 1598, titled Rudiment, specifies 65 Szekler signs in the following chategorizations: - “The Szeklers of Transylvania (Erdély) have 32 letters”. (23 consonants and 9 vowels) - “The Szeklers have a few signs to shorten the text, which are annexed to the consonants and vowels. “ (He introduces 21 liturgies) - “There are also other annexations, where two consonants Diagram 2. Hand written Nicholsburg alphabet; kept the original sign order of the Szekler alphabet; it should be expanded, since there are no differentiated annex without a vowel.” (He introduces 9 liturgies) sign for the short and the long vowels “They also have few syllables which are similar to reptiles - based on their form. These are not formed by actual letters. These are called heads of words (capita dictionum) by the Szeklers.” (He introduces 3 signs) Thelegdi clearly states, that the Szekler writing contains not only letters, but syllable signs as well. Mentions a third group of signs - the capita dictionum - which are called syllable signs, however their word-sign characteristics can be seen. Thelegdi breaks up the order of Szekler signs, and categorizes the different types of signs into separate lists. The above mentioned two lists of signs differ – not explained in the current text – the Szekler sign lists are not identical. None of the lists of the Szekler signs contain all of the Szekler writing’s full Diagram 3. The signs of the Nicholsburg alphabet being compared to Ugarit, sign collection, and all of them somewhat differ from one and Etruscan, Latin, Khazar, Phoenician, Aramaic, Phlevi and Greek signs other.
  • 14. The number of signs The known number of the Szekler writing could be as many as 80-100 – which order of magnitude is a characteristic of syllable writings. The exact number of signs – for many reasons – however can not be defined easily. One reason is due to the option of ligature formations, which indicates the creation of further signs. Another reason is due to the picture like traits of signs. During the natural evolution of writing, the writing which has developed from picture-writing contains many forms that could be seen as usages of decoration. In the case of readable decorations it is only a question of decision, whether they are regarded as writing signs or not. Due to these reasons, in the storage rooms of museums, on the pages of books and on many objects there are a lot of signs which still need to be reviewed and taken into account.
  • 15. 5. The Szekler Letters These early alphabets do not differentiate between the “low” and “high” vowels, which is essential in order to write in Hungarian. Due to this, a reform has started, with the main reason In the past couple of centuries the usage of logograms and to differentiate between the “low” and “high” vowels. sentence signs have effaced compared to the usage of Szekler During the century (developed based on Magyar letters. Adorján’s initiation) Forrai Sándor and Libsich Győző put forward Today the users of the Szekler writing mostly use the a suggestion for the modern Szekler writing’s letter case. These Szekler letters. The poly-sound signs are only mentioned as modern letter cases have one sign from the long and one from the interesting examples. The usage of the poly-sound signs are only short vowels based on the older sign variations. Their decisions used in special cases, however these usages are becoming more were random, without any logical principal – due to which the common. above mentioned writer’s letter cases differed. The usage of folklore, symbols of reign and religious signs In 1996 the writer of this text also developed a letter case will be mentioned in more depth in a different chapter. (Diagram 3.), which differs in two ways from other modern letter cases. One way is that the long vowels are represented with longer signs, and short vowels are with short. Also the o, ó, ö, ő signs are similar to each other like in the Latin alphabet. These characteristics will enable the learning and usage of the alphabet to be easier. Diagram 1. The alphabet from Thelegdi’s Rudimenta – 1598 (right to left) Diagram 2. Anonymus alphabet from Marosvásárhely – 1753 (right to left)
  • 16. The modern alphabets are basically the same based on the number of signs and pronunciation, functional difference is on present in certain signs. The alphabet could be amended with the “dz”, “dzs” and the “closed e” sings, however this would not have any functional relevance. The existence of the “dz” and “dzs” sounds are disputed. Otherwise those sounds can be written with the signs made up of “d” + “z” and “d” + “zs”. The “closed e” is only used by a few while speaking, therefore the usage of the signs would only cause problems in usage for most people. None of the modern alphabets have had great effect on the Szeklers in Transylvania, who carry on the traditional way of writing inherited from their ancestors. The small differences among the alphabets do not interfere with the understanding of writing. Someone who knows one of the alphabets is also able to read the other ones and vice versa. Diag ram 3. The alphabet suggestion of Varga Géza in 1996
  • 17. 6. Capital and Lower Case Letters of the Szekler Alphabet Using capital and lower case letters are essential for the so called modern way of writing. There are many reasons for the usage of unknown capital and lower case letters for runic writing. Later on when writing runes was done on paper, there are examples of differentiating capital and lower case letters. There is a lower case “r” and also the capital “R”. These were differentiated by Bél Mátyás, by marking one as “r” and the other as “R”, and Szamosközi used capital letters as well. Diagram 2. Letter written by Szamosközi István; the capital letters are visibly written with a larger font (early 1600’s) Diagram 1. Sign case by Bél Mátyás, including the differentiation of capital and lower case “r” (Early 1700’s)
  • 18. The modern usage of writing also dictates the usage of capital letters. Since using the Latin alphabet, we got used to starting the sentence and certain words with a capital letter, which leads to a more precise and elaborate way of writing. Therefore, we should not exclude the usage of capital letters while writing with the Szekler runes. Instead, we should enable the usage of capital letters, which has been done so by people earlier. In the case of the letter “r”, the differentiation of “r” and ”R” could be done as learned from Bél Mátyás. With other letters, we have to follow the example of Szamosközi István, and simply writing letters with a larger font in case if it is a capital letter.
  • 19. 7. The Direction of Signs In conclusion of the above statements: there is no such rule which suggests the usage of mirror images of signs. The “rule” created by Hosszú Gábor and his followers can not be supported by In this section, what will be discussed is whether the mirror written traditions. Examples other than the text from image of Szekler signs could be used or not. Constantinople which have been written from left to right, all contradict their “rule” of using mirror images. The spreading of There is only one classical written document, in which the such false information to masses is a great mistake. mirror images of the signs were used: a text from Constantinople. The signs on this artifact differ from the most commonly used way The usage of mirror images could be done for ligatures or of writing, and it is written from left to right. It was written in a for aesthetic reasons, but there is no reason and need for it in the sultan’s court, by a Hungarian ambassador who has been held Unicode standard. hostage there. Németh Gyula has thought it was done as secret writing - he was right. Hosszú Gábor and his followers based on this extraordinary example which has been done for a “special” occasion, has made up a general rule – wrongfully - not considering the counter examples. According to this “rule” which does not have enough examples as support, suggest that the mirror image of signs should be used while writing from left to right. Libish Győző, Szakacs Gábor, and Friedrich Klára teach children according to this wrong theory, falsifying the real way of writing the Szekler runes. The early folk artifacts including the Joma liturgy, the logograms on the furnace tiles from Magyargyeromonostor, and the salt shaker from Sopronkőhida all include signs of which the mirror images have been used. These however were done so not because of the direction of writing, but because of the composition, symmetry, or creation of ligatures. Many artifacts include writing from left to right, however these are not mirror images of the signs. An example of this is the Avar ring in the Museum of Szolnok, the bowl from Alsopáhok and other classic Szekler artifacts.
