Context: A history of the North American farm Figure 4. Steel-tipped hand plow designed by John Deer (Hurt, 1994, p. 136). Figure 3. Illustration of an 1874 Illinois family farm with a worm fence (Dreicer, 1996, p. 24). Figure 2. Nebraskan farm portrait, 1870s (Hancocks, 1971, p. 33).
Figure 5. 1928 tractor used to power a feed grinder and elevator (Hurt, 1994, p. 248). Figure 6. Barb-wire fence (Dreicer, 1996, p. 46).
Figure 7. Aerial view of Magrath, Alberta industrial farming operation (Google Earth, 2007).
Figure 9. German farm village (wurst.koechersberg.de, 2007). Figure 8. Aerial view of farm-scape (Folch, 2004). Site Planning: North American Structure vs. the European model
Figure 10. Selling grain to a grain elevator (www.lib.niu.edu, 2007). Sustainability as a catalyst for reform
Figure11. Vancouver Island, Saanich Penninsula and Newman Farm (Illustration by Erin Leben, 2007) Saanichton case study: The historic Newman Farm
Figure 12. The Newman farm and surrounding trails and roadways (Google Earth, District of Central Saanich, 2007) Context: Site
Figure 13. The Newman farm (photograph by Erin Leben, 2007). Figure 14. Farming on stilts (photograph by John Newman).
Biodynamic Farming Community Supported Agriculture The Newman Farm
Farm as a holistic ecosystem
made up of communities/nodes
nodes have time-based cycles
- species move through nodes
CSAs are a product of the biodynamic movement, yet the consumer is regarded as an external supporter/visitor The Newmans farmed under the principles of biodynamic farming, and the adaptation of the farm as a park must bring tourism in as an integral species within the system.
Figure 15. Site conditions (Erin Leben, 2007). Site Conditions Water flow Soil drainage, fertility Vegetation: Trees and hedgerows Landscape - functional zones, site organization and quantity of built intervention Species circulation: Wildlife, people, domestic animals Solar angles and shade
Figure 16. Newman’s response, site plan and building sections (Erin Leben, 2007).
Figure 17. Newman Park adaptations (Erin Leben, 2007). Newman Park adaptations Diversity of landscape articulated in 4 distinct zones Division of pastures and areas for market gardens and community gardens Entrance points and backup municipal services Circulation, utility path with rotational pastures accommodating rotating tourist public Passive collection of water and solar energy, transported along main fence line
Figure 18. Newman park site plan and axonometric (Erin leben, 2007). Zones of Landscape
Figure 19. Entry perspective (Erin Leben, 2007).
Figure 20. Dairy barn perspective (Erin Leben, 2007).