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Uma 7466 Uma 7466 Presentation Transcript

  • Environmental impact of development projects, especial emphasis to Lutheran World Federation (an international NGO) in Ethiopia
    • By: Hawibiya Sagni Uma
    • [email_address]
  • Outline
    • Lutheran World Federation
    • Soil and water conservation projects
    • Outcomes
    • Environmental impacts
    • Conclusion
    • Questions
    • What is the role of Lutheran World Federation as an International NGOs in Ethiopia?
    • What significant outcomes were gained with its intervention?
    • Environmental impacts by development activities.
    • Interested Actors
    • Donors,
    • Government,
    • International community,
    • Local and international NGOs in Ethiopia
    View slide
  • Facts and Figures about Ethiopia
    • Area 1,127,127km2
    • Total Population in thousands(2003) 70,678
    • Life expectancy at birth (years) 46
    • % of annual population growth 2.82
    • % of population using Improved drinking water sources (2002) 22
    • Gross National Income Per capita (US$) 90
    • % Population living <US one dollar a day (Average of 1999-2002) 23
    • Net primary School enrolment ratio(2000-2004) Male /Female79/61
    • Sources:
    • 1. Ministry of rural Development.
    • 2. UNICEF, The state of the world’s Children 2006 .
    View slide
  • Genesis of NGO’s in Ethiopia
    • The incidence attracted many relief aid NGOs which later changed their strategies to development activities.
    • NGOs are non-profit organization.
    • With the increase in number and dimension (international and local NGOs) at present there are 170 NGOs and religion-based and voluntary agencies (not exclusively Christian organizations) engaged in relief, rehabilitation and development in Ethiopia. This number is very small in comparison to other African countries.
    • This group formed CRDA (an umbrella).
    • NGOs are considered as gap fillers.
    International response, by NGOs and governments Great famine in 1971/73 Deforestation, intermittent climatic change with long dry season, and agricultural failure
  • Lutheran World Federation (LWF)
    • Passing through all the necessary legal registration and certification process LWF-Ethiopian Program is among the huge international NGO operating in Ethiopia; furthermore it is the executive board member of CRDA.
  • About LWF
    • VISION STATEMENT
    • See a peaceful and a more just Ethiopian society where the basic rights of citizens are sustain ably fulfilled.
    • MISSION STATEMENT
    • Inspired by God’s love to humanity, EECMY-LWF/DWS Ethiopia Program is desirous of empowering communities to be agents of their own development, practice their basic rights and live in harmony with the social and natural environment.
    • LWF in Ethiopia
    • Invited by Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus in 1973 to address severe famine in Northern Ethiopia (Gojjam province).
  • Strategic priorities
    • Empowering vulnerable and marginalized rural communities through integrated development aimed at sustainable food security.
    • Linking emergency preparedness, response, and rehabilitation with sustainable development.
    • Building the capacity of local partners with the aim of emergency preparedness and sustainable development.
    • Advocacy with and for marginalized peoples for their rights, peace building and reconciliation at local, national and international levels.
  • Target groups
    • Communities suffering from environmental or land degradation, infrastructure, drinking water
    • Draught affected people,
    • Community with access to nearby river or stream and live in poverty.
    • Poor women,
  • Soil and water conservation Projects (SWCP)
    • Took off in 1985 as the first development intervention, to ensure food security at household level.
    • Strategy; constructing earth dam, river diversion, soil conservation structures and developing springs.
  • SWCP focus areas
    • agricultural production,
    • creating proper management of natural resources,
    • increasing community capacity to deal with problems,
    • increasing household income,
    • increasing women’s participation in development and ensuring
    • stakeholders participation in project planning, monitoring and evaluation.
    • So far 130 river diversions, 23 micro earth dams and 19 spring developments were implemented and benefited about 89000 HH by irrigating 2500 hectares of farmland.
    • The project uses cash and grain payments. FFW payment has eased life condition (income, nutrition intake) of many during the project implementations.