  • 20. 8. The Szekler Logograms The following list of signs includes logograms from foreign origins, which has many reasons. For folk, ruling and religious symbols we constantly use many logograms and sentence signs from the Szekler alphabet, - These logograms enable the illustration of the continuum of however a regular person does not know much about these acrophonics logograms. - They also document that the Szekler writing’s symbols consist of old and widely used group of signs. In other Potters copy the designs and signs passed on to them from words: the pre-Szekler writing from the Stone Age had a potters of earlier times, while they have no understanding of their role in the creation of other alphabets. This statement is meaning, or they just simply make up new explanations based on proven by the list of acrophonics, which have unveiled folk etymology. concepts of the ancient religion through Hungarian words. - The logograms also prove that the group of Szekler signs The few satisfying exceptions – when the potters and other can not be narrowed down to the ones of the classical professionals have kept the explanations based on the ancient Szekler era of writing. Signs and hieroglyphs which ought religion – have an astonishing significance. The potters from to be only symbols for decoration should also be included. Vámbér and Vámfalu regard the Szekler “us” (ős - ancestor) The cross-over of signs tremendously continuous, and can logogram used by them as the folk alternative of Isten (us Ten -“ős- not be separated. Distinction of signs based on hieroglyphic Ten” - God) – just like the Hittite people did. There are also a few and decorational usage seems easy and rational, however exceptions that were always available for academics to find out this way of separation is eliminated due to their long and about, however their origin and meaning were never known. These understandable associations. examples include the “us” (ős) sign from the Nicholsburg alphabet, the writing of “egy usten” (one God) from Énlaka, and the It can not be expected that the Szekler writing will have Hungarian coat of arms. similar characteristics as other European writings, since this way of writing has a unique history and features. Understanding these The Szekler logograms below include the illustration for the concepts – for example the number of signs, their form and right continuity of acrophonics, during which the picture like logograms direction of writing – are essential to describe the parameters of the have formed into linear letters. Not all of these logograms are Szekler writing. included in this study, since that would extend the length in a great extent, and also not all of the studies with regard these logograms have been finished. These picture like signs represent matters about the ancient religion, which could be understood and read just like the linear variances – except they do not stand for certain sounds, but for words.
  • 21. The picture above includes the corner stone from Csencsó, World Tree from Velemér; and the “us” (ős) logogram from the plate from Asópáhok, keratinous horn, the “corner” logogram from Nicholsburg alphabet. the Hungarian Holy Crown, and the “s” letter from Énlaka from left Diagram 3. The “ős” logogram; the symbol of the Sun God on the Milky Way to right. during Christmas; according to the ancient religion, the Sun God is the father of nations Diagram 1. The “corner” logogram and the letter “s” represent the World Tree (tree that reaches up to the sky - based on Hungarian mythology), which also corresponds with the Szekler “sz” sign, (“sz” is pronounced as “s” in English) that looks like a branch, “szár” in Hungarian. The word “sarok” (corner) derives from the word “szár” and king “Og” mentioned in the Old Testament; similar to the symbol of Heracles, the father of the Scythians; represented on the corners of world models. The “Ten” logogram on a rock from Mas d’Azil; the cave drawing of “us Ten” from Siberia; the “Egy usten” (one God) ligature from Énlaka and the “Joma ten” ligature from Magyarszombatfa; and the “nt/tn” sign from the Marsigli and Nicholsburg alphabet all from left to right Diagram 4. The “Ten” logogram made up of “t” and “n” ligatures; the Earth’s The logogram of “egy” (one) on a logogram from Mas axis represented with the World Tree; during the Stone Age it was read as “Ten”; due to the changes in the tools used for writing runes and the fact that d’Azil; on the temple of Assur, on a Hun diadem, on the king’s the meaning of it based on the ancient religion was forgotten, therefore during robe, and on a flag from the era of the Árpád dynasty; and the letter the Christian ages it was read as “nt”; the Isten (ős Ten - God) during the Stone “gy” from the text “eGY AZ ISTEN” (God is one) from Énlaka, Age, for the Etruscans the word “Tin” meant the “main God”, in Chinese tien which is read as “egy” (one) from left to right. means “sky, god”, and in Sumerian tin means “life”. Diagram 2. The logogram of “egy” (one) and the Szekler “gy” (egy) sign; portrayal of the milky-way sign; the lines across represent the two eclipses during solstice; the symbol of the one year cycle of the Sun God. The treasures from Nagyszentmiklós, the Hun Holy Crown, The logogram of “ős” from Eastern Europe, published by design from the pouch found in Karos, ligature from Énlaka Pletyneva, on a metal plaque from Ural (III.-I. century B.C.); from a robe; from the ceramic signs of Vámfalu; from the design of the
  • 22. Diagram 5. The “Isten” (us Ten - God) logogram; the ligature is made up of the “us” and “Ten” signs; it resembles the Milky Way / World Tree, which was referred to as God according to the ancient religion. Hittite metal plaque, part of a Chinese tile, the Chinese lolo “sky” logogram and the letter “g” of the Szekler text from Énlaka Diagram 8. The “sky” logogram and a drawing of the World Tree The Holy Crown, the robe of the king, fresco from Martonhely, the logogram meaning “good” on a plate from Alsópáhok; and the Szekler “j” (jó-good) sign by Kajoni János and from the Nicholsburg alphabet Diagram 6. The “jó” (good) logogram and the Szekler “j” (jo-good) sign; the artist who painted the fresco in Martonhely during the 1300’s used these signs to refer to a river – the word “jó” has double meanings: good and river; the symbol of the Milky Way From the coat of arms of Otto Bajor Diagram 9. The “country” logogram; it can be found in the coat of arms of the Durer family (Hungarian origin), in which it represents Hungary; and can also be found in the Hungarian coat of arms; in Sumerian writing the three hills The Chinese “acclivity” (the road to high above), the Hun mean “country”. belt end from Csorna, the Avar saltshaker from Sopronkőhida, the silver bracelet of Ibrány from around the century, logograms on the king’s robe and on the furnace tile from Magyargyerőmonostor, the Szekler “m” (magas-high) sign by Bél Mátyás Diagram 7. The “magas” (high) logogram; this stair like mountain shapes The pre-Columbian coat pin from Chile, the Holy Crown, represent the road leading to high above. plate from Alsópáhok, plate from Magyarszombatfa, and the tile
  • 23. from Velemér with the “Earth” logogram on it and the “f” (Föld- Earth) sign based on the Nicholsburg alphabet Diagram 10. The “earth” logogram is the map of Eden; a reminder of the value and the place of creation The Avar ring from the museum of Szolnok; part of the text Drawing of Orion, the Chinese “father” sign, the robe, the Diagram 13. The Avar ring from Szolnok. The poem including the logograms Szekler “ty” (atya-father) sign by Kajoni and of the Nicholsburg “magas” (high), “ég” (sky), “kő” (stone) and “Föld” (Earth) can be read on the alphabet ring; „Magas ég(i) kő! Magas kő! Magas ég(i) kő! Magas kő! Magas ég(i) kő! Magas kő! Magas ég(i) kő föld(je)!”. In the text the linear version was used for Diagram 11. The “atya” (father) logogram and the “ty” Szekler sign; the the “magas” logogram, and “kő” logogram that was used is the one similar to simplistic representation of the Orion asterism the one known from the corner stone of Csencső. The direction of writing is left to right. The Egyptian Ra “Sun God” hieroglyph, Hittite “ru” syllable sign, Chinese “Sun” logogram, the “ra/gyogó/” (ragyogó - bright/shining in Hungarian) logogram on a plate from Alsópáhok; and the Szekler “r” from the Nicholsburg alphabet and the Thelegdi Rudiment. Diagram 12. The “ra/gyogó/” logogram and the letter “R” are the symbols of the Sun God.
