Pruetzmc

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  • Pruetzmc

    1. 1. Restored By Development Repairing Natural Areas Using TDR Ecocity World Summit – April 26 , 2008 Rick Pruetz, FAICP <ul><li>What is TDR? </li></ul><ul><li>Where has it worked? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it used for restoration? </li></ul>
    2. 2. Greenspace Benefits Cities <ul><li>Green infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Food security </li></ul><ul><li>Compact & efficient urban form </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life </li></ul>
    3. 3. Many communities rely entirely on zoning to “protect” greenspace <ul><li>Zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul><ul><li>But often does not implement goals </li></ul><ul><li>Never permanent </li></ul>
    4. 4. Acquisition of land or easements <ul><li>Permanently implements some goals </li></ul><ul><li>But expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely to accomplish all necessary preservation </li></ul>
    5. 5. TDR Basics <ul><li>TDR </li></ul><ul><li>Market-based </li></ul><ul><li>Works with zoning code </li></ul><ul><li>TDR encourages voluntary re-direction of growth </li></ul><ul><li>From sending areas </li></ul><ul><li>To receiving areas </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sending site owners can choose not to use TDR <ul><li>Or choose TDR </li></ul><ul><li>Record easement restricting development </li></ul><ul><li>Create number of TDRs allocated by code </li></ul><ul><li>Sell TDRs as compensation for preservation </li></ul>
    7. 7. Receiving area developers can choose non-TDR option <ul><li>Don’t buy TDRs </li></ul><ul><li>Build at or below baseline </li></ul>
    8. 8. …Or choose TDR option: <ul><li>Buy TDRs </li></ul><ul><li>Exceed baseline density limits </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve more profit </li></ul>
    9. 9. Example: Montgomery County <ul><li>Farmland lost to development </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to compensate farmers for preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate funding from taxes, fees or grants </li></ul>
    10. 10. Montgomery County, MD – Sending and Receiving Areas Source: Geographic Information Systems, Department of Information Systems & Telecommunications, Montgomery County, www.montgomerycountymd.gov/Content/DED/AgServices/images/PRES2003.jpg.
    11. 11. 90,000 acres zoned TDR sending <ul><li>Build on-site at density of one unit per 25 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Or deed-restrict site and sell one TDR per 5 acres </li></ul>
    12. 12. Various TDR Receiving zones <ul><li>Choose 5 units/acre without TDR purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Or 7 units/acre by buying one TDR for each extra unit </li></ul>
    13. 13. Montgomery County Results <ul><li>Landowners sell development rights and keep farm income </li></ul><ul><li>Developers find TDR more profitable </li></ul><ul><li>County has preserved 51,000 acres without tax $ </li></ul>
    14. 14. King County, WA Blue Earth County, MN Calvert County, MD
    15. 15. What does TDR protect? <ul><li>Of 172 TDR programs: </li></ul><ul><li>69 environmental </li></ul><ul><li>44 environment & farmland </li></ul><ul><li>32 farmland </li></ul><ul><li>15 historic preservation </li></ul><ul><li>12 other (housing, infrastructure, urban design, revitalization) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Program Profiles When TDR Works... <ul><li>King County, WA: 91,500 acres </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey Pinelands: 54,800 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery County, MD: 51,500 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Palm Beach County, FL: 35,000 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Collier County, FL (RLS): 24,100 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Calvert County, MD: 12,200 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Boulder County, CO: 5,900 acres </li></ul><ul><li>San Luis Obispo County, CA: 5,500 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Pitkin County, CO: 5,400 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Earth County, MN: 5,200 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Miami-Dade County, FL: 4,100 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas County, NV: 3,600 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Tahoe Region, CA/NV: 3,500? </li></ul><ul><li>Chesterfield, NJ: 3,200 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Anne’s Co., MD: 2,600 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Collier County, FL (RF): 2,300 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Charles County, MD 2,300 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Long Island Pine Barrens, NY:1,300 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Warwick Township, PA: 1,000 acres </li></ul>