  • Projects for discussion
    • River diversion (Ha’a, Horuwa, Lower Bilate)
    • Micro earth dams (Haro Abas, Kokaye Sama, and Sebente)
  • Project sites
    • SWCP
    • Relief
    • ICDP/IRDP
    Ha’a Lower Bilate Horuwa Kokaye Sama Sebente Haro Abas
  • Pre project situation
    • Food insecurity
    • Undulated rainfall
    • 0.5 - 1 ha per household (river diversion)
    • 10-25 ha per HH (micro earth dam)
    • Irrigation potential perennial or temporary rivers unused
    • Community below absolute poverty level
    • Poor agricultural produce and input
    • High population, slash and burn agriculture
    • Intensive grazing
    • Gender inequality
    • High school dropout
    • Malnutrition
    • Food aid for 5-7 months/ year
    • Low household income
    • Fuel wood, charcoal making and honey production (alternatives)
    • Semi pastoral lifestyle
  • Development inputs
    • 3 river diversion weirs and 3 earth dams construction
    • 55 kilometers of canal,
    • 70 km of road,
    • 45 km physical soil conservation
    • Plantation of 120 ha
    • 360 farm tools, 40 Qt input (seed, fertilizer) and 100 liter pesticide
    • 13,300 farmers trained
    • 7200 $ saving and credit scheme for 120 women
  • Project outcomes
    • Haro Abas micro earth dam has harvested 700,000 m 3 water
    • Shift of semi- pastoralist lifestyle to sedentary mode
    • Sedentary agriculture, home garden
    • Increase in number of school enrolment by 60%
    • 2-3 irrigable harvest per annum
    • Increase in green photosynthetic biomass
  •  
  •  
    • Increased grazing land and milk production per cow by 70%
    • Sense of project ownership,
    • reduction of harmful traditional practices
    • involvement of women in development and income generating activities (petty trades, and tea shops), and decision making are among the heavy weight outcomes of community development.
    • MDG 1, 2
    • MDG 1,3,6,7
    • About 720 hectares afforested with 40% survival rate,
    • canal side plantation arrested risk of embankment slide.
    • Improvement in soil fertility, reduction in soil erosion, increase in good soil-plant ecosystem, and fortified community’s outlook on environment/natural resource conservation.
    • Road construction and maintenance eased village to village communication, created good market access
    • MDG 7
  •  
  •  
  • MDG 6
    • development of positive attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS,
    • reduction of harmful traditional practices liable to HIV/AIDS ( i.e. female genital mutilation, sharing of a razor blade within many people ),
    • Increase in number of HIV/AIDS test on will
    • Improvement in; local agricultural extension, food and income of households, understanding and diversification of family income through vegetable gardening and coffee and fruit production, asset base of the community, reduction of livestock death. And improved agricultural production concept, and adoption/ practice of improved agricultural.
    • Saving and credit service benefited the poor women to develop self confidence & reliability, create new jobs, creation of rural saving, access to income management, and creation of on farm and off-farm activities (i.e. tea shops, grain trade, goat rearing and etc).
    • MDG 1
    • MDG 3
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
    • Objective; to assess and figure out what impacts a project have on the environment and give mitigation measures
    • EIA mainstreaming
    • Pre, mid and post project/program evaluation
  • Negative Environmental Impacts
    • Siltation of the canal routes and dam reservoir
    • Salinity
    • Creation of favorable condition for malaria breeding
    • Dependency syndrome on food for work grain
  •  
  •  
    • 40% population increase in river diversions
    • Reduction in irrigable land size
    • Hot spring and high daily temperature cause plant root burning (Lower Bilate)
    • Fuel wood and charcoal making as a coping mechanism in micro earth dams
    • 150 ha Boswellia deforestation
  • Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
    • A = RKLSCP
    • A = average annual soil loss in t/a (tons per acre)
    • R = rainfall erosivity index
    • K = soil erodibility factor
    • LS = topographic factor - L is for slope length & S is for slope
    • C = cropping factor
    • P = conservation practice factor
  •  
  • Technical and management problems
    • Absence of EIA (pre and mid project)
    • Emphasis on dam or river diver diversion weir construction
    • Overlooking watershed conservation
    • Rush to project implementation (little planning and designing)
    • Specific development package (soil and water conservation) forced LWF to target communities living around river course only (whose need might be other development interventions i.e. health, school)
  • Challenges
    • Unexpected heavy flood related to the vast watershed area, slows down construction activities
    • Conditional support from Government offices
    • Specific demand of donor’s support not matching the community’s need
  • Conclusion
    • LWF has gained remarkable outcomes (in river diversion sites and Haro Abas dam) but overlooking of watershed conservation cost donors, target community and LWF not to reach goal @ Sebente and Kokaye Sama micro earth dams
    • Dhamen U, et al. Boswellic acid, a potent anti inflammatory drug, inhibits rejection to the same extent as high dose steroids. Transplant Proc 2001;33:539-41.
    • Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus and Lutheran World Federation Ethiopia Program. Annual progress report 2004.
    • Gupta I, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Med Res 1997 Jan;2(1):37-43.
    • Jeyaratnam J (1990). Acute pesticide poisoning: a major global health problem. World Health Statistics Quarterly, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 139-144. PMID 2238694. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
    • Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
    References
  • Ethiopia God’s own country,
    • You are most welcome to Ethiopia home of diverse cultures and beauty!