  • 24. 9. The Szekler Sentence Signs The Szekler sentence signs are ligatures made up of logograms, similarly like the signs in the Chinese alphabet. The signs have developed over millenniums to their perfect forms, and have survived due to their meaning based on the ancient religion. Certain ones from the group of readable signs have been forgotten, while others are still commonly used, such as the one in the Hungarian coat of arms. Due to the 1500 years of Christian influence, the meanings of the signs which are still being used today are not commonly known. With the help of Szekler letters, these signs can be read and understood. Portion of a ruling cave text from Tusnád (V-VIth century); design from an Eastern European finding (VIII-X-th century) Diagram 2. Two variances of the “sarok Isten – corner God” sentence signs; the symbol of the Milky Way; variances of the ligatures made up of the “sarok” (corner), “ős” and “Ten” logograms; the version from the steppes is made up of the “szár”, “Og” and “Isten” logograms; the symbol of King Og – Heracles in Greek, the ancestor of the Scythians; it resembles the legitimacy of the Hun- Szekler-Magyar dynasty’s ruling power based on the origins of the ancient religion Cave drawing from Siberia (1500 B.C.), Hungarian pouch design from the century Diagram 1. The “Isten” (God) sentence sign: the symbol of the Milky Way (the sky reaching tree); ligature made up of the “us” and “Ten” logograms
  • 25. Artifacts from Eastern Europe by Pletyneva ( century); design on the Hungarian scepter Diagram 4. The “God of the sky” sentence sign; ligature made up of the “Egy”, “us” and “Ten” logograms; includes the World Tree supporting the sky from below; the middle text could be read as “sarokisten” (“corner-god”), however it was most likely read as “szár Og Isten” or “Szár Égisten” (“Szár, God of the sky) Ligature form the Unitarian church of Énlaka Diagram 3. The “Egy Isten” (one God) logogram; the ligature made up of the “Egy”, “us” and “Ten” logograms; the sentence sign portrays the sky reaching tree on these world models – resembling God – that is why they were put on the corners Middle of the plate from Alsópáhok Diagram 5. The “jó Ra/gyogó/ Isten” (the good /and shining/ God) sentence sign; the ligature made up of the “Ra(gyogó)” and “Isten” logograms; the
  • 26. highlighted sign of “Ra(gyogó)” is the symbol of the Egyptian Sun god, sign of the Chinese “Sun” logogram, related to the Hittite “ru” syllable sign and alike with the Szekler “R” letter The Hungarian coat of arms with the double cross (Ottó Bajor) Brick from Székelyderzs Diagram 7. The “Egy ország” (one country) sentence sign; part of the Hungarian coat of arms from the Hun ages; ligature made up of “Egy” (one) Diagram 6. The text written on the brick: “Miklós, Du ten papp(j)aquot; ( Miklos, and “ország”; symbolizes the pole that leads to the sky (heaven) above; based priest of Du ten) – text on top; in the middle it has the “Du ten” sentence sign on the pantheist ancient religion, the double cross is identical with God, and the (bottom); this sentence sign is a ligature made up of “Ten” and the “Du” triple hills are representing the surroundings of God (in this case Hungary) logograms
  • 27. Robe Diagram 8. Sentence sign of “Ten ország(a)” (Country of Ten); ligature consisting of “Ten” and “ország” logograms Ceramic from Anasaz, painted Csángó Easter egg Diagram 9. The sentence sign of “Joma Föld(je)” (land of Joma); symbolizing the Milky Way and the centre of the Earth; ligature made up of the “jó” (good), “magas” (high) and “Föld” (Earth) logograms; identical with the sign of the Milky way from the Stone Age representing God, and the world created by God
  • 28. Diagram 11. The “Joma ten” sentence sign; symbolization of the Milky Way (the sky reaching tree); ligature made up of the “jó”, “ma”, and “ten” logograms Bowl from Afrasiab Diagram 10. The “Joma szár föld(je)” logogram Hungarian pouch from Tiszabezdéd – century (top); symbolizes the crack in the Milky Way during Christmas with the Plate from Magyarszombatfa
  • 29. sign of God in it; ligature consisting of “ős” (ancestor) and the Szekler “D” (Du) sign – the Du god name is the equivalent of Dana and Ten. End of a Hun belt Diagram 14. The “ős ég” sentence sign from a Hun buckle Diagram 13. The “ős Egy” sentence sign from a Hun belt; symbol of the Milky Way; ligature made up of “ős” (ancestor) and “Egy” (one) logograms
  • 30. 10. Szekler Ligatures Ligatures from Burgenland (Magyarszombatfa); Afrasiyabi; It is an important characteristic of the Szekler writing that Obi-Ugor; Hun (Aluchaydeng, China); Native Amercian (Anasazi) during its known history, it has always included ligatures – signs “joma” ligature; the Szekler “j” (by Thelegdi János) and the letter put together into one. “m” (by Bél Mátyás) According to certain explanations, the Szeklers have Diagram 1. Joma ligatures from Burgenland to the Americas developed these ligatures in order to save time and space while The first ligatures were developed since pictography during writing. This however, as we will see later on, is only part of the the Stone Age was not able to record abstract concepts and certain reason. Facts do not support the assumptions of Püspöki Nagy grammatical elements. The creators and users of writing had two Péter, in which he states that the Szekler ligatures were made due to options if they wanted to record certain things that included the influence of ligatures consisting of Latin letters. These Szekler something they were not able to represent with pictographs: either ligatures regarded by many as ones consisting of letters, without the montage technique or the writing using of letters. The Chinese any real meaning, however these assumptions are also false. writing due to linguistic reason took the first path, while the Latinate writing the second. If the Szekler writing includes both of These are common mistakes, like many other theories about these with great amount of examples, it means that the Szekler the Szekler writing, which are all made up without knowing the writing was created during this time (Stone Age), while this was an origins of this writing. open question. The origins of the Szekler ligatures date much earlier, and its compositions have many reasons. It is enough to understand this, by just simply comparing the Scythian, Hun, Avar and Szekler ligatures with the Eastern (i.e.: Chinese) montage techniques. These techniques pre-date the similar occurrences if ligatures composed of Latin letters, and they even pre-date the Latin letters itself. The Szekler ligatures – with Scythian, Hun and Avar influences – represent Eastern traditions, and that is why the “Joma” ligatures for example could be followed and traced back in time from Burgenland (Őrség), through the Diagram 2. The “ba” type ligatures by Thelegdi Turanian plains to China, and even to the Americas.
