Efforts of Making Eco-friendly City
Eco City Initiatives for Kathmandu
Shanta Lall Mulmi
Resource Centre for Primary Health Care, Nepal
Kathmandu: An open museum
“In Kathmandu there are nearly as many
temples as there are houses and as many idols
as inhabitants here, not being a fountain or
river or a hill within its limits that is not
consecrated to one or the other of the Hindu or
The valley is made up several villages which
present a high style of Newar art and
architecture combined with the unspoilt eco-
friendly nature and natural atmosphere.
A quiet stroll down the city’s tranquil streets
not only take you into a drastically different
socio-cultural environment, but also help you
explore a glorious dimension of human
civilization in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and
Malla and Lichhavi period Kathmandu, Bhaktapur
and Patan City were developed in eco-friendly
Brick and mud houses
Courtyard with pond/stone water sprouts/well
Temple and prayer room
Playing ground for children and place for oil massage
for pregnant women
Resting place for senior citizen
The Kathmandu valley was designated the status
of a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year
Seven different Monument of the valley hosts an
UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Initiative to make the heritage sites noise and
Post 1990 scenario
Exploitation to Eco-friendly city
Unplanned Urban Development
Unstable Political Situation
- 1990 mass movement
- one decade of conflict caused by Maoist arms
- interim period of 2006-2008
Massive Migration: Squatter comments
Exploitation of Natural Resources
Aggressive promotion of motorized vehicles.
Efforts in addressing the issues
Constituent Assembly Election for Political
Campaign for Community Forestry
Community FM Radio
Non Government Organization and Community
LUMANTI, ENPHO, NEFEJ, RECPHEC
Efforts of Municipalities
The five municipalities along with Non-
Governmental Organizations, Community
Based Organizations and private sectors
are taking initiatives to develop the
Kathmandu Valley as the Eco-City.
Cultural Heritage Conservation
Pollution Control: Land, water, air and noise
Municipality Community Joint Initiatives
Compost kitchen and garden waste at home.
Sell or give inorganic waste (plastic, paper, glass
etc) to scrap dealers or KMC’s Waste Buying
Use cloth bags for shopping instead of plastic bags.
Conserve the use of water by turning off taps while
not using them and by reusing and recycling water
Support and participate in the activities of the
community environment group.
Support in the development and establishment of
a Nature club in a school.
Walk, ride a bicycle or use public transportation.
Plant a tree and take care of it.
Preserve the rich cultural heritage.
Think, “Am I a part of the problem or part of the
Eco friendly city to address urban health issue.
Vehicle free/regulated zone for minimizing
noise and air field pollution.
Study on Polythene bag.
Bicycle Rally with the slogan cycle riding:
Vehicle Free Zone: A case study
Vehicle Free Zone
Lalitpur Durbar Square
Bhaktapur Durbar Square
Kathmandu Durbar Square
Tourist area of Kathmandu
Vehicle Regulated Zone
Thamel, the busiest tourist area
to make vehicle regulated zone.
- Orientation Programme in 2006
Making Thamel area: A Vehicle
Regulated Zone: A case study
Succeeded in conceptualizing the issue on the
first workshop on 4th August 2005.
As an attempt to generate public opinion
pamphlets were published and distributed.
Wall Poster published and poster campaign was
organized from 6th –15th February 2006.
House-hold Survey and research findings
First Stage of Vehicle Regulated Zone
Taxi enters in queue
and cannot park inside
Motorbikes not allowed
One-way system for
Traffic, tourist and city
police continuously on
Bicycle Riding: Healthy Living
More than 250 national and
participated in Bicycle Rally
organized on 29th July 2006.
Media coverage: TV, FM and
Strong message to promote
vehicle free zone.
Visited concern agencies for coordination
Decided to implement VRZ in Thamel
Dialogue with Young Communist League (Maoist)
and Taxi Association who protested against the
Distribution of the
declaration manifesto on
Vehicle Regulation Zone
Announcement on VRZ in
news papers,FM and
Vehicle entrance pass
Installed pillar with chains
in 8 entrance points
Finally Vehicle Regulation Implemented in Thamel
from 8 am on 27th September 2007
After the success in making Thamel area a vehicle
regulated zone RECPHEC is trying to replicate at
An example of joint effort of Police, Muncipality,
Tourism Development Board and Taxi Association
Coordinated by RECPHEC.
Maoist in Government after CA Election (YCL)
Pressure from the Taxi Associations
Politicization of issue.
Thank you !!
Presented on 22nd April 2008 at Ecocity World Summit in San Francisco, USA