    17. 17. Program Profiles King County, WA <ul><li>Conservation Futures Tax stocks TDR bank </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-jurisdictional transfers to cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issaquah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Diamond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>91,500 acres preserved </li></ul>
    18. 18. Program Profiles New Jersey Pinelands <ul><li>One million acre planning area with 60 jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers between communities required by State </li></ul><ul><li>54,800 acres </li></ul>
    19. 19. Program Profiles Palm Beach County, FL <ul><li>Bond proceeds bought 35,000 acres of environmentally-sensitive land </li></ul><ul><li>County severed TDRs and sells them for $25,000 each (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds become ongoing revolving fund </li></ul>
    20. 20. Program Profiles Collier County, FL Rural Land Stewardship <ul><li>Florida’s first RLS </li></ul><ul><li>Wide choice of easements </li></ul><ul><li>New town receiving site reduces opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Other RLS programs in preparation </li></ul><ul><li>24,100 acres </li></ul>
    21. 21. Program Profiles Calvert County, MD <ul><li>Sending area owners volunteer for rezoning from 1 per 10 to 1 per 25 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Some receiving sites operate at very low density </li></ul><ul><li>12,200 acres </li></ul>
    22. 22. Program Profiles Sarasota County, Florida <ul><li>1982 program designed to protect ecologically-valuable land, flood hazard and storm surge zones </li></ul><ul><li>8,200 acres preserved </li></ul><ul><li>Changed to rural fringe in 2004 </li></ul>
    23. 23. Program Profiles Boulder County, CO <ul><li>Voluntary IGAs with seven incorporated jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-jurisdictional TDR has saved 5,900 acres </li></ul>
    24. 24. Program Profiles San Luis Obispo County, CA <ul><li>Conservancy used $275,000 loan to buy land </li></ul><ul><li>250 parcels became pine preserve </li></ul><ul><li>Conservancy sells TDRs </li></ul><ul><li>Revolving fund doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Countywide TDR preserved 5,400 acres </li></ul>
    25. 25. Program Profile Pitkin County, Colorado <ul><li>Preserves remote mining claims </li></ul><ul><li>One TDR per 35 acres or one seasonal cabin </li></ul><ul><li>TDRs allow residential units to exceed baseline floor area (4,750 sf) </li></ul><ul><li>5,400 acres preserved </li></ul>
    26. 26. Restoration with TDR Many Historic Preservation TDR Programs Involve Restoration <ul><li>Some require restoration or restoration plans for sending landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Dallas, TX </li></ul><ul><li>West Hollywood, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Pittsburgh, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles, CA </li></ul><ul><li>New York, NY Theater Dist. </li></ul><ul><li>Some offer bonus TDRs for restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Denver, CO </li></ul>
    27. 27. Restoration with TDR Collier County, FL Rural Fringe <ul><li>Some environmental programs also require or encourage natural restoration: Tahoe Regional Planning Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Collier County’s Rural Fringe TDR (1 of 3 programs) grants TDRs for preservation and restoration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetland reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of invasive species </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Restoration with TDR Berkeley, CA – Strawberry Creek Greenway <ul><li>Under this draft ordinance (not adopted) </li></ul><ul><li>Sending sites would be residential houses on top of deteriorating culverts </li></ul><ul><li>Owners would receive TDRs for restoring creek and deeding property to City for creation of greenway from UC campus to San Francisco Bay </li></ul><ul><li>TDRs would allow additional floor area in downtown Berkeley </li></ul>
    29. 29. For more information: www.BeyondTakingsAndGivings.com <ul><li>Introduction to TDR </li></ul><ul><li>Portions of Beyond Takings and Givings </li></ul><ul><li>TDR program updates </li></ul><ul><li>Programs adopted since 2003 publication date </li></ul>

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