  • 31. Diagram 3. The “bb” type ligatures by Thelegdi Certain ligatures are included in the historic (Nicholsburg) list of Szekler signs. The ligatures that are included in this writing are really old, like the “nt/tn” (Ten) ligature known from the Stone Age. Similar examples can be found in old Persian cuneiforms, which evolved from the local linear writing. In this writing besides the syllables, god Ahuramazda has a special sign. This Persian example corresponds with the Szekler “Isten” (God) logogram (composed of the “us” and “ten” signs) in the Nicholsburg alphabet, which according to “academics” have not been used during the classical Szekler era. Diagram 4. Comparison of Szekler and ancient Turk ligatures; certain ligatures Other examples of ligatures can be found by Thelegdi have similar or corresponding pronunciations, however their forms are János, Kajoni János, and Bel Mátyás, however these rarely different; this indicates that a semantic relation connects them – maybe the correspond with each other, or with their most likely equivalents in meaning in the ancient religion? Turk writing. None of these ligature lists could be regarded complete, since not every possible syllable has a sign. This The mistaken aspiration can be felt which aim to make the indicates that during the history of writing, the ligatures did not ligature assortment complete. Putting together such a list of have a constant assortment, only the creation of ligatures has been ligatures for a Unicode standard would not make sense, since these passed on from generation to generation – besides the most ligatures are rarely or not even used at all while writing everyday commonly used and most important ligatures. texts. According to our standpoint, the aim to create a list for writing that enables the usage of ligatures with a complete set (like the one by Michael Everson and Hosszú Gábor) are false and mistaken in their basics. It is unnecessary and maybe even impossible to create such a set of ligatures that enable writing texts in Hungarian. A clear and concise example of such writing using
  • 32. ligatures can not be found during the history of writing. The By this we do not say that the inclusion of ligatures is development and teaching/popularization of such writing would not complete, since the set of ligatures were never completed. Later on be easy either. For the characteristics of the Hungarian language, however, if there is a need, other ligatures will be added to the set. the most precise way of writing texts is by using letters. This is why the Szekler writing has a great and concise case of letters, but an incomplete and not corresponding group of ligatures. During the classical Szekler era certain words from the ancient religion, and also sentence signs making up ligatures that enabled the recording of suffixes, postfixes, and certain words were used – however a complete set was unlikely created. We do not need these, because we do not use them whatsoever. For the proposal for a Unicode standard, we can not consider the usage of ligatures while teaching children how to write (which usually tend to be on either wood or paper), based on artistic usages and “selfish games” of academics. Children have to be taught these ligatures, however this does not mean that a standard for computer users should include all the ligatures. The composition of a complete set of ligatures is for the academics, or the purpose of artistic fields, but not for such a standard composition. In the standard, only the most important ligatures should be included: - The Nicholsburg alphabet should be included in the fundamental characters within the Unicode standard, including its ligatures. - The secondary set of characters should include the ligatures by Thelegdi and certain other important ligatures, such as the “Joma”, “Egy orszag” (one country), “Isten” (God), and “sarokisten” (corner-god). The reasons for these include their importance based on the ancient religion, and their traditional usage in Szekler writing. Diagram 3. Table of ligatures known by Németh Gyula based on known artifacts; as many authors there are, as many sets exist
  • 33. 11. The Expanded Nicholsburg Sign Case that the polyphony of the Szekler writing will be forgotten and thrown away. There are modern examples, where beautiful, The Nicholsburg alphabet kept the original sign case of the sometimes pictographically composed, polyphonic signs are being Szekler alphabet, however there are no distinct signs for the short used. These examples can be found among important ceremonial and long vowels, therefore the expanding of the signs are applications. An example of this is the “One God” (Egy Isten) necessary. ligature from Énlaka, that can not be understood without the “nt/tn” (Ten) and “us” (ős – ancestor) ligatures of the Nicholsburg The suggested case of signs has two purposes: alphabet. If the following generations are not taught these hieroglyphs, it will result in less and poorer ceremonial writings for First and foremost it keeps the historic order of signs of the our temples and less people will understand – read – the messages Nicholsburg alphabet in its original form. The Nicholsburg sign of our ancestors on archeological artifacts. The “modern usage” of order and case is given so much significance, since its most writing can not set constraints for the Szekler writing and make its important signs follow each other mostly the same way like the anticipation poorer, just so it can be learned more easily. Also, it signs of the Khazar, or the Ugarit cunic alphabet. The Nicholsburg can not be a requirement for the writing to be very similar to the alphabet keeps the thousands year old legacy of sign orders, that Latin alphabet. has to be emphasized and kept for the Unicode standard. The standard has to communicate the original order of Szekler signs for The purpose has a double objective: the modern usage has the people getting familiar with it, if the technical possibilities to be aligned with the conventionality and legacy of the writing. allow this. The other sign orders are nothing but a collection of These purposes – in opposition with certain views – do not signs representing the Szekler alphabet based on the order of the eliminate each other. Among the Nicholsburg signs the Latin alphabet. In case the Unicode standard will be used for the monophonic signs (letters) of the Szekler alphabet are present, Szekler alphabets representation – if technical possibilities allow which is needed for the “modern usage”. The Nicholsburg signs this – it has to be avoided that the Szekler letters are shown in the however have to be expanded with the signs in order to differentiate order of the Latin alphabet. the long and short vowels. In certain cases the signs of the Nicholsburg alphabet have to be changed to the ones being The other intention of the proposed sign order is the support commonly used – for example instead of the “gy” sign of the of usage for the Szekler writing today. Generally – based on false Nicholsburg alphabet, the double-cross has to be used, since that is assumptions – people think that for writing with the Szekler the commonly used sign. alphabet all that are being used today are letters. For example it is true that it is easier to teach children how to write with the Szekler The sign case proposed has to be differentiated from the letters, if the letters being taught are the equivalents of the Latin actual, full sign corpus – this however is a separate objective and alphabet. However, this is not the full and right way of modern duty, not part of this Unicode proposal. usage of the Szekler alphabet. It is because this way what the children being taught is a portion of the alphabet, a distorted and constricted, Latinized version of the Szekler writing. The care for children (or the misunderstanding of modern usage) does not mean
  • 34. Diagram 1. The expanded Nicholsburg sign case of the Szekler alphabet
  • 35. 12. The Direction of Writing of writing. This way it can be seen that the direction of writing is the aftermath of the technical development of writing, which has to When debates escalate countrywide about which direction alter due to the technical changes. For example the writing the signs should be written, the distinction has to be made when to technique using wood – which has been identified by Sebestyén write left to right, and when right to left. Gyula – corresponds with the right to left way of writing. Therefore, for the suggested direction of writing the writing The direction of writing usually does not depend on the techniques and its changes have to be examined. national identity of its users. Also, it can not be said that certain writing only has one direction which it is written in: since we there The Szekler writing’s direction during the Stone Age – due are examples for certain way of writings in which there are more to the sand scattering, cave drawings and painting – was left to ways for the direction of writing. This is very true for such writing right. This can be ascertained based on the Joma ligatures from the that has been used for thousands of years – such as the Szekler Stone Age. writing. For this way of writing there are examples in which the direction of writing is left to right, vertical, circular or right to left. Diagram 1. Text from Constantinople, which was written as a secret document, therefore the direction of writing is left to right, and the letters are also mirrored – it is not such a text that is a good representation/illustration of the direction of writing and how the mirroring of letters should be done; this is the only text found which has the writing direction left to right, with mirrored signs Regardless of the above mentioned text, it is commonly thought that the direction of Szekler writing is right to left. What lead to this mistaken theory is the neglect of studies, and the military occupations which lead to purposely falsifying the history of Hungarians. Academics are unable to agree upon the direction of writing – since they do not know the history of Szekler writing. The history of Szekler writing can not be narrowed down to a short period, which is only a part of the whole development of this writing. The history of the writings development has to be Diagram 2. The Afrasiabi bowl’s ( century) direction of writing is left understood, which happened throughout the evolution of this way to right, without mirroring the signs
  • 36. Diagram 3. Zakariás János’ (Jesuit priest) letter from 1756; containing Latin During the Iron Age the usage of knife enabled runic words written with runic letters from left to right, without using the mirror writing, due to which the direction of the Szekler writing has images of signs partially changed: the direction of runes made on wood became right to left; and the painted artifacts remained using the left to right direction. During the era of the classical Szekler writing, due to the This classical usage was kept in the journals of the runic technology the right to left direction of writing was the academics of the time. However, these only informed about the commonly used way. usage of runes and the following transition time, including only the daily usages of writing. Artists who painted on furniture and ceramists have used the original left to right direction for writing. Egg painters and ceramists also used the circular way of writing, and carpenters who made grave-markers wrote vertically. These were mostly thought by academics to be only decorations, and did not give much attention to them. This lead to the creation of false theories, therefore their observations can not be generalized to the Szekler writing as a whole. The Hungarian language has kept the certainty, that our writing was originally a pictographic writing – for example the Hungarian “irás” (writing) word has both meaning of “wririntg” and “drawing/painsting”. Due to this, the Szekler writing can not be narrowed down to the linear, everyday usage. Similarly, we can not conclude anything about the direction of writing based on the classical (runic – when letters were carved) Szekler writing. During the classical era of the Szekler writing, it can be seen that while the carving of runes into wood somewhat faded, and was not as commonly used, and writing on paper became more and more common using the left to right direction of writing (just like in the history of Latin and Greek writings).
