Environmental impact of development projects, especial emphasis to Lutheran World Federation (an international NGO) in Ethiopia
By: Hawibiya Sagni Uma
Lutheran World Federation
Soil and water conservation projects
What is the role of Lutheran World Federation as an International NGOs in Ethiopia?
What significant outcomes were gained with its intervention?
Environmental impacts by development activities.
Local and international NGOs in Ethiopia
Facts and Figures about Ethiopia
Total Population in thousands(2003) 70,678
Life expectancy at birth (years) 46
% of annual population growth 2.82
% of population using Improved drinking water sources (2002) 22
Gross National Income Per capita (US$) 90
% Population living <US one dollar a day (Average of 1999-2002) 23
Net primary School enrolment ratio(2000-2004) Male /Female79/61
1. Ministry of rural Development.
2. UNICEF, The state of the world’s Children 2006 .
Genesis of NGO’s in Ethiopia
The incidence attracted many relief aid NGOs which later changed their strategies to development activities.
NGOs are non-profit organization.
With the increase in number and dimension (international and local NGOs) at present there are 170 NGOs and religion-based and voluntary agencies (not exclusively Christian organizations) engaged in relief, rehabilitation and development in Ethiopia. This number is very small in comparison to other African countries.
This group formed CRDA (an umbrella).
NGOs are considered as gap fillers.
International response, by NGOs and governments Great famine in 1971/73 Deforestation, intermittent climatic change with long dry season, and agricultural failure
Lutheran World Federation (LWF)
Passing through all the necessary legal registration and certification process LWF-Ethiopian Program is among the huge international NGO operating in Ethiopia; furthermore it is the executive board member of CRDA.
See a peaceful and a more just Ethiopian society where the basic rights of citizens are sustain ably fulfilled.
Inspired by God’s love to humanity, EECMY-LWF/DWS Ethiopia Program is desirous of empowering communities to be agents of their own development, practice their basic rights and live in harmony with the social and natural environment.
LWF in Ethiopia
Invited by Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus in 1973 to address severe famine in Northern Ethiopia (Gojjam province).
Empowering vulnerable and marginalized rural communities through integrated development aimed at sustainable food security.
Linking emergency preparedness, response, and rehabilitation with sustainable development.
Building the capacity of local partners with the aim of emergency preparedness and sustainable development.
Advocacy with and for marginalized peoples for their rights, peace building and reconciliation at local, national and international levels.
Communities suffering from environmental or land degradation, infrastructure, drinking water
Draught affected people,
Community with access to nearby river or stream and live in poverty.
Soil and water conservation Projects (SWCP)
Took off in 1985 as the first development intervention, to ensure food security at household level.
Strategy; constructing earth dam, river diversion, soil conservation structures and developing springs.
SWCP focus areas
creating proper management of natural resources,
increasing community capacity to deal with problems,
increasing household income,
increasing women’s participation in development and ensuring
stakeholders participation in project planning, monitoring and evaluation.
So far 130 river diversions, 23 micro earth dams and 19 spring developments were implemented and benefited about 89000 HH by irrigating 2500 hectares of farmland.
The project uses cash and grain payments. FFW payment has eased life condition (income, nutrition intake) of many during the project implementations.
Projects for discussion
River diversion (Ha’a, Horuwa, Lower Bilate)
Micro earth dams (Haro Abas, Kokaye Sama, and Sebente)
Ha’a Lower Bilate Horuwa Kokaye Sama Sebente Haro Abas
Pre project situation
0.5 - 1 ha per household (river diversion)
10-25 ha per HH (micro earth dam)
Irrigation potential perennial or temporary rivers unused
Community below absolute poverty level
Poor agricultural produce and input
High population, slash and burn agriculture
High school dropout
Food aid for 5-7 months/ year
Low household income
Fuel wood, charcoal making and honey production (alternatives)
Semi pastoral lifestyle
3 river diversion weirs and 3 earth dams construction
Haro Abas micro earth dam has harvested 700,000 m 3 water
Shift of semi- pastoralist lifestyle to sedentary mode
Sedentary agriculture, home garden
Increase in number of school enrolment by 60%
2-3 irrigable harvest per annum
Increase in green photosynthetic biomass
Increased grazing land and milk production per cow by 70%
Sense of project ownership,
reduction of harmful traditional practices
involvement of women in development and income generating activities (petty trades, and tea shops), and decision making are among the heavy weight outcomes of community development.
MDG 1, 2
About 720 hectares afforested with 40% survival rate,
canal side plantation arrested risk of embankment slide.
Improvement in soil fertility, reduction in soil erosion, increase in good soil-plant ecosystem, and fortified community’s outlook on environment/natural resource conservation.
Road construction and maintenance eased village to village communication, created good market access
development of positive attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS,
reduction of harmful traditional practices liable to HIV/AIDS ( i.e. female genital mutilation, sharing of a razor blade within many people ),
Increase in number of HIV/AIDS test on will
Improvement in; local agricultural extension, food and income of households, understanding and diversification of family income through vegetable gardening and coffee and fruit production, asset base of the community, reduction of livestock death. And improved agricultural production concept, and adoption/ practice of improved agricultural.
Saving and credit service benefited the poor women to develop self confidence & reliability, create new jobs, creation of rural saving, access to income management, and creation of on farm and off-farm activities (i.e. tea shops, grain trade, goat rearing and etc).
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Objective; to assess and figure out what impacts a project have on the environment and give mitigation measures
Pre, mid and post project/program evaluation
Negative Environmental Impacts
Siltation of the canal routes and dam reservoir
Creation of favorable condition for malaria breeding
Dependency syndrome on food for work grain
40% population increase in river diversions
Reduction in irrigable land size
Hot spring and high daily temperature cause plant root burning (Lower Bilate)
Fuel wood and charcoal making as a coping mechanism in micro earth dams
150 ha Boswellia deforestation
Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
A = RKLSCP
A = average annual soil loss in t/a (tons per acre)
R = rainfall erosivity index
K = soil erodibility factor
LS = topographic factor - L is for slope length & S is for slope
C = cropping factor
P = conservation practice factor
Technical and management problems
Absence of EIA (pre and mid project)
Emphasis on dam or river diver diversion weir construction
Overlooking watershed conservation
Rush to project implementation (little planning and designing)
Specific development package (soil and water conservation) forced LWF to target communities living around river course only (whose need might be other development interventions i.e. health, school)
Unexpected heavy flood related to the vast watershed area, slows down construction activities
Conditional support from Government offices
Specific demand of donor’s support not matching the community’s need
LWF has gained remarkable outcomes (in river diversion sites and Haro Abas dam) but overlooking of watershed conservation cost donors, target community and LWF not to reach goal @ Sebente and Kokaye Sama micro earth dams
Dhamen U, et al. Boswellic acid, a potent anti inflammatory drug, inhibits rejection to the same extent as high dose steroids. Transplant Proc 2001;33:539-41.
Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus and Lutheran World Federation Ethiopia Program. Annual progress report 2004.
Gupta I, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Med Res 1997 Jan;2(1):37-43.
Jeyaratnam J (1990). Acute pesticide poisoning: a major global health problem. World Health Statistics Quarterly, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 139-144. PMID 2238694. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
Ethiopia God’s own country,
You are most welcome to Ethiopia home of diverse cultures and beauty!