  • 37. writing is left to right. This group propagates that the Szekler writing should be first and foremost written from right to left, without any support to this. This is only true for cases when the writing is being done on wood and using runic techniques. Forcing writing done on paper and on computer to be right to left is a fatal misunderstanding, which evolved from not understanding the development of writing. Diagram 4. Plate from Alsópáhok with the “jó Ra(gyogó) Isten” (good, shining God) text from left to right, without using the mirror images of signs During the era of modern usage, the left to write writings are created in large numbers. For example, Csete Ildikó’s writing on a flag in a church in Ópusztaszer, or the statue of the homecoming Hungarians includes a text from left to right. Within the commonly used word processing files, the runic letters are also written from left to right. There is no reason for us to avoid such a natural evolution of writing artificially – by that, the Szekler writing would be “unnatural”, and harder to use. The group consisting of Hosszú Gábor, Libisch Győző, Szakács Gábor and Friedrich Klára, does not know the history of Szekler writing. There are many examples which prove that they Diagram 5. The Hun emblem ( century) found in Budapest with “észak” (North) written on it from left to right, without mirroring the signs purposely eliminate findings and theories that go against their ideology. Libisch Győző for example purposely left out a Hun emblem from a collection of runic artifacts, because its direction of
  • 38. The Unicode standard – for printed text – for computers and writing done on paper; therefore for the Unicode standard only the left to right direction of writing is appropriate, the other direction is pointless and only makes it harder to write. Diagram 6. The ring from Békéscsaba ( cenrury) with text from left to right, without mirroring its images
  • 39. 13. Variations of the Szekler Writing The Szekler letters can be used in a variation of ways, enabling rich expressionism. It not only records thoughts with the help of letters, but represents deep meaning with regard the ancient religion. The Joma ligature for example not only kept the name of God Joma, but it also informs and makes reference through the pictographic meaning of signs that the Joma ligature is identical to the road leading to the sky above – the Milky Way. While the name of a god can also be read out of the sign it can be said that: other meanings represented by the signs can not be stated, or at least not too concisely. The meaning of signs will remain unknown to the reader, unless the reader knows about the ancient religion. The opposite is also possible: due to the pictographic meaning of signs it is not even realized that they could actually be read – for example logograms from the fresco in Martonhely with “river” meaning. Due to these alterations, the recording of characteristics of the Szekler writing is complicated. On the other hand, a writing that had developed naturally – ones including signs that show the transition from pictographic signs into modern letters – could be regarded ordinary. Diagram 1. The diagram above illustrates the rich expressionism enabled by the Szekler alphabet; each line records the words “Egy Isten” (one God) in different ways
  • 40. - Based on literature, the text could be a “universe model”; symbol of reign or ancient religion; memoir; alphabet; border-stone; letter etc. It can be said with regards to the artifacts found, that with this type of writing many religious, geographic, economic and historic events have been recorded. - Based on the type of sign: it could be a sentence sign, logogram, syllable sign, or a letter. - Based on graphic sign creation, it could be an elemental pictograph, or a ligature created by them. - The creation of ligatures is a characteristic of Eastern (i.e.: Chinese) montage techniques. - Due to ceremonial reasons, the Szekler signs are used in combination with other signs of different writings – for example on the artifacts from Nagyszentmiklós. This usage has developed due to the strong ancient religious meanings of Szekler signs. Just like how the Egyptian hieroglyph writing was also used for ceremonial occasions besides the hieratic and demotic writings. - The hieroglyph usage has ancient religious significance, where in certain cases it includes picture like sentence signs or logograms. Its opposite is the writing of letters. - Within the writings with letters we can differentiate the ones including words written out fully and ones using apopohony. The ones using apophony does not record vowels, or at least not always.
  • 41. 14. Interpunctuation desire for layered expressionism has changed the characters of writing. Among the old writings interpunctuation was not as important as for modern writings. The interpunctuation for the Szekler writing and other runic writings only included disjunctive signs, but the usage of these signs was not common. Maybe the fact that writing was done on wood did not enable the development of characteristics for interpunctuation. On the other hand, the usage of printing-press and its neutrality towards the form of signs actually helped the usage of interpunctutation. Due to this, the Szekler writing does not have its own, and developed interpunctutation. In this case, there are three options to choose from. - The Szekler writing will be used without the usage of interpunctutation, and it will be accepted that the Szekler writing (due to its form) will not elaborately present every thought recorded. - Its own interpunctuation signs will be developed, while also keeping the old disjunctive signs. However, this would be a complicated and unnecessary option. - The interpunctuation of the Latin writing commonly known by people would be used. This option seems to be most likely accepted for the Szekler writing, and it is the most commonly used form used for writing today. Writings during historic times adopted the internationally Diagram 1. The copy of the text from Csik in Marosvásárhely using used customs of writing, if it was usable. Therefore, we should not interpunctuation do otherwise with regards interpunctuation. The change is related to the spread of writing to the masses, Due to this reason, the interpunctuation for the Szekler and also due to the rising requirements of actuaries and writers. The writing uses the commonly used signs for Latinate writing. This usage should continue and made stronger.
  • 42. 15. Numbers The other reason is that the runic numbers are not coherent with the Szekler writing, at least this similarity is not proven at this time. There is somewhat of a parallel – certain runic numbers are The runic numbers – with a few exceptions – are not being used. identical to runic letters, and can be understood based on this – however this level of coherency can be found with many other Once the runic numbers had a significant function, which writings. When the standard for Szekler writing is being created, we can learn about from the studies of Sebestyén Gyula. The the runic numbers should definitely not be included. Hungarian runic numbers are similar to Latin and Etruscan numbers – but the Etruscans are closer. This is the sign resembling the It is a secondary circumstance that there is no generally ancient cultural similarity between Etruscans and Hungarians. The accepted agreement how certain runic numbers should be written. Hungarian runic numbers most likely were developed when For example the suggestion by Everson and Szép includes the Hungarians were in a close relationship with Etruscans, during number 3000 written incorrectly by the authors. Correctly it should times when Romans have not even existed. only include three star-like signs. For this reason, the Hungarian runic numbers should be learned and known by Hungarians. However, this respect for the runic numbers should not keep us back from concluding that the times of runic numbers have passed, and are not useful for everyday usage. Just like how European and other numeric systems have adopted the Arabic numbers, the Hungarian runic numbers will be put aside on the shelves of museums as well. When the Unicode standard is being created, it should not include the runic numbers. There are two reasons for this. One reason has been stated above, which is the fact that it can not be used for calculation that easily, therefore can not been used commonly. The sheppards most likely got along well with the usage of runic numbers on their tallies, however this does not mean that the runic numbers should be included in the Unicode standard. Just like how the runic numbers being used on the “homecoming” statue in Körmend should not reason otherwise. Those numbers did not require a Unicode standard, just a hammer and a burin. If the Unicode standard should only consist of widely accepted and used writings, the Hungarian runic numbers should not be included.
  • 43. 16. Runic Artifacts from the Stone Age The created and ordered Eden’s map with the four rivers, The pre-Szekler signs and its parallels with the ones from four places, four seas and four cardinal points; Cree mandala; the Stone Age are so significant, that it can not be disregarded World model of a Swechati Avar jewelry; Chinese “Earth” while defining the origin of this writing. logogram; Szekler “f” (Föld – Earth) sign Based on the mathematic researches carried out - Diagram 1. The “Earth” logogram refers to the times (50-40 thousand years ago), during which modern humans lived (in the middle of Eurasia and the probability calculations – it can be concluded that random and Middle-East) before they spread out; the Szekler “F” (Föld-Earth) is similar to accidental similarities can not be present among these signs, these the “Earth” sign of astrologists and the “Earth” logogram of Chinese writing, coherences could only be due to genetic connections. This due to the identical symbol originating from the Stone Age (Map of Eden) explanation is given by the reconstruction of acrophonics and the meaning of them based on the ancient religion. Acrophonics is the process in which letters are developed from logograms; due to which the letter represents the words first sound, or the first consonant. The reconstruction of acrophonics helped to realize that the signs were originally symbols of the ancient religion, out of which the Szekler writing developed. Based on acrophonics and the readable signs from the early ages it can be concluded that this type of writing was developed by Hungarians. The pre-Szekler writing used logograms during the Stone Anasazi Bowl, Native American clay model, Chinese Hun ligature, Age, but the words only had one syllable, therefore this type of Csángo (group of Hungarians) painted egg writing could even be regarded as syllable writing. Based on the Joma ligatures – since the writings during the early ages did not Diagram 2. The “Joma’s land” text on a pre-Columbian plate; Native American have signs for vowels – it could also be considered an early clay model’s “Joma” ligature; “Joma” ligature on the Hun crown found in consonant writing. These characteristics of this writing barely Alchuydeng (China); “Joma’s land” text on a csángo-magyar painted egg; the changed over its history, and today we find the same composition parallels of the Szekler “j” (jó-good), “m” (magas-high), and “f” (Föld-Earth) signs; god “Joma” readable text written with Hungarian words; the parallels of writing. Artifacts from later times do include vowel signs at suggest that the Native Americans brought the pre-Szekler writing with certain times, however these were withheld and rarely used due to themselves from Siberia to the Americas sometime during the Stone Age – the aphophonic customs. 40-12 thousand years ago.
  • 44. Diagram 4. The 7500 year old cow statue from Szentgyörgyvölgy with a world model including the “szár” (stem), “ég” (sky), “sarok” (corner), and “Ten” logograms; made up of the Szekler “sz” (szár), “g” (ég), “s” (sarok) and “nt/tn” (Ten) signs Diagram 3. Rocks from Mas d’Azil (Pyrenees, 20-10 000 year old cave artifact) with 18 Szekler sign parallels Diagram 5. The Cucuteni culture’s coherent signs with the Szekler letters
  • 45. Diagram 6. The Karanovo culture’s artifacts including the Szekler “sz” (szár), “s” (sarok – corner), “r” (ragyogó ? – bright/shining), “m” (magas – high), and “d” (Du) signs.
  • 46. 17. Artifacts from the Metal Age The forbearer of the Szekler writing has been widely used during the Bronze and Iron Age. Its signs were known from North and South of the Caucasus. Hittite metal palette with the image of the double-cross like tree holding up the sky; pictograph of the Urartu hieroglyph writing; The cup from Tiszalök and the Paziriki carpet coherent sign Hurrite stamp role with double cross like World Tree with the including the “high” logogram and the “Joma” ligature Moon and Sun; Hurrite style relief from the Assur temple’s well with a double-cross like god figure; the Sumer “prince” and Diagram 2. Scythian “magas jó kő” (the good high/tall rock) and “magas Joma Chinese “king” logograms kő” (high/tall Joma rock) ligature that can be read from left to right Diagram 1. The double-cross like World Tree originating from the Middle East, which has been reserved in the Magyar coat of arms, and the Szekler alphabet’s “gy” (egy – one) sign; the World Tree including the Sun and Moon is usually thought to be of Ural-Altai origin; the Magyar ancient religion regarded the sky reaching World Tree as God; the double-cross on the Magyar coat of arms was the symbol of the king’s primacy (originating from skies) The Scythian disk from Ottlaka (with alike images of the Szekler “f”, “ly”, “gy”, ó”, and „t” signs); Scythian disk from Kelemes (with alike images of the Szekler “f” and “ak” signs); Armenian bowl from the Parthian ages, in Armavir (with parallels of the Szekler “m” and “ty” signs) Diagram 3. Scythian (Parthian) artifacts with coherent signs of the pre-Szekler writing
  • 47. Scythian stele from the Minusink region with corresponding signs of the Szekler alphabet; the Szekler „b”, „üquot; és „ly” sign (by Thelegdi János, from Székelydalya and by Bél Mátyás) Diagram 5. Herodotus has recorded the name Oitosuros, the God of Sun based on the beliefs of Scythians. It corresponds with the Sumerian “Utu Sar” (king of time) and the Hungarian “Idő/Udő Úr” (lord of time); the Szekler “u” sign Crimean Scythian crown with the “Isten” (Ős-Ten / God) (udő/idő) resembles the Sun with is rays – based on this, the diagram on the logogram; the “ős” and “ten” logograms from the crown and stele is likely to be the sign of Oitosur, the Scythian deity; the “ly” resembles the Sun in the form of a hole (well, fountain); the “b” sign is the middle (belső the Szekler alphabet of Nicholsburg. – middle in Hungarian) of the world, identical to the symbol of God’s son Diagram 4. The “Isten” (God) logogram; Magyar linguistic artifact from the time of the Scythians Permi jewelry with the “Föld” (Earth) logogram; bear idol from the Ural mountains – parallel to the World View model of the Cow statue from Szentgyörgyvölgy – including the “jó” (good) and “ég” (sky) logograms; emblem from the Ural with the “magas” (high/tall) logogram; turul (hawk) from the Ural and anthropomorphic metal idol with the “ős” (ancestor) logogram; Obi-Ugric bark bowl the “Joma” ligature
  • 48. 18. The Classical Era of Szekler Artifacts misunderstandings about the Szekler writing that are generally accepted among “academics” and ordinary people. The classical era of Szekler artifacts can be associated from the times of Attila’s death until the end of 1800’s. The classical era of the Szekler writing ended when it became part of the general education. This was due to the spread of During the beginning of the era (in the Hun-Avar, and printed media and education from the 1800’s; and also the Trianon “homecoming” periods – when the Magyar tribes lead by Árpád dictate that dismembered the Hungarian nation and caused a trauma came to the Carpathian-basin; century) the Szekler writing in the nation as a whole, which somewhat enforced people to was likely known by the leaders, academics and master craftsmen appreciate and pass on the culture. of the time. At the times of religious changes (from 400’s until the end of the century) the Szekler writing kept fading away and it became to be used by only the Szeklers who followed Hun traditions. Among the Szeklers the Christianity of Hun origins (Nestoranian) was able to survive and this ancient writing was used during religious ceremonies throughout 600-800 A.D. Due to the continuity of the Hun-Szekler Christianity, the Szekler clergy was among the main groups who kept the writing alive. This is how the known artifacts were able to survive in Szekler temples. After Christianity took over and became the religion in Hungary, from the end of the 1200’s this type of writing (used as everyday, general writing) was first and foremost used by the Picture of a stone; the “sarokisten” ligature and the ruling tamga Szeklers in Transylvania. Among other Hungarians it was kept as symbol part of folk symbolism (i.e.: used on ceramics) for ceremonial usages, but it was eliminated from everyday usage due to the Diagram 1. Ruling symbol from Tusnád; the World Tree (Milky Way) Latinate writing. Due to chronicles, and also to the works of represented by a ligature of a kingdom’s symbol, which originates from godlike Thelegdi János, Bél Mátyás and others the writing was always ancestors (King Og, Heracles); tamga representing the Orion constellation, a known that the Szeklers used this writing, however this knowledge variation of the Hun dynasty’s national symbol; the two signs together make up was not regarded by all academics. In the 1800’s, the Funno- the ruling symbol of the Szeklers after they went to Erdély (Transylvania) after King Attila has died ( century) Ugorist Hunfalvy – regardless of the known artifacts and the writing from Énlaka – he questioned the existence and originality of the Szekler writing. This misconception gave base to the distorted observation of the Finno-Ugric point of view, and the
  • 49. Diagram 4. Text from Vargyas ( century?) Text 1 (left); synoptic diagram (middle); text 3 (right) Diagram 2. Rock with engraved text from Szertő-tető ( century) Diagram 5. The ring from Békéscsaba, and part of the text written from left to right ( century) Picture of the rock (From Szász Tibor András); the text includes the “sarok” (corner) and “kő” (rock) logograms Diagram 3. Cornerstone from Csencső; the engraved text on the rock not only includes logograms, but the maps of the surrounding area (the rivers) according to Szász Tibor András ( century?) Diagram 6. Text from Alsószentmihály (XI-XIVth century?)
  • 50. Diagram 7. Text from Homorodkarácsonyfalva (1495) Diagram 9. Copy of the Csikszentmiklós text (1501) from Marosvásárhely (1751) Diagram 8. The Nicholsburg alphabet from 1483; most likely written in the king’s court at Buda
  • 51. Diagram 11. Silver cup from Torontál County, including symbols of the Milky Way and logograms; the river diagrams include the Szekler “ü” (ügy “folio” – river) sign; the crevice of the Milky Way diagram makes up the “us” (ős – ancestor), the “ly” (lyuk-hole) and the “r” (ragyogó – glowing) signs; based on the studies of Kőhalmi Katalin about the Siberian myths, the Sun is the fountain of the river that represents life (1500’s ?) Diagram 10. Text from Dalnok (1526) Diagram 12. Page from the Rudiment (1598)
  • 52. Diagram 13. Kajoni János’ – Ninorite monk – original alphabet including an example (1673) Diagram 14. Bél Mátyás’ Hun-Scythian sign collection (1718)
  • 53. Diagram 15. Text from Bögöz (around 1500 A.D.) Diagram 17. “God is one” text from Énlaka and the “one God” hieroglyph corner-ligatures from 1668; their coherence leads to the acceptance that Szekler logograms do exist; the corner-ligatures made up of logograms was made by Muzsnai György, who also wrote the text with letters; since both of these texts include the same Unitarian views, it is hard to believe that the painter did not know the meaning of the ligatures; this certifies that the Szeklers used letters and hieroglyph sentence signs at the same time Diagram 16. Text from Moldvabánya (1400’s ?) Diagram 18. Ninorite text – “magjarok alphabetuma” (alphabet of the Magyars) – (1600’s ?)
  • 54. Diagram 19. A page from the runic text written by the Count of Marsigli (1690)
  • 55. 19. Artifacts from the Hun, Avar and Homecoming Eras Based on the artifacts that have survived, the Huns and Avars used the Szekler alphabet’s logograms, ligatures and letters – to record text of Hungarian language. The Hun-Avar-Magyar writing has been continuous to this day. An example of this is the Holy Crown that was originally made for the Huns, including signs and symbols. The symbols built into the crown can not be read continuously, based on the way we read today. The symbols on the crown however do give meaning: it represents the idea of kingman-ship on the steppes. The “föld” (Earth) formed out of gold – that also had the meaning of king – and the “jó” (good) logograms ensembled together, that even allows us to give the meaning: “good king: good land”. This idea that has developed from the military democracies of the steppes has been the concept for the Doctrine of the Holy Crown for thousand years. Hun emblem from Aluchaydeng (China) with the “Joma” ligature; Hun emblem from Budapest including the text “North”; Hun buckle with the “ős ég” (the old sky/our ancestor the sky); artifact from the Hun era found in Tolna County including the “Keszi Dénesné” (Mrs. Dénes) text Szekler (left), Hun (right) Diagram 1. Hun artifacts including Hungarian text written with Szekler logograms and letters Diagram 2. Comparison of Szekler and Hun letters
  • 56. The Avar saltshaker from Sopronkőhida, including the “magas ős sarok” (high ancient corner) text; the “Isten” (God) logogram from the treasures found in Nagyszentmiklós; the Avar Diagram 5/a. “good king: good land”, says the hieroglyph text built into the treasure of Gizella includes a Turul (hawk) with the “Ten” Holy Crown – the cross surrounded by a circle had both meanings of “king” and “earth”. logogram written on it, similarly to the cow statue from Szentgyörgyvölgy Diagram 3. Avar artifacts with Szekler signs; the legend of Constantin mentions the Avars among people, who use books during their masses written with their own writing The “Joma” ligature, and the “earth”, “good”, “God”, “corner” and “Du” logograms Diagram 5/b. Szekler signs from the crown made for the Sabir-Huns during the Oasis of Merv in 531 The World Tree symbol on a bracelet from Ibrány (“high” and “corner” logograms); disk from Biharkeresztes (“Earth” logogram); pouch plate from Karos (“ancestor” and “God” The “Joma szár föld” text logograms); disk from Komáromszentpéter (“corner” and “affair” logograms) Diagram 4. Bowl from Afrasijab ( century)
  • 57. Diagram 7. Szekler signs being used by Magyar during the and century Pouch plate from Tiszabezdéd (“Du”, “good” and “corner” logograms); disk for braided hair (“ancestor” logogram) Diagram 8. Szekler signs being used by Magyar during the and century Mouthpiece including the “Lyonak” (for Lyo) text Diagram 9. Piece of a mouthpiece from the century found in Bodrogalsóbű – most likely made by the Avars who lived in the area when the Magyars came back to the Carpathian-basin
  • 58. 20. Modern Usage of the Szekler Alphabet It is hard to distinguish the modern usage of the Szekler alphabet, since the history of the Szekler alphabet is more organic and uniform, rather than a fractional continuum. The following points could help to distinguish the different eras: - The second half of the 1800’s due top the modern academic researches –only in the case if we could regard these modern academic researches, and forget about Thelegdi, Kajáni, and Marsigli who have done researches at earlier times. - Magyar Adorján, who’s alphabet is usually regarded as the Diagram 1. Website of the Szekler National Council beginning of the “reform era” – but only if he had suggested distinct signs for all of the vowels. - Using paper to write on instead of wood – if we would know when this actually happened. Even though, the second half of the 1800’s and the early 1900’s could be regarded as the beginning of a new era. Not only due to the above stated reasons. Out of the Hungarian intellectuals, only the major ones like Bél Mátyás knew about the Szekler writing. After this stepping stone – due to education and the spread of information – the Szekler writing being constantly used in Transylvania became part of the general education. Getting to know and understand this writing is not close to complete. More researches about the characteristics and usage of the Szekler writing still has to be done.
  • 59. Diagram 3. Magyar (Hungarian) folk ceramics with logograms and sentence signs on them ( and century) Diagram 2. Tiles with signs on it from Velemér (Early century); authentical folk usage of signs from the which Őrség region, has only been observed and known by today’s folk studies; these tiles were made with apotropaic reasons in mind; it is remembered today, that during the memorable storm of 1928, the 9th tile with its “Isten” (God) symbol has saved the Antal Diagram 4. Milk mug from Magyarszombatfa, with god Bél’s logogram residence’s roof – on it the Hetitte “Isten” (God) and the Szekler “ős” (ancestor) (1990’s), using the Szekler “b” letter; generally used to protect against bad logograms are placed on top of the World Tree.
  • 60. luck; according to tradition, such mugs with this sign have thicker sour cream in them Diagram 5. Key chains with ligatures on them written left to right Diagram 7. Title of a book series including ligatures written from left to right Diagram 6. A gate with the “Egy Isten” (One God) sentence sign on top
  • 61. Diagram 10. The name board of Budapest Diagram 8. A town board from Szeklerland Diagram 9. A statue from Körmend, with Szekler writing text written from left Diagram 11. Text about the blood covenant of the Hungarians done in 894 to right (2001) A.D., written with runic writing – direction is left to right, with mirrored signs based on a false concept about the writing
  • 62. 14. Flyer of “Hun Szövetség” (Hun Union) Diagram 12. Town name board of Szigetszentmiklós Diagram 13. Portion of a Szekler gate from Zágon Diagram 15. Cover page of “Magyar Világ” (Hungarian World)
  • 63. Diagram 16. Phonecard Diagram 18. “Szózat, the famous Hungarian poem from the temple of Sashalom Diagram 17. A business card including a name ligature
  • 64. Diagram 19. One of Csete Ildikó’s many flags with runic writing on it Diagram 22. “Peace be upon who enters” – says the text on a gate Diagram 21. Runes on a Hungarian linguist’s door front
  • 65. 21. Other Proposals destined to a putsch. Non of the so called “leaders” allow others to really take part of the actual, credited work and suggest their views There were two other proposals written parallel with this and opinions that is actually regarded. These groups did not include one, which we have knowledge about. One was written by Michael the intellectuals who have studied the writing earlier; and also the Everson and Szép Szabolcs, and the other one was by Hosszú people who gave name to it, who have kept it alive for thousand Gábor. years, the Szeklers were also not informed and included in the research. The reason why this proposal has been written is because we do not agree with the other ones in certain aspects. Both groups rely on such authors who have “troublesome” views from an academic standpoint. Such works include: New findings about the Szekler writing found since 1993 are still being evaluated for acceptance to this day in Hungary, - Regarding the enactment real – when really it is fake – that however foreigners did not receive any information with regards was written to Saint Stephen, who ordered the abolishment the changes. The academics do not want to partake in the of the usage of Szekler writing. discussions; they simply regard the statement acceptable that the - Regarding the fake artifact found on the Margaret Island “Szekler writing is of unknown origin”. (Margitsziget), that includes runic writing. - The false rules with regards mirroring images, and basing Independent intellectual groups with knowledge about the teachings to young children on this theory. writing have taken research into their hands, however they were not - Mixing the signs found on the disk of Tatárlaka (Tataria) able to work together and establish a common base for their work – with the letters of the Szekler alphabet. based on academic measures. - Not regarding the artifacts of the Huns that include writing, by which the studies of the Szekler writing are falsified. We do not regard the mailing lists acceptable, which do not - The creation of the Barnabite runic writing (Pálos rovásirás) have a given approach to discuss academic questions. Both sides and regarding it as writing on its own, when such writing somewhat accept, and abide each others’ standpoints, so it can be never existed. recorded that the proposal was made based on group efforts. - The concurrent proposals use such quot;academicsquot;, who However, there were no controlled discussion forums established, constantly write foreign words wrongfully with runic where questions could be discussed in a positive manner, and letters, and teach these rules during their lectures. These academic answers given to the questions. proposals also rely on such quot;academicsquot;, who can not even write their own name properly with the Szekler letters. (The We do not regard it an academic characteristic – based on Szekler writing is phonetic, therefore the name Friedrich our experiences – that people who do not speak English or have should be written in the form of FRIDRIH). different opinions on a subject are closed out from the mailing list. It is also unacceptable that the mailing list consists of 110 people, Such things would not affect the academic value of while the actual work and decisions are being done by a small proposals, in case if the writers of the proposals would know group separately. This way the group work is nothing but a fig leaf, everything to best of their ability, and suggest an accepted case of
  • 66. letter – however this can not be said. The above stated proposals for the letter standards is heavily loaded with mistakes, since the history of Szekler writing, and the developments that have occurred are not understood. Acceptance of either of the suggested proposals would heavily impair the usage of Szekler writing. With a group of inappropriate people, a worthy academic work can not be put together. Certain proposals disregarding facts about the development of this writing; and based on these the parameters of the writing are falsely put together. Important parameters include: - the preferred direction of writing - the order of signs - number of signs that should be written together - mirroring of images The above stated proposals – based on our knowledge – were written based on false rules. Besides the mistakes of the writers of the proposals, the other issue that caused the mistakes is leaving out the masses of the discussion, when in case of a nation’s writing it should be an accepted practice. Instead of having a controlled discussion of society, what we have experienced was the constraining of discussions and the disregards toward the opposing opinions and facts. With such circumstances both proposals mentioned above – based on academic and national point of view – are illegitimate. We have let the authors of the proposals know about our concerns, however we did not receive a response.
  • 67. 22. Code Setup option of availability to when, and which signs are appropriate for usage. For the Unicode standard the following Szekler signs are suggested. 1., The expanded Nicholsburg sign case would make up most of the suggested list of signs. Diagram 1/a. The lower case “r” of the Szekler alphabet; the other option of capital “R” available instead of the one from the “expanded Nicholsburg alphabet” Diagram 1/b. The Szekler alphabet’s quot;üquot; (ügy) letter; the variation that could be used instead of the one included in the “expanded Nicholsburg alphabet” Diagram 2. The Szekler writing’s expanded Nicholsburg sign list 2., To this there would be three additional signs’ alternative variations be added: the quot;rquot;, quot;üquot; and quot;űquot; signs (Diagram 1.). In case Diagram 1/c. The quot;űquot; letter of the Szekler alphabet (ügy); the variation that the technical abilities allow it, both variations should be included in could be used instead of the one included in the “expanded Nicholsburg the Unicode standard. It is because this way the users have the alphabet”
  • 68. 3., Ligatures of Thelegdi (ba and bb type) that could be included in the standard for ligature representations (Diagram 2.) Diagram 3/a. The “Joma” ligature – the simplified version of the actual sign Diagram 2/a. The “ba” type ligatures of Thelegdi Diagram 2/b. The “bb” type ligatures of Thelegdi 4., From the list of other ligatures – important due to their meaning and usage – the “Joma”, “One Country”, “God – Isten”, and “Corner God – “Sarokisten” ligatures are suggested for the standard (Diagram 3.) Diagram 3/b. The “One country” ligature; Symbol of the Magyar Kingdom
  • 69. Diagram 3/c. The “Isten – God” ligature Diagram 3/d. The “Sarokisten – Corner God” (Szár Og, or the God Heracles) ligature; the independent Szekler state’s symbol